Sport in World Culture Final Review

Research on media audiences shows that
a. men and women who live together often watch sports together.
b. “football widows” are more common than many people believe.
c. watching television sports is the primary leisure activity of U.S. adults.
d. watching sports is disruptive for most married couples.

Answer A

Most media coverage of sports today represents the interests of
a. those who control and profit from sports.
b. sport agents and lawyers.
c. the players with the highest celebrity rankings.
d. the companies that advertise on social media sites.

Answer: A

Tensions between elite athletes and sportswriters has intensified as
a. athletes have discovered that they can write their own stories online.
b. salary differences between athletes and sportswriters have increased.
c. journalists have ignored personal information in stories about athletes.
d. more sportswriters have come from low-income and minority backgrounds

Answer: B

It you regularly watch women’s sports on network TV, the sport you see most often is
a. swimming.
b. tennis.
c. softball.
d. basketball

Answer: B

Golf and tennis are frequently covered sports on television because they
a. have more viewers than most other sport events.
b. are tied to the real estate and corporate interests of television executives.
c. attract revenues from companies hoping to reach high-income consumers.
d. have a special character that attracts people interested in pure sports.

Answer: C

The amount of news space given to the coverage of sports in major city newspapers is
a. less than 5 percent.
b. about 25 percent.
c. about 50 percent.
d. between 50 and 80 percent.

Answer: B

The media most dependent on sports are
a. books and magazines.
b. the Internet and radio.
c. newspapers and television.
d. television and film.

Answer: C

According to data, rights fees for major sports have
a. gone up and down with major economic trends.
b. increased steadily through 2013.
c. declined steadily between 2007 and 2013.
d. remained stable over the past 20 years.

Answer: B

According to data, the rights fees for the Olympic Games have
a. declined since 2001 and the associated threats of terrorism.
b. always been higher for the winter games than the summer games.
c. been high only when the games are hosted in North America.
d. increased consistently and dramatically since the 1970s.

Answer: D

Rights fees for certain sports have increased dramatically. This has
a. created limits on athletes’ salaries.
b. increased the profitability of certain commercial sports.
c. enabled public organizations to sponsor more sports.
d. destroyed the profitability of commercial sports.

Answer: B

Research on video games that simulate real time sports shows that
a. people who play them withdraw from most social relationships.
b. gamers often create their own narratives that fit their interests in sports.
c. children outnumber adults who play these games.
d. athletes have rejected these games because they are unrealistic.

Answer: B

Fantasy sport leagued give media sport consumers an opportunity to put themselves in the position of
a. an owner of a sport team.
b. a top media executive.
c. a professional athlete.
d. a professional sports agent.

Answer: A

At this point in time, people generally use online access to
a. extend and complement what other media already provide.
b. shift their attention to sports they’ve never played.
c. calculate the statistics they need to play fantasy sports.
d. interact directly with mainstream media announcers.

Answer: A

The Internet is different from traditional television in that it
a. has sites that are sponsored only by corporations.
b. provides users with high quality sequential programming. c. cannot give users the same quality of sports commentary as television can.
d. gives users control that can radically alter their media experiences.

Answer: D

New media, including all digital and social media, have impacted sports primarily by
a. eliminating newspaper sport sections.
b. altering relationships in the production and consumption of sport content.
c. undermined the commercial value of spectator sports.
d. recruiting more women and children to be loyal fans of sport teams.

Answer: B

Nearly all television broadcasts of sport events are sponsored by
a. environmental groups devoted to conservation.
b. feminist groups and other women’s organizations.
c. large capitalist corporations and other for profit businesses.
d. nonprofit groups dedicated to promoting socially progressive ideas

Answer: C

The images and commentary in a televised representation of a sport event are
a. accurate depictions of all of what occurs at the event.
b. selected to distort what happens in the event for the sake of the sponsors.
c. mostly fictional depictions of what the producers want us to see and hear.
d. carefully edited and selected for many different reasons.

Answer: D

When the media are privately owned and depend on audience ratings, televised sport events are “re-produced” in a way that usually emphasizes
a. forms of soap opera storytelling.
b. a critical perspective on sports and sport participants.
c. how much work goes into preparing for a sport event.
d. the specific technical skills of athletes.

Answer: A

In the case of sports, those who control the media influence sports because
a. they only cover the sports that they and their associates play.
b. media viewers mimic whatever they consume in the media.
c. they decide which sports and events to cover and how they are covered.
d. people in sports will do whatever they say in order to receive coverage.

Answer: C

Most media content is tied to power relations in the sense that they
a. cause people to question major political decisions in society.
b. emphasize images and messages consistent with dominant ideologies.
c. are direct reflections of the interests of politically powerful people.
d. are controlled and censored by the most powerful people in the society

Answer: B

The people who make media content decisions as they select the images and messages to be re-presented to us are best described as
a. image and message “filters”. b. propaganda artists.
c. agents of corporate capitalism.
d. political prophets.

Answer: A

When media are privately owned, their major interest is profit making; when media are controlled and operated by the state, their major interest is
a. shaping values and providing a public service.
b. generating revenues for the state.
c. funding artists who work for the state.
d. creating images that expand people’s experiences.

Answer: A

Which of the following is NOT provided by the media?
a. Entertainment.
b. Interpretation.
c. Information.
d. Deregulation.

Answer: D

Which of the following is an accurate statement about sports and the media?
a. All media coverage involves selective re-presentations of sports.
b. The media offset or reverse the effects of commercialization on sports.
c. The media destroy opportunities for us to see major sport events.
d. The media shape and determine our perspectives on sports.

Answer: A

The chapter on sports and the media is based on the assumption that
a. human beings around the world are shaped by the media.
b. the power of the media has no limits.
c. media content informs people’s lives and social worlds.
d. most people define the media as unimportant in their lives

Answer: C

Which of the following characterizes the state of gender equity in US high schools and colleges?
a. High schools have achieved equity but colleges have not.
b. Colleges have achieved equity but high schools have not.
c. Neither high schools nor colleges have achieved equity.
d. Both high schools and colleges have achieved equity.

Answer: C

When Title IX became law in 1972
a. most girls and women did not want to play sports of any kind.
b. men received about 99% of public school the resources devoted to sports.
c. more than 10% of all women in college played varsity sports.
d. most teams for boys and men were seriously under-funded.

Answer: B

The U.S. government law, Title IX, prohibits gender discrimination in
a. all U.S. schools.
b. public elementary and high schools, but not colleges and universities.
c. any educational institution receiving federal money.
d. in all sports offered in schools or community programs.

Answer: C

Which of the following is NOT a reason for increased sport participation rates among girls and women?
a. New publicly funded child care programs.
b. New opportunities for sport participation.
c. The global women’s rights movement.
d. The health and fitness movement.

Answer: A

The most dramatic change in the world of sport over the past two generations has been the increase in the number of
a. lawsuits filed by men whose oppose gender equity.
b. women who have become coaches in men’s sport programs. c. mothers who now coach their daughters in sport programs.
d. girls and women who play sports around the world.

Answer: D

Sports are culturally important in many societies, because they
a. favor the interests of women over men.
b. emphasize character development over the pursuit of excellence.
c. celebrate masculine virility and power and reproduce hegemonic masculinity.
d. challenge the idea that men have to be strong and aggressive to be manly.

Answer: C

The history of “fem testing” in the Olympics and other international sports shows that
a. the Barr body test is the only reliable way to verify the sex of female athletes.
b. human bodies don’t fit neatly into two distinct sex categories.
c. female athletes prefer physician inspections over lab tests to verify their sex.
d. current IOC policy uses genetic testing to verify the sex of female athletes.

Answer: B

Most female athletes today manage gender issues by
a. using a “reformed apologetic” to appear both tough and feminine.
b. wearing the same clothing that male athletes wear.
c. sharing sports equipment with men.
d. erasing the boundaries between masculinity and fem

Answer: A

To avoid appease men and discourage men from seeing them as invaders of male spaces in sports, female athletes during the 20th century
a. rejected common stereotypes of femininity so they would be seen as male-like.
b. raised their own money and built their own facilities to play sports.
c. usually had their fathers coach them in team sports.
d. chose to call themselves “ladies” when they played sports.

Answer: D

The myths surrounding women’s participation in sports during the first half of the 20th century
a. were inconsistent with orthodox gender ideology in the United States.
b. forced women to play team sports more than individual sports.
c. were widely accepted because they were seen to protect women’s bodies.
d. challenged the belief that women were frail and vulnerable.

Answer: C

Until the 1980s few girls and women played sports because they had no interest in physical activities.
false
A network TV sport announcer refers to “The World Cup” and The Women’s World Cup.” This vocabulary suggests that the announcer views sport in terms that are
a. male-dominated.
b. male-identified.
c. male-oriented.
d. male-centered.

Answer: B

A woman coach is hired in an all-male athletic department. The search committee concluded that she was qualified because she coached like a man. This shows that the athletic department is
a. male-dominated.
b. male-identified.
c. male-oriented.
d. male-centered.

Answer: A

When sport worlds are male-centered it means that
a. men and men’s lives are the expected focus of attention and stories.
b. men experience insecurities that make them very controlling. c. the actions of men are used as standards for defining what is right.
d. the characteristics of men are used as standards for qualifications.

Answer: A

When sport worlds are male-identified it means that
a. men and men’s lives are the expected focus of attention and stories.
b. men experience insecurities that make them very controlling. c. people assume that it involves men and is about men.
d. power and qualifications are associated with manhood and men.

Answer: C

When sport worlds are male-dominated it means that
a. men and men’s lives are the expected focus of attention and stories.
b. men experience insecurities that make them very controlling. c. people assume that it involves men and is about men.
d. ability and qualifications are associated with manhood and men.

Answer: D

The dominant gender ideology associated with mainstream sports tends to
a. celebrate traditional ideas about masculinity.
b. understate the natural physical strength of men.
c. promote the notion that women are intellectually superior to men.
d. prevent men from wanting to dominate other men.

Answer: A

During times when there are struggles between gender defenders and gender benders, most people
a. struggle to make sense of their own sexuality.
b. abandon hope of coming to term with their own sexuality.
c. find it difficult to give up ideas and beliefs they use to make sense of the world.
d. seek relationships in which sexuality is irrelevant to identity.

Answer: C

Homophobia will continue to exist in some form in a society as long as
a. the two sex system is widely accepted.
b. people are concerned about their own sexuality.
c. overpopulation remains a problem in the world.
d. sports are popular activities.

Answer: A

The diagram of the two-category classification model indicates that
a. gender nonconformists have more power than heterosexuals.
b. men have a better chance of gaining power in society than women have.
c. women gain power only if they don’t push gender boundaries.
d. power is equally available to people regardless of gender or sexuality.

Answer: B

One of the problems with a two-category classification model is that it
a. assumes that men do not police their gender boundaries very well.
b. people who use it most are younger people with few life experiences.
c. fails to clarify that there are differences between males and females.
d. leaves no normative space for those who don’t fit into either category.

Answer: D

The diagram of the two-category classification model indicates that
a. men have more latitude in what they can do without being labelled as deviant.
b. normative boundaries for gender are determined by nature and biology.
c. gays and lesbians are considered out of normative bounds.
d. normative boundaries for femininity are seldom questioned or pushed.

Answer: C

The gender ideology used in many cultures assumes a two-category model for classifying sex and gender. When such a model is used, people
a. classify all homosexuals as “like women.”
b. ignore real physiological variations among males and among females.
c. conclude that men and women are physical equals.
d. ignore physical differences between men and women.

Answer: B

Dominant gender ideology in many societies today is organized around three ideas and beliefs. Which of the following is NOT one of the ideas or beliefs?
a. men are more naturally suited to possess power and be leaders than women are.
b. women are destined by fate to be inferior to men in family structures.
c. human beings are either male or female in terms of sex.
d. forms of sexuality other than heterosexuality is considered abnormal or deviant

Answer: B

The author of our book claims that achieving full gender equity in sports requires
a. more regulations about how money is used to fund sports.
b. a commitment among men to respect women as human beings. c. changes in orthodox gender ideology.
d. the elimination of all men from women’s programs.

Answer: C

When male athletes engage in physical assaults off- the-field, they are most likely to target people who they define as unworthy of their respect
True
Research shows that spectator violence is associated with perceived violence on the field of play.
True
Research shows that boys and men who play power and performance sports learn that brutal body contact should be avoided so they can stay healthy and keep playing.
False
Commercialization and greed are the primary causes of violence in contact sports.
False
Athletes may be marginalized or punished by other athletes in their sports and if they engage in quasi-criminal or criminal violence.
True
Rates of violence in sports today are nearly double what they have been at any other time in history.
False
Aggression and violence both refer to actions that violate laws designed to protect the security of people and their possessions.
False
Research has shown that spectators are most likely to be violent when they interpret the actions of the players on the field to be
a. violent.
b. emotionally intense.
c. uncontrolled.
d. product-oriented.

Answer: A

Spectator violence varies with many factors. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors?
a. The location of the event.
b. Alcohol consumption by the spectators.
c. The importance of the teams as a source of identity for the spectators.
d. The personality profiles of regular spectators at an event.

Answer: D

The author suggests that violence against women by male athletes is associated with at least five specific aspects of the culture of men’s sports. Which of the following is NOT one of those aspects?
a. Collective hubris that separates athletes from the rest of the community.
b. A general failure to hold athletes accountable for violating community norms.
c. Support for the view that violence is a useful interpersonal tool.
d. Repressed feelings of hostility created by failures on the field.

Answer: D

It is difficult to say that playing violent sports causes people to be violent off the field because
a. violent sports may attract people who already have records of being violent.
b. researchers cannot agree on a definition of violence.
c. athletes won’t talk about their experiences on the field.
d. athletes generally look for trouble when they are off the field.

Answer: A

It is difficult to reduce the injuries that occur in power and performance sports because
a. most serious injuries occur within the rules in these sports.
b. human beings are inherently violent.
c. most parents encourage their children to be aggressive in sports. d. people who choose to play these sports have strong aggressive tendencies.

Answer: A

Research on pain and injury in sports suggests that
a. as violence increases in a sport, serious injuries among athletes decrease.
b. professional contact and collision sports are dangerous workplaces.
c. former athletes have fewer health problems than average people.
d. sports are safest when athletes over conform to the norms of the sport ethic

Answer: B

Information on violence in women’s contact sports suggests that women are
a. genetically predisposed to be less violent than men are.
b. more likely than men to be violent in response to the commands of a coach.
c. less likely than men to use violence as proof of their sexual identity.
d. becoming less violent in sports as rewards for success become greater.

Answer: C

The person who plays the role of “enforcer” on a contact sport team is expected to
a. assist referees in controlling the game.
b. intimidate and use violence against opponents.
c. provide legal advice to teammates.
d. aggravate the coach of the opposing team.

Answer: B

In the culture of heavy contact sports, there is a general norm emphasizing that
a. violence destroys careers.
b. fighting loses games but wins fans.
c. coaches cut violent players.
d. violence is part of the game.

Answer: D

The author argues that players in noncontact sports are
a. seldom rewarded for aggressive behaviors.
b. taught to use psychological as well as physical violence.
c. the most violent of all athletes when they have opportunities to be violent.
d. more likely than athletes in contact sports to use intimidation.

Answer: A

Learning to use violence as a strategy in sports tends to be highest in
a. non-contact sports.
b. heavy contact sports.
c. sports which attract spectators from upper-income groups.
d. sports in which there is no protective equipment used by players.

Answer: B

Using violence in sports comes to be defined as “normal” by many people when the ability to “do” violence is seen as
a. a means for males to prove their “manhood.”
b. necessary if a person is to be a good leader.
c. a way to protect one’s health and well-being.
d. an important part of being human

Answer: A

When playing power and performance sports boys and men learn that
a. using violence will hurt their status on teams and in sports generally.
b. being violent will help them avoid labels such as “wimp” and “fag.”
c. all forms of violence lead to punishments in games.
d. being able to take violence is good but giving it is bad.

Answer: B

Research shows that boys and men who play power and performance sports learn that they will be
a. punished if they use any form of brutal body contact when they play.
b. rewarded if they can engage in criminal violence without guilt.
c. rejected by peers if they use borderline violence in sport.
d. evaluated favorably for their ability to combine violence and skills.

Answer: C

Rates of violence are higher in men’s sports than in women’s sports because
a. violence is tied to issues of masculinity for many men in sports.
b. men love the physicality of sports more than women do.
c. male hormones cause men to be violent.
d. people will not pay to see women do violence.

Answer: A

Instead of saying that commercialization causes violence, the author states that it is more accurate to say that
a. money is the only cause of violence in sports.
b. human beings are instinctively violent.
c. violence is caused by the media.
d. commercialization enables more people to play violent sports.

Answer: D

A study by Nancy Theberge found that elite women ice hockey players have a difficult time controlling all forms of brutal body contact in their sport because
a. their coaches demand that they use violence as a game strategy.
b. they love the physicality of ice hockey.
c. they often develop a strong hatred for their opponents.
d. their teammates expect them to use forms of quasi-criminal violence.

Answer: B

Deviant overconformity is associated with some forms of violence in sports. The roots of this violence are grounded in
a. a desire for self-fulfillment and personal satisfaction.
b. a lack of commitment to team norms.
c. the desire to gain reaffirmation for one’s identity as an athlete.
d. a deep and secure sense of self-worth as a human being

Answer: C

Athletes may be marginalized or formally punished if they engage in
a. brutal body contact or criminal violence.
b. quasi-criminal or criminal violence.
c. borderline violence or quasi-criminal violence.
d. violent over conformity or criminal violence.

Answer: B

Some forms of violence are accepted widely by athletes and even used as a basis for gaining status among fellow athletes. These include
a. brutal body contact and quasi-criminal violence.
b. quasi-criminal violence and criminal violence.
c. borderline violence and brutal body contact.
d. criminal violence and borderline violence.

Answer: C

The chapter is organized partly around a typology of violence developed by Mike Smith. Which of the following is NOT one of the categories in his typology?
a. Criminal violence.
b. Borderline violence.
c. Intentional violence.
d. Brutal body contact.

Answer: C

Social historians suggest that violence remains an issue in sports because
a. sports are designed to create tension and excitement.
b. coaches have little training in strategies of violence control.
c. the personalities of athletes have become more violent over time.
d. spectators are less civilized today than they were in the past.

Answer: A

Studies show that in comparison with sports today, the tournaments and sport activities in medieval and early modern Europe were
a. less likely to involve serious injuries.
b. more likely to use technology. c. more rule-governed.
d. more violent.

Answer: D

As defined in the chapter, intimidation refers to
a. any verbal behavior motivated by anger or frustration.
b. physical actions that are rigidly focused on a particular task.
c. words, gestures, or actions that threaten violence or aggression.
d. all efforts that are made to influence another person.

Answer: C

Research findings as well as popular ideas about sports and violence are often full of contradictions. One of the reasons for this is that
a. the short-term effects of playing or watching sports cannot be studied.
b. terms such as violence and aggression are defined too precisely.
c. all sports are lumped together regardless of their purpose or organization.
d. social scientists shy away from studying violence.

Answer: C

As defined in the chapter, aggression refers to
a. an instinctive behavior that serves to protect oneself in the face of threat.
b. a category of behaviors that lack an awareness of or sensitivity to others.
c. any action that results in property destruction or injuries to people.
d. verbal or physical actions intended to control or do harm to another person.

Answer: D

When violence occurs in connection with widespread rejection of norms it often is described as anarchy; when it occurs in connection with blind obedience to norms and autocratic leaders, it is described as
a. revolution.
b. democracy.
c. fascism.
d. necessity

Answer: C

As defined in the chapter, violence refers to
a. using excessive physical force that can cause harm or destruction.
b. any physical actions that are motivated by strong feelings.
c. actions that are both irrational and strategic.
d. any form of assault grounded in human instinct.

Answer: A

The author notes that sport development experts worldwide agree that
a. coaching education is not essential in youth sports.
b. children are ready at 5-years old to learn how to play team positions.
c. successful coaches always treat child athletes as potential stars.
d. children under 8-years old should not play highly organized sports

Answer: D

The author points out that in comparison with today’s children, people who grew up during the 1950s and 1960s were more likely to
a. specialize in a single sport.
b. play the same sports that their fathers played.
c. play informal sports more often than they played than organized sports.
d. reject sport participation when the sports were not organized.

Answer: C

An overall comparison of informal sports and organized sports shows that
a. informal sports are action-centered while organized sports are rule-centered.
b. both informal sports and organized sports are rule-centered.
c. informal sports are player-centered and organized sports are action-centered.
d. neither informal sports nor organized sports are action-centered

Answer: A

A sign that some children reject structured, adult-controlled sport programs is the
a. increased interest in alternative sports.
b. the growth and popularity of after school programs.
c. the recent increase in violent crime among young people.
d. the high turnover among coaches in those programs.

Answer: A

Parental involvement in and concern about youth sports have increased because
a. parents today are imitating their own parents’ and grandparents’ actions.
b. most parents are reliving their childhoods through their children. c. sport programs demand that parents come to practices and games.
d. parental moral worth is now associated with the success of children.

Answer: D

Child labor laws in most post-industrial societies prevent adults from using children as sources of financial gain in
a. jobs where adult supervisors lack degrees in child development. b. the film and advertising industries but not in sports.
c. sports but not in other occupations.
d. sports that involve intense training

Answer: B

Different sponsors of youth sport programs have different goals. The programs that are most likely to be inclusive and emphasize overall participation are those
a. sponsored by private, non-profit organizations.
b. sponsored by public, non-profit community organizations.
c. sponsored by public, tax-supported community recreation organizations.
d. sponsored by private commercial clubs.

Answer: C

In organized youth sport programs that emphasize the performance ethic there often is a corresponding emphasis on
a. making sure that children have fun in the programs.
b. putting children in many different programs rather than just one or two.
c. sport specialization among children.
d. pressuring children to quit sports once they have become skilled.

Answer: C

An emphasis on the performance ethic is most likely in programs sponsored by
a. public, tax-supported recreation organizations.
b. public, non-profit community organizations.
c. private, non-profit sport organizations.
d. private commercial clubs.

Answer: D

The trend toward privatization in organized youth sports has
a. made youth programs more selective and exclusive.
b. had a negative affect on people from upper-income areas. c. helped parents who need inexpensive sport programs for their children.
d. increased the number of racially integrated youth sport programs.

Answer: A

Which of the following is NOT among the five changes that have encouraged participation in organized youth sports?
a. Many parents today see the world as a dangerous place for their children.
b. The expectations for parents today are more demanding than ever before.
c. Families with both parents working outside the home is common today.
d. Parents know that playing informal games will harm child development.

Answer: D

Organized youth sports in the United States were originally developed to teach lower-class boys how to work together peacefully and to help middle-class boys
a. counteract the “feminized” values they learned at home from their mothers.
b. become less competitive in their relationships with each other.
c. accept the fact that they would not be as successful as their fathers.
d. learn homemaking skills that they could use after they were married.

Answer: A

Developmental research indicates that creating excellent athletes requires that children be put in highly organized and specialized programs as young as possible.
False
Informal, player-controlled games are more common today than they were one or two generations ago.
False
Informal games are organized to maximize to keep alive the spirit of play.
True
Children seek out alternative sports because of the joy they have experienced in structured, adult-controlled sport programs
False
U.S. parents have become increasingly concerned about the sport participation of their children because parental moral worth depends on effectively controlling their children 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
True
An emphasis on the performance ethic is most likely to be found in private commercial clubs where membership and participation fees are costly.
True
Privatized youth sports programs reproduce the economic and ethnic inequalities that exist in the larger society.
True
The growth of organized youth sports since the 1950s has been influenced more by television than by changes in family life.
False
Professional baseball and college football remained more popular than professional football through the end of World War II.
True
In 1917, Blanche M. Trilling held a meeting which was the genesis for the founding of the Athletic Conference of American Women. This organization denounced intercollegiate athletic competition for women and instead supported intramural sports programs in the nation’s colleges and high schools
True
The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW)
A. was established in 1971 and had its initial “roots” in an organization known as The National Section on Girl’s and Women’s Sports(NSGWS). The AIAW broke away from the NAGWS and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) in 1979.
B. the AIAW was administered by women for women athletes and was adamant in their goal to avoid the “evils” that were associated with men’s athletics. C. the AIAW filed an antitrust suite against the NCAA over the control of women’s intercollegiate athletics.
D. along with the establishment of the AIAW, the passage of Title IX in 1972 is historically the single most important event that advanced the cause of serious women’s athletic competition.
E. All of the above.

Answer: E

Jack Johnson was accused of violating the Mann Act because White America could not accept the fact that Johnson’s three wives were white
True
Blanche M. Trilling (1876-1964) led the fight to champion intercollegiate athletics for women as opposed to intramural sports.
False
Coeducational colleges were among the first to provide athletic opportunities for women.
False
Professional baseball and college football remained more popular than professional football through the end of World War II.
True
The first President of the American Professional Football Association (APFA) was Jim Thorpe.
True
President Theodore Roosevelt
A. called a meeting of leading football coaches to reform the game. He supported intercollegiate football competition because it was “manly”.
B. However, he was very concerned about the incidence of injury and death in football; his son was injured playing the game.
C. was so opposed to intercollegiate football that he tried to eliminate it from being played.
D. A and B only.
E. B and C only.

Answer: D

Which of the following is False?
A. The first reported football game between two black colleges involved Tuskegee Institute and Hillman College.
B. College football teams did not become integrated until after World War I.
C. The growth of intercollegiate football was very smooth and trouble free.
D. Very few football players were hurt or killed in the early years of the 20th century because football had not developed into a violent, physical sport.
E. All of the above

Answer: E

In 1895 William Morgan develop this game.
Volleyball
This football organization was formed in 1920.
American Professional Football Association
This media developed as the result of telegraphs, radio, television and the fans love of sport.
Sports Journalism
After __ professional football enjoyed enormous growth.
WWII
___ was the first African American heavyweight champion, reigning form 1908-1914.
Jack Johnson
The NCAA was formed to enforce eligibility rules , but in _ they revolutionized the game of football with the forward pass.
1910
A athlete would play for one school and then attend another under an assumed name
tramp
Which of the following made the game of football into a devastating contact sport that could kill and maim in 1905
Flying Wedge
Which of these listed below are NOT a famous football coach in the early 1900s?
Jim Thorpe
At the turn of the century (1900’s) football was the most popular sport on college campuses
False
Basketball
Was invented by Dr. James A. Naismith at Springfield College and was an instant success
Theodore Roosevelt
Called a meeting of leading football coaches to reform the game and was concerned about the incidence of injury and death in football
Jackie Robinson was a superb baseball player and track and field star at the University of Southern California (USC).
False
Mildred “Babe” Didrikson Zaharias is recognized as the greatest woman athlete in the first half of the 20th century.
True
A history and philosophy of sport and physical education
A. American underwent rapid change in areas of technology, modernization, demographics, and philosophy
B. American moved from an agrarian economy to an urban industrial economy
C. Mass production of sports equipment occurred
D. All of the above

Answer: D

Which of the following is true?
A. Baseball was not a popular sport in African -American communities during the 19th Century.
B. The St. Louis Black Stockings and the Cuban Giants were charter members of the National League.
C. In 19th Century America, racial segregation was found most everywhere, including athletic teams.
D. The International Baseball League encouraged white baseball teams to sign and play “Colored Players.”
E. All of the above are true

Answer: C

With regard to football, which of the following is true?
A. American football gradually evolved from rugby and soccer; these two sports were played at Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Rutgers and Columbia.
B. Walter Camp replaced the rugby “scrummage” with the line of scrimmage.
C. Walter Camp determined that football would be played with 11 athletes on a team and each athlete became a “specialist” and was assigned a specific position, a characteristic of modern sport.
D. All of the above.
E. B and C only

Answer: D

Amateurism developed in the 1860s and 1870s because upper class athletes in America, like their British Counterparts refused to compete against middle class and lower class athletes
True
Rowing was a popular sport in the early to mid-1800s.
True
Track and field development in America was strongly influenced by Scottish immigrants who staged the Caledonian Games in the 1850s.
True
The New York Athletic Club was formed to promote the growth of baseball.
False
One of the movements in American sport during the 1800s was amateurism.
True
The “father of American football” was Walter Camp.
True
Early American football was a violent sport, which is a characteristic of the way football is played today.
True
The first collegiate football game was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers and Princeton.
True
Baseball
A. was played as “rounder’s” or “town ball” as early as 1834 at Harvard.
B. was very popular in the New York area by 1860.
C. tried to organize on several occasions in order to set up rules and a governing body.
D. The Cincinnati Red Stockings were among the first baseball teams in America.
E. All of the above

Answer: E

Cricket
A. was an English ball game and was more popular than baseball between 1840-1855.
B. it was played primarily by English immigrants but not easily accepted by Americans.
C. was hard to play and was highly organized which were characteristics of modern sport. D. was closely associated with gambling which was distasteful to Americans.
E. All of the above

Answer: E

Baseball
A. has its origin during the colonial period.
B. did not become popular in America until the early to mid-1800s.
C. initially was not considered a “manly activity” because it was generally considered a game for children.
D. All of the above.
E. B only.

Answer: D

Characteristics associated with the development of modern sport include
A. establishment of the New York Association for the Improvement of the Breed(NYAIB).
B. the race between Sir Henry and Eclipse.
C. publishing the American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine.
D. All of the above.
E. C only.

Answer: D

Horse racing
A. was a popular sport during the 19th century.
B. appealed to all social classes.
C. was more popular in the south than in the north.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

As sport developed during the nineteenth-century
A. it was generally agreed that playful recreations in the early 1800s tended toward games and less competitive activities, while the concept of competitive sport as we know it today became more prevalent during the late 1800s.
B. sports for girls became very popular in the early 1800s but declined after the Civil War.
C. soccer was brought to America by German mercenaries who fought for the North.
D. All of the above.

Answer: A

With regard to Muscular Christianity, which of the following is true?
A. participation in sporting activities implied that those who engaged in competition were making an effort to be a good Christian.
B. Bishop Fraser, Thomas Hughes, Charles Kingsley and Charles Wordsworth are given credit for developing Muscular Christianity.
C. one of the most influential arguments in support of Muscular Christianity was presented in the famous book, Tom Brown’s School Days (1857) by Thomas Hughes. This book was very popular in England and America.
D. All of the above.
E. B and C only.

Answer: D

Which of the following is true? Muscular Christianity
A. was developed during the 1800s in England and had a positive effect on the popularity of sport in America.
B. believed that physical weakness was unnatural because it reflected moral and spiritual weakness.
C. believed that the “body was a temple” and believed that Christians were obligated to care for and develop one’s physical being.
D. believed that there was something good and godly about brute strength and power.
E. All of the above.

Answer: E

Which of the following is true? Muscular Christianity
A. was developed in Germany in the 1800s.
B. associated godliness and morality with physical weakness. C. believed that physical strength was a sign of moral and spiritual corruption.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above

Answer: E

Which of the following is true? Throughout the 19th century
A. Americans became less resistant to the idea that adults could use their “spare time” for recreational play and sport.
B. America experienced a cultural revolution and sport changed along with everything else.
C. the rise of muscular Christianity was a positive force in the development of sport and physical education.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

The Metaphysical Club
A. was composed of intellectuals who believed that metaphysical inquiry was by far the best way to determine reality. B. was composed of intellectuals at Harvard University who sought to undermine traditional metaphysical beliefs; they were opposed to metaphysics
C. was a group of Harvard athletes who studied philosophy and awarded the “scholar-athlete” trophy to the best Harvard athlete each year.
D. was formed by a group of professors at Yale who provided students with instruction in metaphysical inquiry, specifically as it relates to the philosophical position of the body.
E. None of the above

Answer: B

Charles Darwin
A. had a profound impact on science and philosophy.
B. wrote “The Making of Civilization” and “Evolution of the Human Race.”
C. wrote “The Origin of the Species” and “The Descent of Man.”
D. A and C only.
E. A and B only

Answer: A and D?????????

During the Nineteenth-Century, what two major philosophical movements developed in the United States?
A. Transcendentalism and Pragmatism
B. Rationalism and Realism
C. Pragmatism and Puritanism D. Manifest Destiny and Imperialism
E. None of the above.

Answer: A

Technology and inventions impacted sport by which of the following?
A. Mass transit enabled large numbers of “fans” to ride electric streetcars to professional baseball games.
B. Developed artificial ice for skating rinks.
C. Developing golf balls which traveled farther and necessitated the lengthening of golf courses. D. Using cameras to record athletes and sporting events.
E. All of the above.

Answer: A and E??????????

Which of the following is FALSE? During the 19th century
A. America experienced minimal change in the areas of technology,modernization, demographics, and philosophy. B. America moved from an agrarian economy to an urban industrial economy.
C. advances in communication provided access to large amounts of information.
D. mass production of sports equipment occurred.
E. All of the above.

Answer: A

What early American politician enjoyed horse racing?
A. George Washington
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. James Madison
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

The Puritans in New England
A. were not inclined to participate in playful activities.
B. believed that all men were corrupted by original sin.
C. the control of both emotions and behavior were the keys to salvation.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

With regard to the attitudes that the colonists had toward sport, which of the following is true?
A. Their attitudes toward sport depended upon which region of Europe they were from.
B. Religion had a profound impact on the attitudes the colonists had toward sport.
C. A and B.
D. None of the above.
E. All of the above

Answer: C

According to the Puritans in New England, recreation
A. always tempts the soul away from the Church and leads it into the Devil’s hands.
B. could be used to refresh the body and the spirit so one could work and pray better.
C. got in the way of the newly developing industrial state and should be abolished.
D. should be against the law, and to this end the “Blue Laws” were written.
E. could not be done without drinking, so play and recreation were banned.

Answer: B

Puritan ideas toward work and play
A. were strongly influenced by the rise of the merchant class and the industrial revolution.
B. were literal translations from passages in the Bible.
C. existed only in the United States and not in England.
D. controlled the thoughts and actions only of the upper classes in both England and the United States.
E. B and D

Answer: A

The “work ethic” means
A. live hard, die young, and leave a good-looking corpse.
B. time is money, idle hands are the devil’s workshop, and blue Monday’s must be enforced C. no drinking on Sunday.
D. to be seen working hard is a sign of one’s inner moral goodness.
E. morality is a function of your wealth rather than how much one goes to church.

Answer: D

Boxers enjoyed excellent medical supervision and often retired from boxing very wealthy and went on to live long and happy lives.
False
Southern gentlemen and plantation owners were often more observers and producers of sport rather than participants.
True
Shooting matches as well as boxing were popular sports in the South.
True
The first horse races were a quarter mile long and were often held in the streets.
True
The Southern gentlemen who lived in Virginia were the only group in the American South to oppose the practice of sports and games.
False
Gambling, especially on sporting events, reflected the core element of 17th and 18th century gentry values.
True
Sport in the South during the 17th century was no different than anywhere else in America
False
Sport in New England during the colonization of America was influenced mostly by French Catholics.
False
Sabbatarianism is the position that playful pursuits are not appropriate on Sundays.
True
Name 3 activities that were accepted to the Puritans
Hunting, Fishing, Walking
Slaves were used in sports as _(s) and __(s).
Jockey, Boxer
Name 2 reasons the south was favorable towards sport
Nice weather, no puritans
This mid Atlantic group from Pennsylvania New England believe that play was acceptable_ (s).
Quaker
Practice of keeping the Sabbath that reflected the Puritans idea of work and rest
Sabbaterism
Practice of keeping the Sabbath that reflected the Puritans idea of work and rest
Lacrosse
This new England group was against play: ___(s)
Puritan
Upperclassmen raised in the __had the requirement of social and athletic training of riding, dancing, fencing, and conversation
South
New England frowned on sports, believing that “”idle hands are the devils”
Workshop
Many of the colonist left England because of religious
Persecution
At which Olympics was there a terrorist threat to blow up a nuclear reactor during the games? There were also some peaceful protests to call attention to the plight of the Aborigines.
2000 Sydney
During the later part of the 1990s, some members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) were accused of taking money and other inducements from cities bidding for the Olympic Games in exchange for their vote.
True
The social theme of the Barcelona Olympiad was a “homophobia-free Olympics.”
False
The International Olympic Committee made the decision to stagger the Olympic Games on a two-year rotation instead of a four-year rotation. By doing this, the IOC would be able to produce the Olympic Games (summer or winter games) every two years.
True
The two most serious problems facing the Olympic Games after 1992 are drugs and the commercialization of the Olympics.
True
American Tanya Harding made a historic comeback and won 3 bronze medals in speed skating.
False
The 100th Olympiad was held in the birth place of the Olympics, Athens.
False
During 2004, some NBA players refused to be considered for the American basketball team because of their concern about terrorist attacks during the Athens Olympics.
True
The image of the IOC has never been tarnished by scandals and corruption charges.
False
During the 1994 Winter Olympics at Lillehammer
A. The social theme of protecting the environment was continued. The Lillehammer Winter Olympics were called the “white-green” games based on the respect for the environment.
B. Nancy Kerrigan, a U.S. figure skater, was attacked by a thug who tried to cripple her in order to knock her out of the Olympic trials used to select America’s Olympic athletes.
C. Bonnie Blair, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin won three gold medals in speed skating.
D. The Russian Olympic team won more medals than the American team.
E. All of the above.

Answer: E

During the Atlanta Olympics
A. American Carl Lewis won the long jump bringing his Olympic gold medal count to nine B. The Cuban baseball team defeated the United States and Japan to win the gold medal; Japan won the silver medal while the Americans had to settle for the Bronze. C. In women’s gymnastics, Keri Strugg of the United States turned in a courageous performance while injured and by doing so, the U.S. women captured the team championship. D. Sprinter Michael Johnson from the United States, wearing gold track shoes, won the gold medal in both the 200 and 400 meter, the first man to ever achieve this amazing feat.
E. All of the above.

Answer: E

The 1998 Winter Olympics had which of the following three themes
A. Make a profit, serve world peace, advance the aims of the host country. B. Participation of children, honor nature, promote peace and friendship.
C. Unite North and South Korea, end the Cold War, make a profit. D. Secure 100 commercial sponsors, out with the old-in with the new, peace to all
E. None of the above.

Answer: B

Which of the following is true? During the 1996 Atlanta Olympiad
A. The world celebrated 100 years of the modern Olympic Games.
B. Over 30,000 security personnel were on hand in Atlanta to protect athletes and spectators.
C. The Torch Relay passed through much of the United States and was used to symbolize the Olympic Spirit.
D. Atlanta was the ideal city to host the Olympic Games because the IOC believed that the good people of Atlanta come from many ethnic backgrounds as do Olympic athletes. Like the Olympians, the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (ACOG) worked with the Atlanta community and captured the spirit of Olympics.
E. All of the above.

Answer: E

Which of the following is true?
A. During the later part of the 1990s, some members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) were accused of taking money and other inducements from cities bidding for the Olympic Games in exchange for their vote. B. The image of the IOC was tarnished by scandals and corruption charges.
C. Juan Antonio Samaranch, President of the IOC resigned amid accusations of corruption.
D. All of the above.
E. A and B only.

Answer: E

The 1998 Winter Olympics had which of the following three themes
A. Make a profit, serve world peace, advance the aims of the host country. B. Participation of children, honor nature, promote peace and friendship.
C. Unite North and South Korea, end the Cold War, make a profit. D. Secure 100 commercial sponsors, out with the old-in with the new, peace to all
E. None of the above.

Answer: B

Which of the following is true?
A. The global political situation leading up to the 2004 Athens Olympiad was volatile; terrorist activity was especially horrible in Israel, Iraq, Afghanistan, Russia, and Spain.
B. In 2004, the wars, famine, and AIDS epidemic continued to devastate Africa, especially the Sudan and in Somalia.
C. Prior to the start of the 2004 Athens Olympics, Greek authorities arrested members of the Greek terrorist group, 17 November that had murdered British and American diplomats.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

Several American athletes hired lawyers to represent them when they were not selected for the United States Olympic Team in 2000
True
The poor countries of the world will almost always fail to win a medal at the Olympics because they do not have the money or resources to train their athletes or send them to world competitions to compete and prepare for the Olympics.
True
During opening ceremonies of the Sydney Olympics, athletes from North and South Korea marched as a single group under the banner KOREA.
True
Which of the following is false?
A. Since 1984, cities that have hosted the Olympic Games have turned a profit.
B. During the Sydney Olympics, NBC broadcast live Olympic coverage to the USA and Mexico
C. The IOC derives a great deal of money by selling television rights. D. The Sydney Olympics was also known as the internet Olympics. E. Technology was used extensively in the Sydney Olympics by athletes and coaches.

Answer: B

When Mexico City was awarded the 1968 Olympics, many people questioned the decision because Mexico City is below sea level.
False
The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) eventually bowed to political pressure from the White House and voted not to send the American Olympic team to the Moscow Olympiad.
True
A few days after the Munich massacre, Israel sent warplanes to bomb 10 Arab guerrilla camps
True
Prior to the Opening Ceremonies of the 1968 Mexico City Olympiad, more then 150,000 Mexican students protested and rioted in Mexico City in part over the government’s decision to spend millions of dollars on an athletic festival when many social programs to help the poor were underfunded.
True
During the 1952 Helsinki Olympiad, the Soviet Union and the United States were engaged in the Cold War which was detrimental to the Olympics as athletes from these two nations became “soldiers of sport” and were instruments of political propaganda.
True
For the first time since 1912, Russia sent their Olympic team to London in 1948 where they dominated the American and British athletes.
False
The 1984 Los Angeles Olympiad was boycotted by the Soviet Union, however, China sent their team which probably “saved” the future of the Olympic Games.
True
The host city of the 1976 Winter Olympics, Innsbruck agreed to host the Winter Olympics because the original host city, Denver, withdrew.
True
During the 1976 Montreal Olympics
A. the United States captured the unofficial Olympic title for the first time in 12 years, finishing ahead in the medal count. The Soviet Union finished second and East Germany came in third. B. Montreal spent in excess of over $1 billion dollars to produce the 1976 Olympic Games.
C. Bruce Jenner of the United States won the decathlon and Nadia Comaneci from Romania scored a number of “10” in the gymnastic competition which was a first in Olympic history. D. All of the above

Answer: D

As a result of the Munich Massacre, Olympic teams from Egypt, Kuwait,and Syria packed up and departed for home. American swimming sensation Mark Spitz who won 7 gold medals also did not feel safe and returned to the United States.
True
Which of the following is true of the Munich Olympiad?
A. During the 1972 Munich Olympiad, the Cold War mentality that permeated East-West relations along with the political turmoil in the Middle East, eventually was to become an issue that effected the Munich Olympics
B. Fortunately, the IOC was able to control much of the potential political problems that surfaced during Munich and thereby stop attempts by political terrorists.
C. The nations that held membership in the Supreme African Sports Council welcomed Rhodesia and South Africa back into the Olympic Games without any pre-set conditions.
D. The athletes from the Arab world and athletes from Israel mingled about freely because for the first time that anyone
could remember, there was peace between these two rivals.
E. All of the above.

Answer: A

American athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos demonstrated their support of the black power movement during the medal ceremony at the 1960 Rome Olympics.
False
During the 1964 Winter Olympics at Innsbruck
A. there was a major problem due to overwhelming amounts of snow that made it difficult for the athletes and spectators.
B. there were over 1,000 women athletes competing.
C. the United States once again won more gold medals that any other country.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: B

The 1960 Winter Olympics
A. were held in Squaw Valley, California.
B. witnessed the American ice hockey team beat both the Russians and Canadians to win the gold medal.
C. Walt Disney handled all of the ceremonial activities.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: D

During the Winter Olympics at Cortina in 1956
A. America’s Olympic team has their best showing in years in men’s skiing.
B. beat the Russians once again to claim the gold medal
in ice hockey.
C. the American men dominated figure skating while the American women won both the gold and silver medals in the women’s figure skating competition.
D. All of the above.
E. A and B only

Answer: C

The 1952 Winter Olympics
A. were held in Lake Placid.
B. were the first time the Soviet Union won the team championship.
C. Richard “Dick” Button from the United States won the gold medal in men’s figure skating while his teammate, Andrea Meade Lawrence won the gold medal in the women’s giant slalom.
D. All of the above.
E. A and B only.

Answer: C

During the 1952 Helsinki Olympiad
A. the global political situation was not very friendly between the United States and the Soviet Union.
B. the media made reference to the Olympics as the “Cold War of Sports” because it was the first time that the Russians and Americans would meet in the Olympics since 1912.
C. athletes from the Soviet Union were not permitted to associate with athletes from other countries and were housed in their own private Olympic Village which was close to a Russian naval base.
D. the IOC had to cope with boycotts, threats, an political propaganda.
E. All of the above

Answer: E

The Vth Winter Olympics
A. were held in Denver in 1948.
B. was void of scandals of any kind.
C. gave the American Ice Hockey Team win the gold medal.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.

Answer: E

Which of the following are false?
A. The Baron de Coubertin and all of the ensuing IOC presidents believed that the Olympic Games have the potential to promote peace and international understanding and thereby help to avoid wars.
B. In 1936, the IOC selected Tokyo as host city for the 1940 Olympiad but the Tokyo Olympiad never took place because of World War II.
C. Since Tokyo was involved in war, the IOC then awarded the Olympic Games to Helsinki, however, Finland was invaded by the Soviet Union in 1939 and had to bow out.
D. None of the above are false
E. All of the above are false

Answer: D

Less then a year after the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm, Jim Thorpe was accused of playing semipro baseball which he admitted to. He was stripped of his medals and trophies by James E. Sullivan of the United States.
True
During the 1912 Stockholm Olympics, equestrian competition and the modern pentathlon were held for the first time.
True
During the 1904 marathon in St. Louis, it was discovered that American Fred Lorz, who had claimed first place, had actually ridden in a car for 11 miles, got out and “Claimed” first place!
True
The Zappas family provided the Greeks with a substantial sum of money to hold(revive) Olympic Games in Greece. However, the Zappas family insisted that their games were only available to Greeks; no foreign athletes were allowed to compete.
True
During the 1896 Athens Olympiad, only first and second place finishers received awards.
True
The Olympic Games are always held; World War I and II did not stop the Olympics.
False
During the 1908 London Olympiad, Ralph Rose a shot putter who immigrated to America from Ireland and proudly carried the American flag in the opening ceremony refused to “dip” the flag as it passed by the reviewing stand where IOC officials and King Edward V of England were seated proclaiming that “This flag dips before no earthly king”! This act has withstood the test of time and tradition dictates that the American Olympic team never dips it’s flag as a sign of respect during opening ceremonies.
True
The first Winter Olympics were held in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
True
Paavo Nurmi was one of the greatest shot putters Finland ever produced.
False
Women’s swimming was an official event in the 1912 Olympics.
True
It was always Coubertin’s intent to demand that the first Olympic Games of the modern era must be held in Paris – no other city was ever considered by Coubertin; Athens was never considered by Coubertin as the proper city to host the first Olympic Games of the modern era.
False
The Nazis
A. Modeled PE program after the work of F. Jahn
B. Sought parallels between themselves and the ancient greeks
C. Believed strongly in the value of sport
D. Are given credit for “politicizing” to a high degree the Olympic Games
E. All of the above

Answer: E

Adolph Hitler
A. Wrote Mein Kampf
B. believed that the germans were the highest species of humanity on earth
C. blamed the jews for all the evils in the world
D. all of the above

Answer: D

With regard to the 1936 Berlin Olympiad, Adolph Hitler was
A. determined that the 1936 Olympiad be the best ever
B. opposed as much as he could participation by Jews and people of color in the games
C. the man most responsible for a possible boycott by the americans
D. able to convince Avery Brundage that the germans were indeed observing the letter and spirit of olympicism.
E. all of the above

Answer: E

The Los Angeles Olympic Games in 1932 saw Mildred “Babe” Didrikson of the U.S. dominate women’s track and field.
true
The Stockholm Olympiad
A. was the last olympiad for he Russians until 1952
B. featured Jim Thorpe, an american indian who broke 4 world records.
C. was almost boycotted by the american AAU
D. was not free of international political turmoil
E. all of the above

Answer: E

The 1908 London Games
A. saw an enormous athletic rivalry develop between the american and British teams
B. was immersed in political turmoil, the British accused the americans and the french of being poor sports
C. featured tug of war that was an official event. The americans lost and immediately accused the British team of cheating because they wore special boots
D. all of the above

Answer: D

The 1904 St. Louis Olympiad
A. was first awarded to chicago, however, president roosevelt and james sullivan wanted the olympics in St. Louis and effectively co-opted the olympics from the IOC who sadly re-voted and sent the olympics to St. Louis
B. was largely an american event because few countries sent athletes
C. included anthropology days as an official event along with a track and field meet between thirteen year old school boys
D. was a mere sideshow that was over shadowed by the Louisiana Purchase exposition and was a bitter disappointment to baron de coubertin who did not attend.
E. all of the above

Answer: E

During the Paris Olympiad of 1900
During the Paris Olympiad, golf, polo, rugby, and cricket were new sports. In addition, women athletes made their first appearance competing in croquet and tennis.
Which of the following is true during the Athen’s Olympiad?
Funds were raised to build the Olympic Stadium from private donations, the sale of postal stamps, and commemorative medals. The modern olympic games were commercial from the very beginning.
Baron de Coubertin was not in favor of allowing women to compete in the Olympic Games.
True
The modern Olympic Games were started primarily by Coubertin in order to
Revitalize the youth of France which he believed were not “manly”
The impact of the modern Olympics is apparent in which of the following areas?
A. cultural influences
B. political influences
C. acting as a social force
D. all of the above

Answer: D

The first modern Olympiad was held in what year and city?
1896 in Athens
The Modern Olympic Games
A. were established because of the dedication and hard work of Dr. William Perry Brooks of Great Britain and Baron Pierre de Fredy de Coubertin of France. However, it is Coubertin who is given credit as the Founder of the Modern Olympic games.
B. have evoked into one of the most significant social forces of the twentieth century
C. have preserved and endured even though politicians and others have from time to time co-opted the olympic games for reason that were self serving and contrary to the spirit of Olympism.
D. are organized under the auspices of the international olympic committee (IOC) which awards the summer olympiad and the winter olympics to a city, never a country.
E. all of the above

Answer: E

When athletes were caught purposefully cheating they were
Assessed fines
Who wrote the epic poems, The Iliad and The Odyssey?
Homer
The Olympic Games were dedicated to Athena, the chief deity of the Greeks.
False
Which Greek city developed both physical education and “high” culture to a level that most scholars claim has not been achieved since?
Athens
Sparta, like Athens, believed in “education through the physical” and appreciated the cultural contributions of the Athenians.
False
Which of the following is NOT considered a Panhellenic Game?
Lykourgos
Socrates and Plato
were consummate philosophers and participated in athletic competitions
The Olympics began in BC
The Olympics began in 776 BC
How long were the first Olympic Games?
5 days
__ women participated in gymnastics and rigorous physical fitness programs.
Sparta women