st. w/ excep. Ch 5.

Mrs. Morales spends time each day teaching her first grade students how letters and combinations of letters represent small segments of speech called phonemes is known as
a. curriculum based measurement
b. phonemic awareness
c. fluency
d. segmentation
b. phonemic awareness
In what year was the category of learning disabilities first included in IDEA?
a. 1980
b. 1975
c. 1990
d. 1963
b. 1975
Which of the following students would not qualify as learning disabled according to the federal definition?
a. Blake, a student with an intellectual disability
b. Damien, a student with developmental aphasia
c. Carmen, a student with perceptual problems
d. Ashley, a student with dyslexia
a. Blake, a student with an intellectual disability
The most common way to identify a severe discrepancy between expected and actual achievement is
a. observing the student in various classes and comparing performance
b. comparing student scores on IQ tests with scores on an achievement test
c. comparing student scores on reading and math tests with those of peers in the same grade
d. interviewing parents
b. comparing student scores on IQ tests with scores on an achievement test
What is the most significant drawback to using a discrepancy approach to identifying children with learning disabilities?
a. It is a wait and fail approach.
b. Test scores don’t represent actual performance.
c. It is an objective approach.
d. Too few students are being identified as learning disabled.
a. It is a wait and fail approach.
One advantage of the Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) approach to identifying students with learning disabilities is
a. it is preferred by teachers and parents
b. it results in early identification and prevention
c. it is less time consuming
d. it is simpler to use
b. it results in early identification and prevention
The NJCLD definition of learning disabilities is different from the IDEA definition in that
a. it pertains to school-age children only
b. central nervous system dysfunction is presumed to the cause of learning disabilities
c. a specific formula for calculating a discrepancy score is provided
d. social difficulties are recognized as a learning disability
b. central nervous system dysfunction is presumed to the cause of learning disabilities
Which of the following terms is considered obsolete by the NJCLD?
a. Dyslexia
b. Learned helplessness
c. Dysgraphia
d. Perceptual impairments
d. Perceptual impairments
Most students with learning disabilities have problems with
a. hyperactivity
b. written language
c. reading
d. attention
c. reading
All of the following are basic psychological processes except
a. memory
b. listening
c. comprehension
d. visual processing
c. comprehension
Carter is having difficulty learning to read. Although he is in third grade, his teacher says that he does not seem to have a conscious understanding that language is made up of sounds. Carter has a deficit in
a. attention
b. word recall
c. reading comprehension
d. phonological awareness
d. phonological awareness
Mrs. O’ Cain asks Travis to identify the middle sound in the word hit. Which phonemic awareness skill does this task involve?
a. Isolating sounds
b. Orally blending sounds
c. Manipulating sounds
d. Segmenting a word into sounds
a. Isolating sounds
Children who are unsuccessful with interventions that work for other struggling readers have difficulty with both
a. decoding and reading comprehension
b. phonological awareness and auditory processing speed
c. decoding and word recall
d. phonological awareness and visual naming speed
d. phonological awareness and visual naming speed
Which of the following statements about explicit instruction is not accurate?
a. It may shorten learning time.
b. It is fundamental for students acquiring math skills.
c. It makes the student responsible for learning throughout the process.
d. It can be effective in teaching students to read.
c. It makes the student responsible for learning throughout the process.
Mrs. Fonzi just attended a workshop on explicit instruction. She is trying to make her lessons more explicit. Her lesson focuses on rhyming words. What would be the first step in making the lesson more explicit?
a. Providing guided practice using words that rhyme and don’t rhyme
b. Modeling examples of rhyming words and explaining why they rhyme
c. Reading The Cat in the Hat and asking students to identify rhyming words
d. Providing independent practice activities that focus on rhyming words
b. Modeling examples of rhyming words and explaining why they rhyme
Which of the following is true regarding students with learning disabilities and written language?
a. Their written language is often worse than their oral language.
b. They spend an inordinate amount of time planning their writing.
c. Most of their difficulties are due to confusion about spelling.
d. They tend to rewrite compositions several times because of past failures.
a. Their written language is often worse than their oral language.
Which of the following statements about math skills and students with learning disabilities is not accurate?
a. Math skills may plateau by the age of 10 or 12.
b. Their math skills typically improve by 1 year for every 2 years in school.
c. Students with learning disabilities are fluent in recalling number facts.
d. Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty solving story problems.
c. Students with learning disabilities are fluent in recalling number facts.
Which of the following is least likely to improve the math performance of students with learning disabilities?
a. systematic instruction
b. guided practice
c. fluency training
d. discovery learning
d. discovery learning
Current research on behavior problems and students with learning disabilities indicates that
a. their negative behaviors are caused by academic deficits
b. their negative behaviors are caused by hyperactivity
c. they engage in more risk-taking behaviors
d. they are immature and over dependent on adults
c. they engage in more risk-taking behaviors
What is the defining characteristic of students with learning disabilities?
a. Poor memory and attention
b. Specific and significant achievement deficits in spite of adequate intelligence
c. Severe reading problems
d. Difficulty understanding and using language
b. Specific and significant achievement deficits in spite of adequate intelligence
What percentage of school-aged students with disabilities have learning disabilities?
a. 23.2%
b. 4.4%
c. 42.3 %
d. 62.5%
c. 42.3 %
Which of the four suspected causes of learning disabilities is the least credible today?
a. Heredity
b. Brain damage or dysfunction
c. Environmental agents
d. Biochemical imbalance
d. Biochemical imbalance
An environmental agent that is reasonably suspected as a cause of learning disabilities is
a. vitamin deficiency
b. poverty
c. food allergies
d. lead poisoning
b. poverty
Larry scored below basic on a statewide achievement test; however his teacher has evidence that he has made small incremental improvements in both reading fluency and comprehension this year. Which type of assessment is likely to provide this evidence?
a. Curriculum based measurement
b. Summative assessment
c. Norm referenced assessment
d. Criterion referenced assessment
a. Curriculum based measurement
One of the major concerns about using RTI to identify those in need of special education is that
a. professionals are resistant to this approach
b. interventions are not implemented with fidelity in many classrooms
c. culturally diverse students are overlooked
d. it takes longer to identify students who need services
b. interventions are not implemented with fidelity in many classrooms
Criterion referenced tests are most useful for
a. comparing a student’s achievement with that of peers of the same age
b. determining what skills a student has learned
c. measuring small changes in achievement over time
d. diagnosing a learning disability
b. determining what skills a student has learned
Which of the following is a criterion referenced test commonly used by special educators?
a. Peabody Individual Achievement Test
b. Iowa Tests of Basic Skills
c. Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test
d. Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills
d. Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills
Mr. Carson is a middle school Science teacher in an inclusive classroom. He wants all of his students to be successful so he plans and sequences instruction to show the commonalities and differences between old and new knowledge. Which principle of effective instructional design does this exemplify?
a. Primed background knowledge
b. Strategic integration
c. Big ideas
d. Conspicuous strategies
b. Strategic integration
Which of the following is not true of content enhancement?
a. It may involve teaching mnemonics.
b. It includes a wide array of teaching techniques.
c. It requires the teacher to simultaneously teach content and how to learn the content.
d. It may increase the complexity of the curriculum.
d. It may increase the complexity of the curriculum.
Mrs. Cooper prepares handouts for her students with learning disabilities to help them understand her lecture. The handouts contain an outline of lecture content and include spaces for writing key facts, concepts, or relationships. This is an example of
a. a graphic organizer
b. strategic note taking
c. prescribed notes
d. guided notes
d. guided notes
Mr. Romano teaches his students to think of the acronym HOMES to remember the names of the 5 great lakes. What type of mnemonic device is this?
a. A pegword method
b. A keyword method
c. A letter strategy
d. A cryptic strategy
c. A letter strategy
Special educators can help students with learning disabilities succeed in inclusive general education classes by
a. keeping them in the resource room until they have learned basic skills
b. teaching them behaviors that general educators value
c. providing assistance with homework every day
d. providing assistance with assessments
b. teaching them behaviors that general educators value
Elbaum’s (2002) Study on educational placement and its effect on the self concept of students with learning disabilities concluded that
a. placement did not have a major influence on self-concept
b. placement in segregated classrooms had a negative effect on self- concept
c. placement in inclusive classrooms generally enhanced self-concept
d. placement in resource rooms generally enhanced self-concept
a. placement did not have a major influence on self-concept
On average, how many students does a resource teacher serve
a. 20
b. 30
c. 40
d. 10
a. 20
Which of the following is not a typical responsibility of a resource teacher?
a. Writing lesson plans for general educators who teach students with learning disabilities
b. Teaching social skills to students with learning disabilities
c. Teaching learning strategies to students with learning disabilities
d. Assisting general educators with program planning and differentiating instruction
a. Writing lesson plans for general educators who teach students with learning disabilities
Which of the following service options for students with learning disabilities is generally the most restrictive?
a. Resource room
b. Separate classroom
c. General education classroom
d. Consultation
b. Separate classroom
Neuroimaging research has indicated that students with dyslexia have differences in the brain structure or functioning in the
a. cerebral cortex
b. left temporal lobe
c. frontal lobe
d. corpus colllosum
b. left temporal lobe
Which of the following is an example of curricula that include explicit instruction?
a. The Blueford Series
b. Everyday Mathematics
c. Reading Mastery
d. Rigby Literacy
c. Reading Mastery
Which of the following statements about DIBELS is not accurate?
a.It can identify children who are likely to become proficient readers.
b It measures reading fluency.
c. It is used to monitor early reading skills.
d. It is a summative evaluation.
d. It is a summative evaluation.
A special form of direct daily measurement in which instructional decisions are based on changes in the frequency of student performance is known as
a. precision teaching
b. acceleration
c, the alphabetic principle
d. tertiary intervention
a. precision teaching