the direction and intensity of effort
What does the Direction of effort refer to?
whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations.
What does Intensity of effort refer to?
how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.
What does this Example demonstrate? : athletes who consistently show up, are early, usually expend great effort during participation vs. athletes who miss, are always late, usually exert low effort
that direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
How are some ways that sport psychologists view motivation?
achievement motivation, competitive stress, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
What is a common problem with the definition of motivation?
The term motivation is vaguely defined or not defined at all.
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How is motivation generally described?
An internal personality characteristic, External influence, or A consequence or explanation for our behavior.
What are two disadvantages of vague definitions of motivation?
1. telling an individual to become more motivated without explaining what exactly you want…it’s left up to the athlete or student. 2.Practitioners develop strategies for motivating individuals but do not understand how various strategies interact.
What is the Participant- or trait-centered view of motivation?
Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics; Personality, needs, and goals of the athlete/exerciser are the primary determinants of motivated behavior; Does NOT take into account environmental influences; NOT endorsed by sport and exercise specialists.
What is the Situation-centered view of motivation?
Motivation is determined by the situation; In many cases; situation is not the primary factor influencing motivational level; NOT endorsed by sport and exercise specialists.
What is the Interactional view of motivation?
Motivation results from participant factors and situational factors; ENDORSED by sport and exercise specialists.
Explain the Canadian Swimmer Study (Sorrentino and Sheppard, 1978).
44 male, 33 female swimmers; Affiliation motivation (degree to which you see group involvement as an opportunity for social approval vs. social rejection); Objective: Are swimmers more oriented toward social approval or toward rejection; Results: Approval oriented swimmers swam faster; implications: Your fastest swimmers may not be your fastest relay team.
What is guideline one for Building Motivation Using the Interactional Model?
Both situations and traits motivate people: Low motivation usually results from a combination of the two; Often leaders attribute lack of motivation from personal characteristics or put blame on the situation (i.e., sport psych is boring).
What is Guideline 2 for Building Motivation Using the Interactional Model?
People have multiple motives for involvement: people participate for more than one reason; people may have competing motives for involvement; people have both share and unique motives.
What is the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)?
helps to understand why people participate in physical activity. found that all people are motivated to satisfy 3 general needs: Competence, Autonomy, and Connectedness.
What are examples of shared motives?
fitness, fun, excitement, improving skills.
What are examples of unique motives?
parental pressure, need something to do, need to physically dominate someone else, experience calmness that comes from competition.
What have studies found about gender differences in motivation?
boys motives include competition, social benefits, and fitness. girls motives include social and skill benefits, competition, and fitness.
Do motives differ across culture?
What are ways to identify participant motives?
observe participants, talk informally to others, or ask participants directly.
What are major motives for sport participants?
improving skills, having fun, being with friends, experiencing thrills and excitement, achieving success, and developing fitness.
What are motives for joining exercise?
health factors, weight loss, fitness, self-challenge, and feeling better.
What are motives for continuing exercise?
enjoyment, liking instructor, liking type of activity, social factors.
What is guideline 3 for building motivation?
Change the environment to enhance motivation: Provide both competition and recreation; Elite athletes enjoy tough training but also fun and companionship; Individualizing coaching and teaching.
what is Guideline 4 for Building Motivation?
Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly (example: if you are having a bad day work through it or your athletes may think they did something wrong.)
What is Guideline 5 for Building Motivation?
Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives ( example: a study found that 8th and 9th grade sport participation predicted physical activity in 12th grade)
What did the Study by Kilpartirck, Hebert,& Bartholmew (2005) indicate about intrinsic vs extrinsic reasons for participation?
Intrinsic reasons for participation in sport (challenge/enjoyment); Extrinsic reasons for taking part in exercise (appearance/weight); Intrinsic motivation is thought to be a more powerful predictor of behavior in the long run.
Define Achievement motivation:
a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000).
a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986). The motivation to achieve in sport. (In sport – popularly referred to as competitiveness).
What does Self-comparison of achievement do?
Links Personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual
Is achievement motivation linked with nature or nurture?
Murray (1938) indicated that it is only natural for one to want to surpass another (Nature); Bandura (1977) however, believed competitiveness is a product of learning (Nurture)
What is the nature of competition in regards to athletes vs. nonathletes?
Gill and Deeter (1988) confirmed that Athletes are far more competitive than non-athletes; Athletes favored performance goals (Task Orientation) whereas non-athletes preferred the importance of winning (Ego Orientation).
How does your competitiveness and achievement motivation influences a variety of behaviors?
Choice of activities (Seeking opponents of equal ability or looking for players of greater or lesser ability), Effort to pursue goals (How often you practice), Intensity of effort (How consistently hard you try), and Persistence in the face of failure (Do you work harder or take it easy).
What are the Theories of Achievement Motivation?
Need achievement theory, Attribution theory, Achievement goal theory, and Competence motivation theory.
Atkinson and McClelland (1976) predicted that motivation is generated through a combination of personality and situational factors, These are:
Probability of success: The likelihood of success when a task is easy or done before; Incentive value of success: The intrinsic value experienced after success. If the task is hard the greater the incentive value.
What is the need achievement theory and its factors?
it is a balance of five factors: 1. personality factors or motives 2. situational factors. 3. resultant tendencies. 4. emotional reactions. 5. achievement related behavior.
1. Personality factors or motives:
2 underlying motives – to achieve success or avoid failure
2. Situational factors:
probability of success (depends on whom you compete against and the difficulty of the task); incentive value of success will be high when the chance of success if evenly balanced (50 – 50 odds)[50 – 50 odds give high achievers the most incentive (focus on pride) whereas, low achievers fear the loss with an evenly matched opponent (focus on shame)]
3. what are the tendencies of high achievers?
High achievers seek out and enjoy competing against others of equal ability or performing tasks that are not too easy or too difficult. The desire of success far outweighs the fear of failure.
3. What are the tendencies of Low achievers?
Avoid challenge – the fear of failure far outweighs the desire to succeed; Opt for easy tasks where success is guaranteed or unrealistically hard tasks where failure is almost certain; (Because no one expects them to win); 50-50 chance causes maximum uncertainty and worry; If they can’t avoid the situation they become preoccupied and distraught because of their high need to avoid failure
4. Emotional reactions:
Personality characteristics interact differently with the situation to cause them to focus more on either pride or shame: High achievers focus on pride, Low achievers focus on shame.
5. Achievement related behavior:
Indicates how all these factors interact to influence behavior
What is the Significance of Need Achievement Theory?
Serves as the framework for all contemporary achievement motivation explanations.
The behavioral predictions are basically the same between what two groups even though more recent theories offer different explanations?
high and low achievers.
What is the Most important contribution of the need achievement theory?
its task preference and performance predictions.
What is a problem with the Need Achievement Theory?
Success can be interpreted differently: Success over other people: Ego Goal Orientation – Beating someone in a race; Personal Improvement: Task Orientation – performance and process goals i.e. Achieving a personal best.
Focuses on how people explain their successes and failures
what are the 3 casual dimensions of the attribution theory?
stability, locus of causality, and controllability.
Describe common characteristics among factors that are stable (Ability or Task difficulty)
They are relatively consistent, you either have them or you don’t, task difficult does not tend to change very rapidly, and stable factors are more predictable than unstable ones.
What characterizes an Unstable factor (Luck and Effort)?
Effort is either high or low.
What does the Locus of Control determine?
whether the cause is under the performer’s control or is controlled by other people(Feels responsible for their performance, Reinforced by performance outcomes, Viewed as a personality trait)
Describe the external locus of control.
Externals perceptions may or may not be based on reality: Relatively little control over events (other people determine your fate); Positive experiences (successful sport performance) has little reinforcement value.
Describe the internal locus of control.
Internals – believe the experience was attributable to their own actions
What does the Locus of Causality determine?
if the cause of the performance or achievement outcome is perceived to reside with or is external to the performer.
Why Attributions are Important?
Contributing performance to stable factors (high ability) has been linked to expectations of future success
Who do Attributions to internal factors and factors in our control (ability and effort)or out of our control (luck, task difficulty) result in?
emotional reactions like pride and shame
According to Weiner’s Attribution Model why shoudl Coaches should attribute failure to external factors?
External factors are changeable and not under control of the performer…it is not their fault!; This helps maintain self-esteem and motivation; i.e. “he was lucky to beat you”
According the Weiner’s Attribution model why should Coaches should attribute success to internal factors?
Internal factors mean that the performer is able to success because of their talents; This endorses future expectations of high achievement.
Define and explain the Achievement Goal Theory.
To understand a person’s motivation examine what success and failure means to that person: The quality of an athlete’s experience will be shaped by the way he/she defines success and judges his/her capabilities. Examination of achievement goals, perceptions of competence, self-worth, and perceived ability
What are 3 factors that interact to determine a person’s motivation?
Achievement Goals, Perceived Ability, and Achievement Behavior.
Outcome goal orientation (competitive goal orientation):
Comparing performance with and defeating others; Low perceptions – reduced efforts, cease trying, or make excuses.
Task (mastery) goal orientation:
Improving relative to one’s own past performances; Not based on a comparison with others; Leads to strong work ethic, persistence, optimal performance; Protection from disappointment, frustration, lack of motivation, DO NOT fear failure; Some people can be both task and outcome oriented.
Social goal orientation:
Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others.
What is the key of Achievement Goal Theory?
Motivational climates influence the types of achievement goals participants adopt
What are associated with Task oriented climates?
task goals (positive attitudes, increased effort, and effective learning strategies) Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals.
What are associated with Outcome oriented?
climates outcome goals (low persistence, low effort, low ability attributes).
What does the coach emphasize in Ego involving climate?
rivalry between players, has a low tolerance for mistakes and has favorites amongst the players.
Research strongly points to the positive consequences of being in what kind of climate?
a task-involving climate.
Adolescents also report greater intrinsic motivation to play their sport when their coaches promote what kind of climate?
What does Competence Motivation Theory Explain?
Explains differences in achievement behavior (Especially in children)
what does Research indicate a link between?
competence and motivation [Example: player with high self-esteem, feels competent, has control then> efforts to learn the game increase enjoyment, pride, and happiness>lead to increased motivation]
What are the Keys of Competence Motivation Theory?
People are motivated to feel worthy or competent; Feelings of competence and worth, as well as perceptions of control, determine motives.
What do Theories of Achievement Motivation Say About High Achievers?
High motivational orientation to achieve success;Low motivation orientation to avoid failure; Focus on the pride of success; Success is because of stable and internal factors within their control; Failure is because of unstable and external factors outside their control; Usually adopt task goals.
How are high achievers in terms of Perceived competence and control?
Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their control.
How are high achievers in terms of Task choice?
Seek out challenges, able competitors, and demanding tasks
How are high achievers in terms of Performance?
Perform well in evaluative conditions
What do Theories of Achievement Motivations Say About Low Achievers?
Low motivational orientation to achieve success; High motivational orientation to avoid failure; Focus on shame and worry that may result from failure; Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their control; Ascribe failure to stable and internal factors within their control; Usually adopt outcome goals.
How are low achievers in terms of Perceived competence and control?
Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their control.
How are low achievers in terms of Task choice?
Avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitors.
How are low achievers in terms of Performance?
Perform poorly in evaluative conditions
What are the three Stages of Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness?
autonomous competence stage, social comparison stage, and integrated (self- and social-comparison stage).
What is the autonomous competence stage?
before age 4 years: mastering the environment, self testing.
What is the social comparison stage?
begins age 5 years: preoccupied with comparing themselves with others.
What is the integrated (self and social comparison) stage?
no set age: adopt self referenced standards; most desirable stage.
What are the Keys to Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness?
Recognize stage of achievement motivation; Ultimate goal is the integrated stage; Motivational climate influences achievement motivation.
What are the six steps of Using Achievement Motivation in Professional Practice?
1. recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing achievement behavior. 2.Emphasize mastery (task) goals and downplay outcome goals. Create a mastery motivational climate. 3. Monitor and alter attributional feedback. 4. Monitor and correct inappropriate attributions. 5. Determine when competitive goals are appropriate. 6. Enhance feelings of competence and control.
What is important in Recognizing the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing achievement behavior?
Stage of achievement behavior, Goal orientation, Attributions, Situations approached or avoided, Understand the concept of Learned Helplessness .
Define Learned Helplessness.
An acquired condition in which a person perceives that his or her actions have no effect on the desired outcome of a task or skill (Dweck, 1980).
What are Characteristics of Learned Helplessness?
Results from outcome goal orientation; Maladaptive achievement tendencies; Previous negative experiences with the activity; Attributions of performance to uncontrollable, stable factors, especially low ability; Learned helplessness can vary in specificity – it can be specific to a particular activity.