Standard 5

Behavior explanation
that both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors is learned and the the learning results as a consequence of behavior. A behavior that is followed by a consequence that is pleasing to person is more likely tobe repeated and therefore learned. a behavior that is followed by consequence that is not pleasing to a person is not likely to be repeated.
Adaptive Behavior
the collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives
Maladaptive Behavior
behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment and to meet everyday demands
Behavioral theory makes three fundamental assumption:
behavioral sequence has three compoints which are: a) antecdents, behaviors and consequences :b) the response an individual gives depends in part on the nature of the antecedent stimuli and in part on the individual’s experience with the consequences provided in the past with similar stimuli.C) effective behavor management and control of antecedents and consequences.
something that causes a reaction in action feeling or thought.
Antecedents of stimuli
Are conditions that occur just befofe a behavior. they give the person info about what is expected. A variety of things act as antecedents and include verbal direction , materials, assistance, interactons or physical arrangements.
is the response to an antecedent or stimulus event. A behavior is something a person does ( writing, speaking) and is therefore an observable and quantifiable response. it is not something that is inferred( thinking, understanding).
derived by reasoning; implied as a conclusion, assumed.
are environmental stimuli or events that happen after a behavior occurs and increases or decrease the probability that the behavior will occur again in the furure under similar conditions.
Behavioral theory includes
behavioral rules and procedures.using only behavioral procedures is not enough to provide effective teaching. These procedures must alco be evaluated. the process of applying and evaluating the impact of behavioral procedures to “socially important behavior” applied behavior analysis.
Positive Reinforcement
There are two types if positive reinforcers, a) primary reinforcers and b) secondary reinforcers. Is adding a stimuli some event to increase a future event(like what the child want, what do they like?) A situation that occurs when the contingent presentation of a certain stimulus or event results ina future increase or strengthening , over tim, of response rate, duration,or intensity.
Primary Reinforcement
Are stimuli that have a biological importance to a person. They are sometimes described as natural, unlearned, or unconditioned reinforcers.Thay are reinforcers that are highly motivating to an individual. The major reinforcers for children are food and liquids. Both of the reinforcers can have a powerful effect on changing behavior. to highly motiveate a child!!!!
For a primary reinforcer to be effictive a child must be in a state of deprivation for the particular reinforcer. Using an ediable reinforcer for a child who has just had a snack is less likely to be effiective because the kid has just eaten. This does not mean that child should be deprived of food or liquid in an effort to use a primary reinforcer.
(feeling of satisfaction) when a child is no longer been deprived of the reinforcer, his attention and inviolment in a activity changes. It decreases the effectiveness of the reinforcer. A child ‘s rate of response may slow down or the rate of the targeted behavior may begin th increase.
> Have different reinforcers for different tasks or behaviors.
>when a child becomes less coopertive, change to an reinforcer. The process of reinforcement sampling should help determine what things are motivating to the child.
>Shorten a instructional session in which the edible reinforcer is used shorter sessions with fewer trials.
> Decrease the size of the edible reinforcer that the child recieves for a correct response.
> Do not provide a reinforcer for every correct response. Except additional performence before the reinforcer is given. This will change the reinforcement schedule.
> Select and use multiple reinforcers particulary those that are natural reinforceers. fOR EXAMPLE> CHILDREN WERE TAUGHT THE MANUAL SIGN FOR WORDS LIKE APPLE, COOKIES AND THEN REINFORCED WITH THAT FOOD.ITEM.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Fixed intervals reinforcement
rinforcement schedule is one in which reinforcements oppertunity occurs after a specified or fixed interval of time, measeured from the procedind reinforcement.
example: For Larry, picking up his check each week on friday is a reinforcing event. Consequently every Friday a t 4:00 pm. Larry picks his check up at the central office immedatly followimg his work week. If he goes before the intervals is ( on Thursday) his check won’t be there.
Variable – Interval Schedule
of reinforcement is one in which the reinforcement becomes available after a passage of varying intervals around some specified average. Such as an average of five min. has elaped. An intermittent schedule of reinforcements in which reinforcment becomes available after the passage of variable intervals of time.
EXAMPLE: Kevin works in laundry, sorting wishing and loading machines. He earns extra social time with his job coach for staying on task. On the average of 20 min. his coach checks to see of Kevin is working. if he is he recieves a plus on his supervision sheet. Each plus earns him an extra 2 min. of social time at the end of the day.
> The smaller the average inteval between opportunities for reinforcement, the higher the rate of responding will be.
a definite length of time marked off by two instants
is a stimuli/ event that occurs just before a behavior
obersevable response
Stimuli/ event that happens after behavior.
Antecedents and Consequences
are what change we try to change to manipuate the behavoir
Dead man check
if the childs not moving then its not a behavior
Keep children wanting
1. reinforcer assessement and choice making
2. Remember motivating operations the “want”
3. Keep ut in balance ( effort to reward)
4. keep control of reinforcers (Deprivation)
Sensory Reinforcers
Primary reinforcer can also include sensory reinforcers. Any sampling of reinforcers should include info about what kind of sensory input a child seeks out and the kind of sensory input the avoid. This kind of info can help the inteventionist provide meaningful reinforcers to a child. Examples of sensory reinforcers include: 1. auditory (music, voices, tones)
2. Visual (colored or black ahd white lights book, pictures,videos movement toys abd objects,
3. Olfactory( sweet, pungent oders(cinnamon, clove, orange)
4. Tactile smooth/rough, soft/hard, warm/cold,wet/dry, movement (vibrators,fans)
5. Proprioceptive: swing, rock, bounce(trampoline, swings, rocking chair).
sensory reinforcers should be selected that are age-appropriate and immediately available to an individual.
for an Example one of rachel’s favorite things to do is bounce on the mini-trapoline, which is located in her classroom. when her para’s working in the gym with her she does not offer Racheal the trampoline as an option but waits to use the trampoline when they are doing something in classroom. Make sure the child doesn’t come dependent of the primary reinforcer.
Secondary Reinforcers
Do not have a biological importannce to a child. Their value has been a learned or conditioned.Secondary reinforcers are therefore also called contained reinforcers.
Token Reinforcers
Are symbolic representations that can e exchaned for some reinforcer that is important to a person. A token system requires the tokens themselves as well as backup reinforcers. the Tokens( stickers, poker chips , holes punched in a card) have no value but backup reinforcer (free time, books) should have a importance to a person. the point is to earn enough tokens to access the backup reinforcer.It’s important for a person to understand the value exchanging the tokens at a later time.
Social Reinforcer
Are verbal praise, participation in a preferred activity, are secondary reinforcers that can a powerful effect on a indiviuals behavior. Social reinforcers included attention from another person and not used carefully it can reinforce inappropriate behavior. For example in the function of Emily’s head banging is to get attention from an adult then going over to emily and interacting with her reinforces the problem behavior and increases the likelihood that she will bang her head again. Social reinforcers include a variety of nonverbal expressions(smiling, clapping) adilts or peers proximity to the focus child (sitting next to the child) physical contact with the child(pat on the back, holding the childs hand) and verbal exchanges of approval of a childs perfomance ( I’m so proud of you)
Primary reinforcers should always be paired with secondary reinforcers.
For example each time Eric behaves in a appropriate manner he may be given a drink of juice and told what a good job he has done. Pairing helps Eric to become motived by the verbal praise in and of itself.
Negative Reinforcement
The Contingent removal of an pertaing stimulus immediately following a responses that Increase the future rate and/ or probability of the negitive reinforcement. For Example a child might not to get to join his peers on the playground unless he finishes his work. tje para will not remove the negative reinforcer (staying in the room) until the response is performed (finishing the paper) The service provider will not remove the negitive reinforcer( staying in the room) until the required response is performed (finishing paper)
. Negative reinforcement can be effective because it allows a person to escape and end the Aversive condition. An interventionist may use negative reinforcement without understanding what he of she is doing. For Example, if a child begins to scream when a task is presented and the interventinist removes the task(hoping to stop the behavior) a child learns that screaming will end the task (aversive stimulus). A child may then scream the next time the task is presented in an effort to escape the task. The problem behavior has been negatively reinforced and, in fact, strengthen. A task of activity can be aversive for many reasons. it may be too difficult, boring, confusing, or repetitive. Rather than engaging in unapproriate behavior (screaming ) a child should be taught more appropriate ways (raising a hand) of getting the negitive reinforcement that results from escaping the task.
Aversive condition
learn to make a response
“A punisher, like a reinforcer, can be identified only by its effect on behavior-not on the nature of the consequent stimulus” A stumulus is a punisher if its contingent application results in a decrease in a promblem behavior. For example , if a mother spanks a child for running though the store, and the child stops running, then the spanking was a punisher. If the child starts to run again then the spanking was not the punisher.
Response cost
can beused as a punisher and is the removal of reiforcers in the effort to decreasea problem behavior. It is the withdrawl of a certain amount of reinforcer contingent on inappropriate behavior. The reinforcer is therefore made available so it can be withdrwn ata particular time. If the removal of the reinforcer reduces the promblem behaviorthen it functions as punisher. For example , a child may be given tokens for appropriate behavior. If tge tokens are taken away for inappropriate behavior then the interventionist is wuind a response -cost procedure..There are certain things to consider when using this kind of a strategy.
1) the interventists and parent should always condsider more positive ways to decrease a childs problem behavior( different reinforcement strategies) If a response cost strategy is employed then the inteventionist must have the ability to withdraw a reinforcer once it has been given tothe child.Its important to make sure that the child understands the meaning of a response-cost strategy.The interventionist must also understan how to reinforce appropriate behavior along with implementing a response cost procedure. Finally , the response cost should be carefully matched to the problem behavior. the pentalty for the behavior should not be so punsive that it discourages the child performing the apropraite behavior.
is apunishment that denies an individual access to postitive reinforcement for certain amount of time.
Time- out Reinforcers Three of them
Non-Seciusionary, Exclusionary, Seclusionary
Non_ seclusionary
time-out procedure is used to deny a person access to reinforcers by manipulatina particular environment. For example a teacher may have the class put their heads on their desks or remove a student who is misbehaving from the group. the child is still able to observe the activity but is not a participant for a period of time.
time-out procedures involve removing a child from an activity therefore denying the person reinforcement. For example, a child may be taken to another place in the room. Exclusionary time-out does not allow the child to oberve an activity.
Time -out is used to remove a person from an environment ( a classroom) to a setting that is isolated from any kind of reinforcers including social reinforcement. This kind of procedure has been used for individuals who display physical aggression, verbal aggression, of destruction of prpperty..
Time-out rooms
A child’s interventionists and parents should be extremely careful in using any exculsionaty of seclusionary time-out procedures. Before implementing the procedures they should discuss the following questions
1( are we adherinng to the local state policies regarding time outs?
2( have we developed written procedires for time-ot and have we informed the parents of caregivers of the procedures and the behaviors that will lead to time-out?
3( do we have written permission from the individual’s parents ?
4( Is the IEPteam( if the individual is in a school setting ) involved in amking decisions regarding a time-out procedure?
5( does the time out procedure serve a legitimate purpose ? will it reduce disruptive behaviors and are we teaching the child alternative behaviors?
6( does a time-ot procedure make sense with regard to the individual’s inappropriate behavior, age and physical condition?
&7( Are we keeping accurate records regarding the time-out procedure(name, date , time , behavior, form of time-out used, length of time child is in time-out, behavior following, witness present)
8( are we evaluating the results of the time-out procedures? is the time-out prodedure resulting in a decrease on behavior?
the withholding ofa pereviously availlable consequence for a response, which results in a decrease or weakening of response rate, duration, or intensity. In other words a behavior which, under certain conditions was followed by a reinforcing consequence, is not longer followed by that consequenceand decreases under those conditions.
FOR EXAMPLE: Joe told a joke in class and everyone laughed the teacher to the class to ignore Joe ecept at recess. They did and soon Joe quit telling jokes in class. Extinction is ABRUPT withdrawls ofa reinforcer. Extinction procedures have been used to decreas the occurrence of a variety of challenging behaviors including tantrums, agressive , disruptive , and self-injurious behaviors. Extinction prodcedures may have to be continued over long periods of time.The behavior may continue to occur because the child has been taught to expect the reinforcer (attention). the interventionist and parents must be vigilant in maintaing the goal even if the child’s behavior escalates. If not the child has been postively reinforced and th interventionist must start the procedure over again
Differential reinforcement of other Behavior (DRO)
Reinforcements for not engaging in the target behavior for a specified interval of time.( It is based on alternative punishment that should have the same effect of reducing the occurance of problem behaviors.) DRO means that a reinforcing stimulus is delivered to a person contigent on the problem behavior not occurring within a a paricular period of time. Its critical to base an intervention on the FUNCTION of the childs problem behavior.If the behavior is not addressed it may return and replaced by more challenging behavior. It is important to remember that a child should be taught a FUNCTIONALLY EQUIVALENT BEHAVIOR _ that is a apprpriate replacement behavior that accomplishes the same purpose( escape, attention, get something) as the problem behavior. This procedure reinforces when there are NO occurrences of a behavior. DRO may be used: 1( within a specific time period( not using bad language for 20 min.)
2( with a permanent product data( interventionist draws a flower on each paper that is not torn).
3.( within a time frame that has been broken down into smaller increments fo time( gradual reduction) so that the child with a high frequency behavior.( child getting out of his chair) can be reinforced. The time would then be gradually increased before the child would recieve additional reinforcement. A DRO procedure requires the interventionist to ALWAYS deliver the reinforcer as long as the targeted inappropriate behavior does not occur. FOR EXAMPLE
Tom received extra juice and time with the teacher each morning and afternoon in which he did not have a tantrum. These leaners will be “PAID OFF” for the absence of these behaviors , even if other problem behaviors occur during the interval. FOR EXAMPLE if the the student does not have a tantrum but does engage in self-stimulatory behavior,he still receives his juice at the end of the morning and afternoon.
DRO Reset Schedules
Is a procedure in which the interval timer is reset each time the response or target behavior occurs.
DRO Fixed- Interval Schedules
Is a procedure in which the interval schedule is fixed and reinforcement is delivered at the end of each interval, if the response has not occured. this schedule time does not reset with each occurence of target behavior.
DRO Increasing -Interval Schedules
is one way of THINNING or FADING the reinforcment by gradually increasing the interval size. If the specified interval passes without a target response occuring , reinforcement is delivered and the next interval could be increased by a certain amount of time.
(psychology) a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
DRO Progressive Schedules (DROP)
A procedure in which the interval size remains the same and the amount and/or kind of reinforcement increases as the student passes through consecutive intervals without performing the indesirable behavior
Free Access rule
A condition of unlimited access to a reinforcer, used to determine the maximum quantity of that reinforcer a person would ordinarily choose. when using the free access rule the maximum amount of a reinforcer available to the individual should still be less than that which he would seek if he had unlimited access to it. FOR EXAMPLE: suppose a teenage student has ordinarily has pizza once every other week but loves pizza above all other food and would probably eat three pizzas per week if he were offered them. Pizza would likely be a good thing to try as a reinforceras he could earn one or more slices of pizza for every day that goes by without the occurrence of the promblem behavior.
limited Hold
Withholding of the reinforcer for short period of time after the occurrence of the correct response
Selection of Target behavior
Try to target the most serious behaviors for the DRO schedules but buy doing this you might take a chance of inadvertently reinforce another inapprpriate behavior. Such inadvertant reinforcement could be prevented , however by placing the reinforcer on (limited Hold) for a short period of time immediately following the occurrence of an inappropriate behavior. FOR EXAMPLE: IF the inappropriate behaviors include physical aggression and cursing, we would likely choose physical aggression as the priority behavior , recongnizing that we would not simultaneously be reducing cursing, However, we delayed the reinforcement for no occurrence of the priority behavior until at least 5 min. have passed with no cursing , then the secondary behavior would not be immediately reinforced
Selection of Time Interval
It’s vital to the successful behavior reduction using a DRO strategy.If the DRO interval selected is too long or too short , the reinforcement schedule will not gain control over the behavior.The interval should be based on the INTERRESPONSE TIME(IRT) under baseline conditions. so a sensible guideline is to select an interval equal to one half of the baseline of (IRT). When determining the appriate intervl size, always remember the (Goldlilocks Rule” the interval should not be too large or too small, it should be just right. If the interval is to small , the occurrence of the behavior will not have enough impact on overall density of reinforcement. If it is too large the learner will have too little opportunity to be reinforced.
Interresponse Time (IRT)
The interval of time between occurrences of target behaviors. The IRT is the average length of time between responses.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
Reinforcements of low rates of responding, either following a specified interval since the previous response , or after a specified interval if the rate is below a specified criterion. This type of strategy is used to REDUCE HIGH- RATE BEHAVIORS. The behavior , may in fact be tolerable and appropriate, but occurs either too often of too rapidly. FOR EXAMPLE: a child may come up to the interventionist 15 times in one morning . Another child might go to the water fountain 10 times in an hour. The DRL provides for the reinforcement delivery” when the number of responses in a specified period of time is less than, or equal to a prescribed limit” A reinforcer is delivered contingent on a response provided that a minimum period of time has passed since the previous reinforced response. Advantages of using (DRL) to reduce problems behaviors included the ability to reduce the occurrence of a behavior through the delivery of reinforcement. in addition this strategycan be used to gradually reduce a behavior. FOR EXAMPLE: An adolescent was taught to sign when she wanted to go out for a drink: however, she asked for a drink an average of 30 times per school day. Her teacher used a (DRL) procedure to reduce her request to an average of one or two per hour or an average of seven per school day.
DRL- IRT Schedules
Is one in which the response is reinforced following a specied interval since the previous response. The interval is gradually increased. This interval of time between responses us termed interresponse time(IRT) thus , the procedure is called (DRL- IRT) works. Reinforcement occurs for each interval of time( every hour or at the end of each activity) during which the target behavior occurs at a lower rate- say 6 or fewer times for the hour.
DRL- Below- Criterion Schedules.
involves detemining the average number of times the target behavior is typically exhibited during a certain interval of time. Reinforment is delivered if the frequency of the behavior is below theis baseline rate during the specified interval of time , thus reinforcement lower rates of responding.
Reinforcement Magnitude
Its important to remember the free access rule when using a DRL schedule: FOR EXAMPLE: Bob earned cans of soda as reinfrocement. It was important to note haw many cans of soda he drank when he had free access. He would ordinarily drink therr in a school day, if allowed. Therefore, a can each hour would have been too much. Instead , he was reinforced with a small glass of soda. soon the reacher extended the DRL interval so that the total earnable cans of soda was significantly less than thre per school day.
Differential Reinforcement Alternative Behavior (DRA) Alt-R
DRA is used to feinforce an alternative behavior , which decrease the likelihood that a child will perform the problem behavior. The selction of the alternative behaviors is typocally based on physical incompatibilty of functional equivalence.The alrernarive behavior is physically different and incompatiable with the problem behavior.The differential reinforcement of specified behaviors that are topographically different from the target behavior. This procedures is also called the Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior(DRI) and the differential reinforcement of completing behaviors(DRC). IWe will refer to it here. however, as Alt-R. EXAMPLES of topographically different behaviors pairs include biting one’s nails fingernails, versus knitting:running around around the classroom verus sitting at one’s desk: grabbing items off the store shelf verus walking the aisles while pushing a cart with both hands.
Satisfying the 100% rule
Defining the target behavior and the alternative response so that, together, by definition , they cover the universe of possibilities; that is, the learner can either engage in the target behavior or in the alternative respones, with no third optionThe learner is either engaging in the target behavior or in the alrenative response, with no third option.EXAMPLE: if the targeted behavior is getting out of one’s seat, then an alternative response that satisfies the 100% rule would be staying in one’s seat.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible (DRI)
DRA Strategy that reinforces a behavior that is topographically incompatatible( the form) with the problem behavior.FOR EXAMPLE:if screaming is the targeted problem behavior , using a normal voice should be reinforced because these two behaviors cannot occur at the same time. The Alternative behavior is chosen because the child cannot physically scream and talk in a normal voice at the same time.This procedure can increase the rate of the appropriate behavior (using a normal voice) and decrease the probability of the problem behavior (screaming).If the child uses the problem behavior the interventionist can 1( ignore the behavior(extinction) and reinforce the alternative behavior or 2( interrupt the problem behavior and redirect the child to perform the alternative behavior, whish is then reinforced . An alternative behavior should always be immediately reinforced.The goal id to maintain the alternative behavior with natural reinforcers) social interacion, praise, preferred activities)
Behavioral Objective
“A behavior objective is a statement that communicates a proposed change in behavior. It describes a level of perfromance and sevices as a basis for evaluation” An objective may be written to increase a behavior(communication skills) or to decrease a behavior(level of screaming ) A behavioral object6ive describes the behavior that should result for intervention of instruction not the procedures that accomplish the goal/outcome. a behavioral objective must be written in OBSERVABLE, MEASURABLE terms.In a effort to pinpoint specific behaviors that are written intoa child’s IBI program, the interventionist may need to ask series of questions that help clarify the child’s behavior. FOR EXAMPLE: Peter throw tantrums: is he yelling or hitting other people< or is he throwing objects?
Are statements of annual program intent whereas behavioral objectives are staements of instructional intent focused on a shorter period of time.Because goals are projected over long periods of time they are written in broader terms but they should still be written as observable and measurable behaviors. Verbs such as DEMONSTRATE, BE ABLE TO, INCREASE , DEVELOP, DECREASE, OR COMPLETE are all the kinds of behaviors that can be observed and documented. the IBI professional writing a plan woild the convert broad goals into statements of instructional intent (behavioral objectives).
Components of a behavioral Objective
Are not just restatemnts of the child or young adult’s goals, but break goals into teachable components.
Identify the learner
the specific individual should be identified in an ongoing effort to promote individualization of the programs’ goals and objectives.
Identify the target behavior:
Info gathered form formal and informal assessments stratefies should identify what the person should so when the desired change been achieved. this will allow for more accurate data collection methods. the target behavior must be described in precise terms so that occurrence of the behavior can be varified . A clear objective should use a VERB to decribe a behavior that is OBSERVABLE, MEASURABLE AND REPEATABLE. Because there can be many interpretaions of what constitutes a particular behavior it is helpful to develop an OPERATIONAL DEFINITION of a behavior. This definition should contain a description of the observable and measurable features of the behavior.
Identify the conditions:
Statement of conditions (antecedent stimuli) that occurs prior to the desired behavior. this includes instruction, materials, or levels of assistance. This part of the objective assures tha a behavior will be repeated given the appropriate conditions. The interventionist should make sure the that cues and materials are consistent so that the individual has the opportunity to make the desired response. clear statements of the conditions under which the behavior it to be performed can prevent problems and confusion for the child or young adult.
Identify criteria for performance
Sets the level of perfoemance the individual should attain as a result of intervention. The criterion sets the standard for evaluation of the person’s performance and is used to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. For acquistion of skills the the crierion statement is written to indicate tha ACCURACY of a response or the response’s FERQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE. That is the number of times the person makes the correct response, the percentage of correct responses, the person’s accuracy on a number of presentiation trails, or the number of errors the person is allowed to make.
is the length of time the person performs a behavior.
Is the length of time elaspses before the person begins performing a behavior.
Variable Ratio Schedule
An intermittent schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement becomes available after a variable number of responses are made, with the variation revolving around a certain fixed average number of responses.
Fixed ratio (FR) schedule
An intermittent schedule of reinforcement in where a reinforcer is given after a specified number of times that behaviors occurs.
Continuous reinforcement Schedule
A schedule of reinforcement under which every response is reinforced . This schedule builds behavior rapidly.
Fixed interval (FI)Schedule
An Intermittent scheduleof reinforcement in which reinforcement opportunity occurs after a fixed amount of time.
Negitive Reinforcement
a situation that occurs when the contingent removal of a certain stumulus or even results in a future increase or stengthening, over time, of a response rate, duration, or intensity .