Sport Mgmt Exam 2

Community sport
Organized physical activity that is based in community, school, and local sport organizations.

community sport is conceptualized as organized physical activity that is based in community, school, and local sport organizations.

the emphasis in community sport is on people as participants.

multi-sport organization
(MSO)— Composed of, involving, or accommodating several sports.

The goal of the MSOC is to facilitate the growth of the current number of national organizations (34) that promote multi-sport participation and provide more opportunities for international, national, and grassroots participation and competition.

national regulatory association
A national sport governing body that makes eligibility and playing rules and sponsors competition according to its rules.
professional human resource management model
A model that describes scientific methods for staffing , training, developing, and managing human resources. Although well suited for paid employees, it does not often fit for volunteers.

HRM procedures and guidelines for worker (paid or volunteer) recruitment, selection, training, and development can help organizations streamline program delivery and make better transitions as people come and go through the organization.

quality of life
The degree of well-being felt by an individual or a group of people.

physical benefits of sport participation include increased cardiovascular health, decreased stress, and increased functioning of the musculoskeletal system

specifically is helping to maintain a healthy weight; sport participation can reduce weight in obese children

people who participate in recreation and sport report better concentration, task persistence, disposition, and analytical ability.

Physical activity improves psychological health and helps cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development.

being physically active in both sport and exercise results not from biological inheritance but rather from the opportunity and encouragement of influential people in a child’s life.

girls have a shorter time frame in which to participate than boys do.

social capital
Contextual characteristics of communities that describe how people develop trust and social ties. Social capital is also described as the glue that holds communities together.

a “contextual characteristic that describes patterns of civic engagement, trust, and mutual obligation among individuals”

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sport-based youth developement model
Programs that use sports in general, or a particular sport, to facilitate learning and life skill development.
sport league
An organization that exists to provide ongoing regulated competition in a specific sport.
sport tournament
A competition involving a relatively large number of competitors. It can be offered over a set period at a single venue or can be a set of matches or competitions that culminate in a single champion.
volunteer sport organization
(VSO)— Nonprofit local sport organization that provides organized sport opportunities for community members. VSOs are governed and supported through volunteer management and coaching.
youth sport
Organized physical activity for children and adolescents offered through schools, community organizations, or national sport organizations.
Early sport
In native communities, sport and contests often served the purposes of training youth for adult experiences; displaying the strength, skill, and prowess of community members; or celebrating the culture and religion of the community.

fishing, hunting, snowshoeing, rowing, archery, throwing, running, and rail-splitting were activities that could be contested between men, often serving as a source of pride and identity for the family or village

First contests
the Montreal Curling Club, established by the Scots in 1807, organized the first curling contests in North America exclusively for the benefit of its 20 elite citizens

United States, the New York Athletic Club (established in 1850) built the first cinder track for track and field and sponsored the first national amateur track and field championship in 1876.

Theodore Roosevelt Presidency
local, state, and national funding was committed to the growth of parks and recreation facilities and spaces, and the Playground Association of America (which eventually became the National Parks and Recreation Association) was born.
Governing bodies
Amateur Sports Act in 1978 and the creation of national sport governing bodies (e.g., USA Swimming, USA Track and Field). These governing bodies have been given the task of sport development in the United States, and they govern U.S. representation in international sport, but they do not necessarily have enforcement powers to become the sole sport providers or governors of amateur sport within the country.
emphasis on participant
focus on continuing to attract new participants and keeping them involved in the programs, as well as the types of programs or sports offered, the time and place of activities, the organization and delivery of programs, and cost and pricing considerations.
benefits of sport participation
positive aspects include physical benefits, improved family well-being, a sense of community, and increased social capital for families and other groups.
Family Life
Families report a greater sense of belonging and increased bonds through sport and recreation participation

athletic participation was associated with higher levels of family satisfaction

Types of organizations (VSO)
organizations work in conjunction with a network of organizations including their provincial and national counterparts

This network of organizations oversees and governs the various elements of the sport system.

Private facilities include organizations such as the YMCA and YWCA, in which sport is one of many programs or services offered.

Public entities
Community sport in the United States is also offered through public entities such as schools and parks and recreation facilities and programs.

In some school settings (e.g., Texas), coaches are also expected to teach an academic subject, whereas in other settings (e.g., Colorado, Ohio) coaches can be part-time professionals hired only to coach.

Private clubs
clubs— with paid management and operations staff,although many still rely heavily on volunteer coaches for the delivery of their youth and adult organized sport programs.
Management Challenges
Community sport presents a unique challenge concerning management because its structure and delivery system is varied and nonprescriptive

highly professional, using paid staff to govern, manage, and deliver the sport offering. Others are loosely organized, informal volunteer groups that form more of a cooperative coalition to provide sport for themselves and a small network of community members.

volunteer board of directors that sets policy for the organization.

volunteers are a critical component of community sport, and managing volunteers is essential to organizational functioning and survival.

Personnel management
Personnel management begins with planning, a task that involves examining the organization’s strategies, goals, and resources.

Recruitment can involve informal word-of-mouth contacts, advertisements, or broader search mechanisms.

participate. Coach training should include ethical standards, proper child safety (if coaching children), education in the particular sport coached in terms of techniques and tactics, and education in motivation and behavior management

Community sport offerings
Community sport opportunities in North America are often provided through three basic structures: classes, leagues, and tournaments.
defined as instructional sessions that enhance the skill or fitness level of the participants.
organized forms of ongoing competition in a given sport.
organized forms of sport that usually extend over several days or weeks, starting with a large pool of participants and narrowing down to an eventual champion.
Youth sport offerings
Community youth sport offerings and the rate at which children take advantage of those offerings vary by demographic factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity), cognitive and behavioral factors (e.g., attitudes, family influences, beliefs, perceptions, social influences, sedentary behaviors), and community factors

Organized activities affiliated with youth sport are typically structured as classes, as instructional leagues, as competitive leagues, and through after-school programs.

Instructional leagues
The goal of instructional leagues is to provide information and knowledge to children as they begin to play sports or are introduced to new sports.
After school programs
beneficial to children for the personal enjoyment that they experience, the safety and supervision provided, the academic enrichment and improvement in social skills that may occur , and the emphasis on physical health and fitness.

hours immediately after school ends are considered a crucial time in the development of children

athletics administrator
A person who provides administrative support to the school’s various athletics programs.
athletics director
A high school senior administrator in charge of providing leadership and management of the school’s interscholastic athletics programs.

function is to provide the leadership and management of the interscholastic athletics program.

centralized organizational structure
An operational model whereby all decisions are controlled by a central administration unit and carried down through the chain of command within an organization.

Centralized structures tend to have vertical reporting relationships often characterized as a chain of command

decentralized organizational structure
An operational model whereby respective units of an organization are given autonomy to control and carry out decisions, although each unit is expected to operate within the organization’s guiding principles.

In these mega athletics programs, administrative responsibilities are often decentralized through a matrix management template.

interscholastic athletics
Combination of sport offerings whereby boys and girls can elect to participate in athletics at the high school level.

a segment within the sport industry that seems to draw the least amount of attention within the realm of sport management studies and academia.

interscholastic athletics administrators play an important role in the educational and social development of the students who are involved with their school’s athletic program.

providing sports entertainment and serving as a prominent source of community well-being.

National Federation of State High School Associations
This national governing body provides leadership for the administration of education-based interscholastic sport and nonsport activities.

The NFHS was founded in 1920 to serve as the national leadership organization for high school sport and fine arts activities.

support academic achievement, good citizenship, and equitable opportunities for boys and girls in high schools (as well as middle schools) by enhancing interaction among its member state associations.

(a) athletics support the academic mission of schools, (b) athletics are inherently educational, and (c) athletics foster success in later life.

National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association
This organization, known as the NIAAA, is a national governing body that serves as a liaison between individual state high school athletics associations and state athletics administrator associations.
Private Schools
Schools that operate on moneys received through various forms of funding and giving (e.g., personal, religious, corporate).

private schools rely on donations, tuition allocations, or participation fees.

Private schools tend to be leaner in their management structure, allowing greater flexibility in making decisions.

Public Schools
Schools that operate on moneys received largely through local property taxes.
State athletics or activity associations
Governing body that sets rules and policies for high school sport eligibility, competitions, and state championship tournaments.
Interscholastic sport History
students from various public and private high schools in Massachusetts formed the Interscholastic Football Association in 1888

Boston-area schools that the first interscholastic athletics competition occurred.

interscholastic sport had become the largest sector in the entire sport enterprise

No other level of sport has as many participants, sport teams, or athletics programs as interscholastic sport does.

The first state to establish a high school athletics association was Georgia in 1904

Midwest Federation of State Hight School Athletic Association
(MFSHSA) was created in 1921. The mission of the federation was “to protect the athletic interests of high schools belonging to the various state associations and to promote pure amateur sport”
University Interscholastic League
1909, the UIL has provided leadership and guidance to public schools in Texas and has become the largest interschool organization of its kind in the world.

” is dedicated to offering character-building, educational competition to member school students in Texas”

Title IX
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 was a landmark legislation that banned sex discrimination in public and private schools.
Most participants
Size of school districts
Significant consideration when structuring an athletics department.
Most budgets will be composed of the following categories: salaries and benefits, equipment, supplies, transportation, professional development, awards, and other miscellaneous costs.
Interscholastic sport governance
High school athletics competition that is governed by state athletics or activity associations.
Positions within professional associations
Executive director.
chief financial officer
director of media relations and marketing.
director of membership services.
Positions with Local school level
athletics director.
athletics business manager.
athletics trainer.
athletics business manager
The business manager often oversees a wide range of activities including the implementation of the athletics budget and all business-related affairs of the athletics department.

People in this role are often required to have a strong grasp of accounting principles and procedures and to be proficient with computers and financial software and able to interpret numerical data.

Most coaches are full-time teachers who coach part time either for the love of the game or to supplement their income.

A couple common qualifications, however, are knowledge of the assigned sport and previous coaching experience.

Athletic trainers
Athletics trainers (ATs) are usually the first medical personnel on the scene when a sport-related injury occurs.

providing athletic training services to student-athletes, being accessible at all sporting events in the event of an injury, and serving as a liaison between the school district, physicians, student-athletes, and parents.

officiating in interscholastic athletics is a part-time job. Most states require officials to register with the state’s governing agency and pass a competency exam.
Issues facing Interscholastic Athletics
Reducing game contests , cutting back on transportation and equipment, eliminating teams, and raising participation fees are just a few decisions that have been made by administrators to curtail budgets.

The budgets allocated for athletics fail to keep pace with the annual rising costs.

An area that continues to be a growing concern is the presence of the media in interscholastic sports.

Coach turnover and exiting
it more difficult to retain coaches as problems arise with athletes, parents, and fans, adding to the daily personal demands on coaches’ time.
recruitments and retentions of officials
A shortage exists, and recruiting and retaining quality officials is extremely time consuming.
Participation options
Students become torn between their commitments to both teams, and some end up choosing to compete on the non-school-sponsored team only.
Fair play
Students and parents must be constantly reminded that competition is just a game rather than a war. Fair play is as much a concern for fans as it is for athletes.
Academic progress rate
According to the NCAA, this is a measure of how successful athletics programs on individual campuses are in ensuring that college athletes make appropriate progress toward their degrees.
Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act
Provides public information about the spending patterns of athletics departments in terms of men’s and women’s programs. Information about EADA may be found at athletics.

revenue streams that contribute to a college or university athletics budget is to go to reports filed in compliance with

Being able to determine the difference between the capacity of an athletics department to generate revenue versus turn a profit is an important skill for an athletics administrator.

executive search firm
An organization that identifies talented administrators for positions such as college presidents, chancellors, provosts, athletics administrators, and coaches.
Historically Black colleges and universities (e.g., Alabama State University, Albany State University, Bethune-Cookman College, Florida A& M University, Grambling State University, Howard University, Tuskegee University).
licensing royalty
The earnings paid to the sport property, or licensor (e.g., athletics department), by a licensed manufacturer in return for the right to produce and sell merchandise bearing a logo or other mark associated with its sports program
outsourcing— In the context of this chapter’s section on the marketing of college programs, it refers to the use of outside sport marketing firms to maximize revenues for athletics programs.

an effort to maximize existing revenue and access new revenue streams, Division I athletics departments are outsourcing their marketing to firms that specialize in college sport marketing.

senior woman administrator
The highest ranking female administrator involved in the management of an NCAA institution’s intercollegiate athletics department.

Divisions I and III, it designates “the highest ranking female administrator involved with the management of a member institution’s intercollegiate athletics program”

ensure that women have a role in the decision -making process in college sport and that women’s interests are represented at the campus, conference, and national levels.

the SWA role has not been effective in advancing the interests of women in athletic administration, and has left women with the challenge of having to be super performers in order to get promoted or be hired.

program supervision, budget management, fundraising and marketing, compliance and governance, human resource management, gender equity monitoring and implementation, and advocacy for women within the athletics program.

tribal colleges and universities
The 37 tribal institutions of higher education ( in the United States and Canada.
Ticket operations
Process by which tickets are distributed to customers (season ticket holders and fans), coupled with attention to a high level of customer service
ticket scalping
Selling a ticket for a price in excess of the price printed on the ticket.

(2014-07-15). Contemporary Sport Management, 5E (Kindle Location 5770). Human Kinetics. Kindle Edition.

Intercollegiate history
During the latter half of the 1800s, college sport was essentially run by students, sometimes as social occasions, at other times as highly competitive contests, and often as a form of protest against boring recitations and a curriculum that did not match their aspirations and goals. By the early part of the 1900s, a shift toward professional coaches, overspecialization, and an emphasis on winning against perennial rivals was well underway.

in 1905, coaches of the age were negotiating with faculty to keep players eligible, developing strategies to subvert an inquisitive press, and clashing with college presidents over the role of sport on college campuses

Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS), which was officially constituted on March 31, 1906, and became known as the NCAA in 1910

National Collegiate Athletic Association

NCAA rules and regulations focus on amateurism, recruiting, eligibility, playing and practice seasons, athletically related financial aid, championships, and enforcement

These include the number of sports sponsored, the type of sport sponsored (team or individual), the size of the athletics department budget, attendance at games and seating capacity in stadiums and arenas, and whether the program offers athletics grants-in-aid.

Division III
largest of all 3 divisions

the Division III infrastructure is not designed to generate revenue.

National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics

With an emphasis on academic achievement, the NAIA is also dedicated to respect, integrity , responsibility, servant leadership, and fair play. In 1948, the NAIA was the first national organization to offer postseason opportunities to Black student athletes.

the first national organization to sponsor both women’s and men’s intercollegiate athletics. In 1980, it became the first to offer athletics championships for women’s sports.

National Christian College Athletic Association
(NCCAA ). Incorporated in 1968 and located in Greenville, South Carolina, the NCCAA focuses on “the maintenance , enhancement , and promotion of intercollegiate athletic competition with a Christian perspective”

Division I consists of 70 Christian liberal arts (CLA) institutions, and Division II consists of 43 CLA and Bible colleges

Intercollegiate athletics within 2 year institutions
managed primarily by four organizations: the American Indian Higher Education Consortium Athletic Commission (AIHEC—36 schools representing 1,000 athletes), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA— 525 schools representing approximately 60,000 athletes ), the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA— 107 schools representing 27,000 athletes), and the Northwest Athletic Association of Community Colleges
Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women
(AIAW) was established by female physical educators from colleges and universities in 1971 (Wilson, 2013). During its 10-year existence, the AIAW provided many opportunities for female athletes, coaches, and administrators

In 1980, the move by the NCAA to sponsor women’s championships for the first time was viewed as a hostile takeover of the AIAW.

Athletics Conference
basic function of a conference is to establish rules and regulations that support and sustain a level playing field for member institutions while creating in-season and postseason competitive opportunities.

vast majority of colleges and universities seek membership in conferences that will enhance the prestige and status of their programs and provide competition with peer institutions that are similarly situated financially, academically, geographically, and philosophically.

Major power conferences
Thus, the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten, Big 12, Pacific-12 (Pac-12), and Southeastern Conference (SEC) are recognizable as major power conferences.
major vs mid-major conferences
The distinction between major and mid-major for Division I conferences, however, is the dividing line between those that have automatic bids in the BCS and those that do not.
Largest conference in US
The Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC), for example, is the largest conference in the United States, distinctive because of the fact that its 300 members from 16 states include schools associated with NCAA Divisions I, II, and III
Oldest black conference
the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA)

The CIAA is the nation’s oldest Black athletic conference, founded in 1912.

MEAC and Southwestern Athletic Conferences
programs identified by the NCAA as having programs that failed to meet new academic requirements under the APR (academic progress rate)
Universities that turn profits
In 2006, OSU and UT were 2 of just 19 schools that turned a profit

sport finances revealed that out of 228 NCAA Division I institutions, only 7 (Louisiana State, Nebraska, Ohio State, Oklahoma, Penn State, Purdue, and Texas) were truly self-supporting, meaning those programs did not receive subsidies in order to balance their books

winning and high coach salaries
the researchers found no significant relationship between winning and high coaching salaries
Intercollegiate athletics administrators
degree, athletics administrators resemble managers in other business settings and industries. They must be able to execute the fundamental managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.

all three types of managers in most intercollegiate athletics departments. An important point to remember is that many administrators have assistants.

more prominent the athletics department is, the larger the annual operating budget will be; the more complex the organizational structure is, the larger the full-time and part-time athletics department staff will be.

Division II, in Division III, and at the junior and community college levels may be responsible for a wider array of responsibilities.

Director of Athletics
may include budget and finance, facilities, risk management, television contracts, compliance with laws and regulations of national and conference governing bodies, academic progress of college athletes, communication with the media, scheduling, marketing games and other events, corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, community relations, alumni relations, campus relations, fundraising, and personnel management, including the hiring and termination of coaches.

the job of an AD “is now much like that of a CEO.

solid foundation in budget and finance along with skills in management and leadership, marketing, and communication

Associate or Assistant Athletics Director
Associate and assistant ADs are clearly middle-level managers.

working closely with the AD and overseeing specific areas, such as marketing, fundraising, event management , facilities management, or athletics communications.

First Line Managers
Positions include academic coordinator, business and finance manager, compliance officer, development and public relations director, event and facility manager, marketing and promotions director, sports information director, ticket manager, senior woman administrator, and equipment manager.
Academic cordinator
passage of NCAA bylaw 16.3.1 , which requires all Division I programs to offer academic support and tutoring services to athletes, and the existence of the Academic Enhancement Fund Program, which allocates US $ 62,438 per year to each Division I athletics program in support of academics.

key role in helping athletes remain eligible and in assisting programs to meet APR requirements

Business and Finance Manager
The business and finance manager for an intercollegiate athletics department recommends and implements policies, procedures, and methods of accounting that ensure strict compliance with sound business practices in accordance with the rules and regulations of the institution, the conference, and the national governing body.

The professional organization for this group of athletics department personnel is the College Athletic Business Management Association (CABMA).

Compliance Officer
Broadly stated, the role of compliance coordinators is to develop educational processes that help everyone directly or indirectly involved with the athletics program understand and comply with the rules of the institution, the conference , and the national governing body.

assigned includes assessment of student initial eligibility, continuing eligibility, and transfer eligibility, as well as adherence to regulations that govern athlete recruitment.

Development and Public relations director
process of raising money from friends of an athletics program is called athletics fundraising, development, or advancement.

Athletics development officers are responsible for raising funds to support various aspects of the athletics department by identifying and implementing fundraising projects and cultivating potential and current donors.

The fundraiser wants to encourage people who donate to the program to continue to donate and ideally to donate more over time, while searching out and contacting new donors to expand the program’s financial base.

Event and Facility Manager
Facility scheduling, maintenance, improvements, and contest management are the major duties assigned to event and facility managers.
Marketing and promotions director
are motivated by the need to generate interest in the program through enhanced visibility, increased attendance, and expanding revenue streams. Marketing and promotions directors may be responsible for promoting ticket sales for individual games, nonrevenue sports, season packages, and championship events, along with a complete line of apparel, fan support merchandise , and items for retail sale by direct mail and through the university’s bookstore and concessions area. Marketing and promotions directors are also responsible for identifying potential corporate sponsors, developing sponsorship proposals, and ensuring that proposals are implemented according to agreements reached with sponsors

programs, marketing and promotions directors must have a comprehensive understanding of trademark licensing and be familiar with trademark principles, terms, and definitions used in trademark law

Largest fan base
college sport. Its efforts are inspired by the awareness that more than 173 million people, nearly half of whom are female, comprise the largest fan base of any sport entity
Sport information director
Sports information directors (SIDs)— also referred to as athletics communications specialists , college athletic communicators, sport publicists, and college sport public relations directors— are responsible for both technical and management functions.

at developing an array of publication materials, including media guides, press releases, recruiting brochures, game programs, feature stories, and newsletters .

sports information directors are also responsible for managing budgets, organizing events, and supervising personnel. Successful sports

Ticket manager
The primary responsibilities of the ticket manager are coordinating all ticket operations, designing the ticketing plan, and accounting for all money expended and received for tickets.

on to assist in setting the price of tickets, determining staffing, ensuring that ticket distribution is handled in a secure manner, and understanding state laws that pertain to ticket scalping

Equipment manager
purchasing and fitting equipment, inspecting and preserving uniforms, and establishing an accountability system (e.g., inventory, reconditioning, storage, cleaning) of equipment and garments.
Administrator in governing bodies
settings is the underrepresentation of women and minorities in conference offices

divisions perform their duties within three major role classifications: interpersonal, informational, and decisional

These functions are similar to those of an AD, except that ADs act on behalf of a university, whereas commissioners act on behalf of member institutions .

Collective bargaining
Process used to negotiate work terms between labor and management. All active league players are in a bargaining unit and thus form a collective unit (i.e., labor) for negotiating and bargaining with the owners

collective bargaining is used because all active league players are in the bargaining unit and thus form a collective unit (labor) for negotiating and bargaining with the owners (management).

A collective group of athletes in team sports who unionize so that they can bargain collectively with the league owners (i.e., management). Labor is typically represented by a union head in negotiations with management.
league think
Pioneered and most effectively implemented by the NFL, this term represents the notion that teams must recognize the importance of their competition and share revenues to ensure that their competitors remain strong.
LED signage
Signage located in the arena bowl and primarily found on the fascia below the upper bowl. This signage is computer generated and has the capability to add sound, animation, and other visual effects to present a colorful eye-catching message. LED (light-emitting diode) signage is usually sold in 30-second increments, with a predetermined number of rotations per game.
Local television contracts
Agreements made between professional teams and local television stations and regional sport networks. These agreements provide teams with additional media revenue beyond what they receive from the national television contract.
luxury tax
Device used to tax the teams that spend the most (or spend too much as defined by the CBA) on player payroll; those taxes are then shared with teams that do not have high payrolls.
management (professional sport)
When referring to the collective bargaining process, management refers to the collective group of ownership that is negotiating with the players, or labor. Management is typically represented by a league commissioner, who is technically an agent for the owners, in negotiations with labor.
salary caps
Agreements collectively bargained between labor and management that establish a league-wide team payroll (i.e., salaries, bonuses, and incentive clauses) threshold that cannot be exceeded in most cases. The salary cap is typically set using a percentage of league gross revenues as a starting point.

salary caps that set a ceiling on player payrolls were created to protect the owners, essentially from themselves, from overbidding for talent.

the four major professional sport leagues in the United States, only MLB does not have a cap.

The NFL and NHL both operate with hard salary caps, meaning there are no exceptions to the collectively bargained cap amount.

The hard salary cap of the NFL and the NHL has prevented any need for a luxury tax arrangement

The acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate directly with a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association
virtual signage
Signage that is generated by digital technology and placed into a sport event telecast so that it appears as though the sign is part of the playing surface or adjacent to the playing surface.
Professional sport
any sport activity or skill for which the athlete is compensated.

Compensation can be in the form of salary, bonuses, reimbursement for expenses, or any other type of direct payment.

exemplifies sport at its highest level of performance, and it generates the majority of coverage devoted to sport through the print, electronic, and new media.

3 principals of professional sport
labor, management, and governance— are complex, diverse, and ever changing.
made up of the professional sport leagues, attempts to regulate, but not completely control, both labor and management.
History of professional sport
Professional sport can be traced to ancient Greece where, beginning with the Olympic Games in 776 BCE,

Boxers, jockeys, and runners were paid for their prowess during the early and mid-19th century. Baseball , however, was the first team sport to employ professionals.

1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings became the first professional baseball team.

by the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), the first professional sport league

William Hulbert formed the National League, the precursor to MLB

the first women’s professional league, the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League

Unique aspects of professional sport
interdependence, structure and governance, labor- management relations, and the role of the electronic and new media.
The central premise that differentiates professional team sport from any other business is the need for teams to compete and cooperate simultaneously

function together collectively, some teams sacrifice the potential for higher revenue in the interest of league stability.

key is that all members make sacrifices and concessions for the long-term benefit and growth of the league.

Structure and governance
League office includes league commissioner. board of governors. central administrative unit.
MLB commissioner
The MLB commissioner is responsible for representing the interests of all parties associated with professional baseball. These parties include owners, players, fans, television networks, corporate sponsors, host cities and venues, and the minor leagues.
Labor-management relations
baseball’s antitrust exemption , collective bargaining, free agency, salary caps, and player draft.
baseball’s antitrust exemption
This antitrust legislation was created to prohibit companies from dominating their respective markets in interstate commercial activity, thus creating a monopoly in which consumers have only one product choice rather than several.

granted MLB the right to undertake strategies that would prevent the establishment of competitive leagues. This exemption gives professional baseball team owners significant leverage over the cities in which they operate.

Collective Bargaining
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The NLRA provides three basic rights that are at the center of labor relations policy in the United Sates: (1) the right to self-organize, form, join, or assist labor organizations, (2) the right to bargain collectively through agents of one’s own choosing, and (3) the right to engage in concerted activities for employees’ mutual aid or protection

the NLRA provides players the right to join a union, to have a basic player contract (establishing a minimum salary, benefits, and working conditions) negotiated collectively by union representatives, and to strike or conduct other activities that help achieve objectives.

Free agency
Free agency is the ability of players, after fulfilling an agreed-upon (through a CBA) number of years of service with a team, to sell their services to another team with limited or no compensation to the team losing the players.
Player draft
the player draft aims to be an equitable system for distributing new talent among all league members. The draft provides each professional sport league with a mechanism for the teams with poor records to have an advantage over teams with winning records in acquiring talented new players.
Importance of television
No single factor has influenced the popularity of sport, the escalation in player salaries, free agency, and the growth and increase of corporate involvement in professional sport more than television. TV has

the Super Bowl has become one of the most successful televised events of all time, viewed by millions around the world.

First, as already discussed, the leagues and member teams receive significant revenue outlays from network, satellite, and cable TV agreements. Second, TV enhances the enjoyment associated with watching professional sport events. Third, TV helps increase the amount that teams and leagues can charge for sponsorships because of the increased exposure that it provides.

emerging sources of media coverage
Most notably, satellite television and the Internet have greatly increased the access of sport fans to a full menu of sport events.
Media contracts
Namely, MLB, the NBA, and the NHL all permit their member teams to negotiate local television contracts for regular season games, whereas the NFL does not.
Gate receipts
gate receipts and concessions accounted for more than 92% of the revenue of professional teams.
Licensing and merchandising revenues
Licensing revenues are generated when leagues and teams grant merchandise and apparel manufacturers the right to use their names and logos.

this revenue stream appears to have leveled off over the last dozen years.

Major challenges professional teams face
maintaining reasonable labor -management relations, developing new revenue streams, managing new technology, and dealing with globalization.
globalization, along with branding of a sponsor name on team uniforms, is the largest revenue frontier yet to be crossed by sport teams and leagues based in the United States
Common categories of work responsibility
Chief executive officer (CEO) or chief operating officer (COO)—responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the entire organization,
Chief financial officer (CFO)— responsible for the organization’s accounting and financial planning Chief marketing officer (CMO)— responsible for coordinating the marketing mix among communications, ticket sales, and corporate sponsorship and partnership sales
General counsel— responsible for overseeing all legal matters associated with the team including, but not limited to, player contracts, liability issues, and marketing contracts
General manager— typically responsible for acquiring, developing, trading, and releasing talent, as well as creating a development system for young players
Categories of professional sport
Player personnel positions and business positions
Player personnel
This department is involved in identifying, evaluating, and developing potential and current players.
Medical, training, and team support
These people assume responsibility for the physical (and sometimes mental) preparation and readiness of the players.
Coaching staff
This group concentrates on all activities occurring between the lines.
player education and relations
People in these positions are typically responsible for educating players on issues like financial management, substance abuse, nutrition, image management, and additional higher education.
Video support staff
Responsibilities of the video support staff include producing and editing videos, purchasing and maintaining video hardware and software products, supervising and coordinating satellite feeds, and coordinating all broadcasting that originates at the home facility.
stadium and facility staff
This group is responsible for the maintenance, upkeep, and repair of the playing surface.
Business positions
because they are responsible for generating revenue, marketing the product, developing a fan base, and working with customers and other stakeholders.
Ticket sales
sales. One of two types of sales representatives within the organization, ticket salespeople typically focus on selling season tickets, partial season tickets, and group tickets.
corporate sales
In contrast to those who primarily sell individual tickets, corporate salespeople target corporations exclusively.
Game experience
Responsibilities for these positions focus on enhancing the experience of people who attend games.
Responsibilities in advertising include designing and writing advertising copy and identifying, securing, and placing advertisements in a variety of media.
Like the game experience area, the field of promotions offers increasing opportunity as organizations focus on providing an optimal experience to spectators.
community relations
This department may be part of the public relations or marketing department.
media relations
This department is involved in assisting and working with the media by providing information necessary for game coverage and publicity.
database marketing coordinator
People in this area focus on building databases of information about the team’s customers so that the team can more effectively serve its customers and better meet their needs.
hospitality coordinators
Hospitality coordinators are responsible for the game-related needs of corporate clients, club seat holders, and luxury box owners.
This department may or may not include the ticket sales staff. Ticketing personnel manage the ticket inventory.
The process of using a name, design, symbol, or any combination of the three to help differentiate a sport product from the competition.

Brand awareness— The consumers’ recognition and recollection of the brand name
Brand image— The consumers’ perceptions and set of beliefs about a brand which, in turn, shape their attitudes
Brand equity— The value that the brand contributes to a product in the marketplace
Brand loyalty— The consistent purchase or repeat purchase of one brand over all others in a product category

external factors
Factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (e.g., media, corporate sponsors, advertisers, spectators, geography, culture, economy, federal regulations, regulations of sport governing bodies).
internal factors
Factors inside a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (e.g., players, owners, team management, staff personnel).
marketing mix
The elements of product, price, place, and promotion, which sport marketers alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives.
marketing plans
Comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization’s marketing goals and objectives.

marketing plans should contain marketing strategy (broad or big-picture ideas) as well as marketing tactics (specific details).

marketing research
The systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data or information to evaluate and improve marketing practices.

. The type of information needed to develop a marketing plan includes but is not limited to information about (a) the product (its history, successes, and failures) and the respective organization, (b) targeted consumers (their attitudes, perspectives, purchase behaviors , demographic profile), (c) social, cultural, and economic trends of the environment, and (d) the direct and indirect competitors of the sport organization .

market segmentation
The process of identifying smaller and viable clusters of sport consumers who may exhibit similar wants, needs, and interests regarding sport.

The key to market segmentation is being able to identify and group consumers based on elements such as their age, race, stage in life, interests, and so on.

so by grouping or segmenting consumers in four areas: demographics, psychographics, media preferences, and purchasing behavior.

Psychographic segmentation refers to appealing to consumers’ attitudes, interests , and lifestyles. Market segmentation based on media preference would cluster consumers based on their media and multimedia (e.g., TV, radio, Internet) preferences.

Place refers to consumers’ abilities to access the sport event or experience. Place includes the location of the sport product (e.g., stadium, arena), the point of origin for distributing the product (e.g., ticket sales at the ice rink, sales by a toll-free telephone number), the geographic location of the target markets (e.g., global, national, regional, state, communities , cities), and other channels that are important to consider regarding how target consumers may access the product (e.g., time, day, season, or month in which a product is offered, media distribution outlets that consumers may use).

The comprehensive manner in which sport is distributed to consumers.

another term for place is distribution

product life cycle
The lifespan stages of a sport product include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.

The life cycle seeks to depict the lifespan stages of a product, including the following: introduction (a product that is new to the market), growth (a product experiences an increase in sales, attendance, and support), maturity (a product that has sustained sales, attendance, and support), and decline (a product experiences a decrease in sales, attendance , and support).

promotions mix
The collection of integrated activities that seek to communicate, inform, and ultimately persuade consumers to participate in the sport consumption activity, experience, or event.
sport marketing
marketing—”The process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives ” (Pitts & Stotlar, 2007, p. 69) in a socially responsible manner that creates a favorable exchange relationship.

It is a complex function that is extremely important to the overall success of sport organizations

Some corporate executives might describe sport marketing as selling sport goods and services to generate a profit.

sport marketing includes elements of selling, advertising, public relations , and community relations, it is by no means limited to these activities

The role of marketing in transforming sport or physical activity into commercialized spectacles is important for a number of reasons.

sport scholars have generally agreed that sport marketing refers to the composite activities and practices that seek to facilitate the experience and expedite the exchange between sport and its consumers.

relationship marketing refers to commercial relationships between economic partners, service providers, and customers at various levels of the marketing channel and the broader business environment

consider customer service encounters and customers’ perceptions of service quality (as service marketing suggests). The premise of social marketing requires that sport marketers consider how marketing practices affect the consumer and the organization, and what is responsibly (and thus, ethically) in the best interest of society.

sport sponsorship
The acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate with a sport product or sporting event in order to derive benefits from the affiliation or association
SWOT analysis
A management technique available to sport marketers to help them assess the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and the opportunities and threats that it faces.

SWOT analysis, which includes four elements: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

marketing sport is unique
Aspects of sport are intangible.

sport involves emotion

Sport is subjective and heterogeneous because the impressions, experiences, and interpretations about the sport experience may vary from person to person.

Sport is generally socially consumed and depends on social facilitation with others (such as friends and family).

Sport experiences and events are inconsistent and unpredictable for a variety of reasons.

Sport is perishable because the sport experience is simultaneously produced and consumed.

10 P’s
purpose, product, projecting the market, position, players , package , price, promotion, place, and promise.
The first step in the marketing plan process involves clarifying the purpose of the sport marketing plan and linking the plan to the organization’s mission and core values.

“an organizational mission statement is important because it creates in people’s hearts and minds a frame of reference, a set of criteria or guidelines by which they will govern themselves ”

The mission statement of a sport organization must reflect the values and beliefs that are prevalent in the environments in which it operates.

The second step of the marketing plan process requires the sport marketer to analyze the dynamic and complex nature of the sport product.

three dimensions comprising the sport product: tangible goods, support services , and the game or event itself

The game or event itself is composed of two dimensions: the core product and product extensions

Product extensions are the ancillary items, such as the mascot, music, halftime entertainment, concessions, bands, and cheerleaders associated with the overall sport experience.

type of sport, participants, team

projecting the market
the third step in the process of developing a sport marketing plan is a projection of the market climate. Projecting the climate requires a critical analysis of past market conditions and a keen understanding of present market conditions.

internal and external factors

positioning refers to the process of establishing a sport entity in the minds of consumers in the target market.

Distinctive images are created in consumers’ minds based on (1) the types of consumers who buy the product, (2) the design of the product as well as its benefits, (3) the price of the product, and (4) the place where the product is available or where the event occurs (e.g., arena, stadium, facility).

task for sport marketers is to convert product or brand awareness to loyalty.

positioning the product to add value (brand equity) and to differentiate it by positively influencing consumers’ affinity for it and enhancing their desire to consume it.

Consumers are the lifeblood of sport marketing; a customer orientation is mandatory for sport marketing success
step requires compiling or bundling the salient attributes of the product and presenting the product in the best possible manner to encourage selected target consumers to purchase it.
is determining the value of the product by assigning it a price. Price is the most visible and flexible element because of discounts, rebates, and coupons.

Consumer— Analyze all aspects of the consumer, including demographics, psychographics, purchasing behaviors, and media preferences.
Competitor— Analyze the consumer’s perception of the product value compared with all competing products and analyze the competitors’ prices.
Company— Analyze the costs involved in producing the product (e.g., materials, equipment, salaries, rent) and set a minimum price to cover the costs.
Climate— Analyze external factors (e.g., laws pertaining to pricing, government regulations, the economic situation, the political situation).

The core of promotions is effective communication. Promotions plays a key role in communicating, creating, and establishing the image of a product

Open and honest communication with the public
Images and messages that are socially responsible
Cooperation with the public and response to their interests
Good faith relationships with the public

best (1) communicate the desired image of the product to the target audiences, (2) educate and inform the target audiences about the product and its benefits, and (3) persuade the target audiences to buy the product.

the promotional mix and include advertising, publicity, activities and inducements, public relations (including community relations and media relations), personal selling, and sponsorship.

evaluating the extent to which the marketing plan met its promise to help achieve the sport organization’s mission.

evaluation requires obtaining feedback about the marketing plan from internal and external sources.

the embrace of (a) technology and social media, (b) marketing research, (c) critical thinking, and (d) ethics.

Generation X & Y
are Generation X (people born from 1964- 1978) and Generation Y (people born from 1979- 1990) consumers.
Lead time
Lead time is a concept that is very important to sport pricing. It refers to the time lag between the time a ticket is purchased and the time of the actual game or event.
aspirational reference group
A group to which an individual wishes to belong.
cognitive dissonance
Feelings of anxiety or doubt that can occur after an important decision has been made.
A distraction from a course or activity.
Positive levels of arousal provided to sport spectators.
extrinsic rewards
Rewards given to a person by someone else.
intrinsic rewards
Rewards received by a person from the experience itself.
market segment
A portion of the population that is distinctive in terms of its needs, characteristics, or behavior.
need recognition
Perception of a difference between a desired state and the actual situation; the first stage of the decision-making process.
situational influence
The influence arising from factors that are particular to a specific time and place and are independent of individual customers’ characteristics.

A situation is a set of factors outside individual consumers and removed from the product that they buy or its advertisement.

First, physical surroundings include geographic location , decor, sound, smells, lighting , weather, and crowding.

Second, social surroundings refer to the effects of the physical presence of others.

Third, task requirements speak to the context of the purchase (that is, the intent or requirement of the purchase).

Fourth, time pressures, the time of day, and the season of the year are all examples of potential temporal influences on sport consumption.

Fifth, purchasing can be affected by antecedent states such as anxiety, excitement, or even hunger, and by momentary conditions such as cash on hand, fatigue, or illness.

target market
Market segment or segments identified as the focus of an organization’s marketing efforts.
consumer behavior
is made up of the processes involved in the search, selection, purchase , and use of products, services, and experiences that fulfill consumers’ needs or desires.
success of sport organization
The key to the success of a sport organization (e.g., a minor league baseball team) is to identify and satisfy customers’ unfulfilled needs better or faster than the competition (e.g., other minor league or professional teams, college teams, or other entertainment options such as concerts) does.
participation motivation
(1) achievement motivation, (2) social motivation, and (3) mastery motivation
Spectators have many motives for watching sport, including escapism, drama, excitement, and diversion.
consumer perception
Perception can be defined as a process by which a person selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli to create a meaningful picture of the world.

selective attention: choosing to pay attention to elements that are relevant to one’s needs, attitudes, and experiences.

Consumer attitudes
Attitudes are based on a person’s experiences (behavioral component), feelings (affective component), and beliefs (cognitive component ) about an object (Shank, 2008). These three components work together to formulate an attitude
group influence
These people and groups influence our values, norms, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors by providing us with a valued point of comparison. Reference groups can be either direct or indirect. Direct reference groups require face-to-face interaction.

Culture is perhaps the largest of the direct reference groups.

indirect reference groups
do not require direct contact, but they can be highly influential. They might consist of people such as athletes, coaches, musicians, actors, or politicians; alternatively, they might be groups or subcultures.
reference group and influence
But for the reference group to wield its influence, according to de Mooij (2004), it must be able to (1) make people aware of a product, (2) provide a chance for them to compare themselves with the group, (3) influence them to adopt attitudes and behaviors consistent with the group , and (4) support their decision to use the same product or service as the group does.
consumer socialization
Prompting and reinforcement can further assist in the socialization process.

Each of these processes— modeling, prompting, and reinforcing— also occur through indirect reference groups.

Over time, we are socialized into a way of consuming sport that is shaped by our reference groups, both direct and indirect.

evaluating purchase options
(1) a list of the potential products, and (2) the features and characteristics that they will use to evaluate those products
Consumer behavior challenges
The meaning and emotion of sport consumption
The globalization of sport
Virtual consumption
Compulsive consumption