SSUSH 2 a, b, c, & d Development of Mercantilism, Social Mobility, and Individualism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Benjamin Franklin
American intellectual, inventor, ambassador, and politician. Born poor but died as one of the richest men in America. Symbol of American social mobility an individualism.
trans-Atlantic trade
Trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s, Europe sent manufactured goods to Africa, Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe.
Middle Passage
Second leg of the Triangular Trade routes that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies. Slaves were subjected to horrible conditions, starvation, disease, torture, chains, and brands. Average death rate was 20% of the human cargo.
Growth of Plantations
As plantations in the colonies began to expand by cultivating more acres to produce cash crops such as rice, tobacco, and cotton, the need for more slaves also increased.
African-American culture
Slave communities were rich with music, dance, unique foods, story telling. Enslaved Africans brought with them the arts and craft skills of their various tribes.
Navigation Acts
Britain’s attempt to regulate and control colonial trade and increase tax revenues to the “Mother Country”. Placed numerous trade restrictions on the colonies. Forced colonial merchants to use British ships for shipping goods.
The Enlightenment Era
Stressed individualism, reason, logic, & science.
Challenged old ways of thinking, government officials, monarchies, & church officials.
Why was the “Middle Passage” so dangerous to the enslaved Africans?
– cramped, close quarters
– dirty, damp, unsanitary
– disease rampant
– torture
– starvation
How is Benjamin Franklin the symbol for American individualism and social mobility?
– born poor
– little formal education (2 yrs)
– ran away from home
– self educated
– started a print shop
– published Poor Richard’s Almanac
– politician, world traveler, inventor, education advocate
– died as one of the most popular, respected, and richest men in America
How was the Great Awakening influential in the American drive for independence?
– Religious revival stressed spirituality
– questioned churches strict rules, regulations, and guidelines
– emphasized individualism, interpret Bible, find God anywhere
– many new religious sects(groups) formed, Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist
– promoted unity (we are all brothers and sisters)
– inadvertently “awakened” American patriotism