Speech Midterm

Which kind of skills to employers value the most?
communication
If you enter in a conversation about public issues that matter to you, this makes you a ?
engaged citizen
What was the necessary tool for the greeks for settling arguments, determining public policy, and establishing laws.
oratory
The ancient Greeks used the term __________ oratory to describe a speech that was delivered on a special occasion, such as a wedding.
epideictic
__________, a philosophical scholar, divided the process of preparing for a speech into five parts, called the canons of rhetoric.
Aristotle
The canon of rhetoric that deals with selecting information to construct your arguments is __________.
Invention
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In ____________, a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery.
Public Speaking
The process of transforming thoughts into messages for the purpose of delivering them to an audience is called ___________.
Encoding
_____________ reminds us that successful communication can never be divorced from the concerns and expectations of others.
Context
When an audience interprets and assigns meaning to a speaker’s message, that process is referred to as____________.
Decoding
Interference or barriers to the communication process are known as __________.
Noise
The verbal or nonverbal listener response to a message is called _______.
Feedback
___________ is the mutual understanding of a message between a speaker and audience.
Shared Meaning
What is a rhetorical situation?
A circumstance that calls for public response
Which of the following is not a characteristic of cultural intelligence?
Using terms that are unique to another culture to win audience support
__________ is the step in the speechmaking process when the speaker studies the potential listeners through techniques such as interviews and questionnaires.
Analyzing the audience
When you have reached the step of __________ in the speechmaking process, you need to decide whether you are going to inform or persuade your audience.
Determining the speech purpose
The following statement is an example of the _______ of a speech:“To inform my audience about the reasons to start a retirement fund.
Specific Purpose
In the speechmaking process, the __________ identifies the speech’s central idea in a single sentence.
Thesis Statement
__________ are the primary ideas or key arguments that make claims in support of the thesis of your speech.
Main Points
__________ provides the framework upon which to arrange the elements of your speech in support of your thesis.
Outlining the speech
To ensure that your speech flows smoothly from one thought to another among and within the coordinate points of your outline, use __________.
Transition Statements
The purpose of a presentation aid is to __________.
Help your audience better understand your points
As a general rule, how many times should you practice delivering your speech?
About six times
Non-native English speakers should practice their speech with an audio or video recorder to make sure they __________.
Can identify trouble spots in articulation and pronunciation
It’s always scary to speak in front of others, but you just have to remember that everyone is human. Nobody wants you to fail; they’re not waiting on you to mess up.†This quote refers to which reason for public speaking anxiety (PSA)?
feeling different
Which of the following can contribute to public speaking anxiety (PSA)?
Being the center of attention
Because of pre-preparation anxiety, individuals may __________.
Be reluctant to begin planning for a speech.
Individuals whose public speaking anxiety begins when the reality of the situation sets in are experiencing __________.
Pre-performance anxiety
This quote best illustrates which stage of public speaking anxiety? “Anxiety does not really hit me until the few minutes left right before I speak.”
Performance Anxiety
The first step to achieving confidence in public speaking should be __________.
Preparing and Practicing
The following quote best represents which step for dealing with anxiety? “Knowing your material is crucial! The worst anxiety comes when you feel unprepared.”
Preparing and Practicing
__________ is a technique a speaker can use to battle negative ideas that increase speech anxiety.
Modifying thoughts and attitudes
If English isn’t your first language, public speaking __________.
Gives you valuable exposure to spoken english
Which technique have speech communication researchers developed to increase positive expectations associated with speechmaking?
Visualizing success
Stress-control breathing and meditation are examples of __________.
Relaxation techniques
Which of the following would not be considered a benefit of moving around as you deliver your speech?
It helps people agree with your arguments
Thinking of public speaking as a __________ instead of as a performance can significantly increase your confidence.
Learning opportunity
Speech coach John Robert Colombo states that the best way to work out your fear of speaking is to overwork it. This advice reflects which method of dealing with speech anxiety?
Preparation and Practice
Practicing the mental exercise of visualizing success will help you accomplish what?
Strengthen your positive attitudes and expectations for speech making
Which of the following is the term for the continual flow of communication between the speaker and the listener?
Feedback loop
Listening is defined as
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and interpreting messages
Which of the following is not a factor that influences what we listen to and what we ignore?
We pay attention to speakers who are similar to us
People are more likely to pay attention to information if it __________.
Strikes them as important
In __________ communication, listeners practice empathy and speakers practice collaboration.
Dialogic
__________ listening distractions include daydreaming, distress over an argument, or fatigue.
Internal
Which of the following is notan internal listening distraction?
Traffic Noises
A(n) __________ listener disregards what the speaker has to say or prematurely decides that he or she won’t like what the speaker has to say.
Defensive
Which of the following is not a suggestion for helping diverse audiences understand you?
Use similes and metaphors to illustrate your message
Strategies for active listening include __________.
All of the options are correct
Sometimes the meaning of a message is not always in the words. Also consider what the speaker might be trying to convey through __________.
Nonverbal Cues
When an individual is able to look for flaws in arguments and resist claims that have no supporting evidence, he or she is utilizing __________ thinking.
Critical
A critical thinker should __________.
All of the options are correct
The statement “All politicians are crooks” is an example of __________.
Overgeneralization
__________ is not a form of constructive criticism.
Judging the speaker as a person
The Greek word for “character” is __________.
Ethos
Which of the following is not a characteristic of positive ethos?
Attractiveness
Researchers have found that speaker credibility is based on a speaker’s __________.
Grasp of the subject, sound reasoning and honesty
As you plan your speech, anticipate that audience members will hold a range of judgments or standards of what’s good and bad in life and of what’s important to them, which are also known as __________.
Values
An ethical speaker is conscious of __________ values.
the speaker’s and audience’s
Which of the following would be considered a terminal value by the psychologist Milton Rokeach?
Happiness
Our right to speak freely is limited by types of speech that are considered illegal, including __________.
All options are correct
When a speaker makes audience members feel worthy and honored, the speaker is using which rule for ethical speaking?
Dignity
Speakers who act as if everyone shares their point of view and points of reference are engaging in __________.
Ethnocentrism
__________ is not a way for speakers to display respect for the audience.
Addressing issues only from the speakers point of view.
When a speaker uses another person’s information as his or her own, he or she is __________.
Plagiarizing
Simply changing or rearranging words from a source without acknowledgment is __________.
Patch-write Plagiarism
In order to avoid plagiarism in a speech, you must __________.
Inform the audience of the author of any information that is not common knowledge
Acknowledging your sources of information during a speech __________.
Can demonstrate your trustworthiness
What are copyright laws designed to protect?
Intellectual Property
When you perform audience analysis before preparing a speech, you hope to gain which of the following?
Idea’s about your audience’s attitudes toward your topic
If you consider the interests of your audience and how they might want to hear the information you are offering, you are taking a(n) __________ approach
Audience Centered
One’s general evaluation of teaching art and music in schools as either good or bad is determined by one’s __________.
Attitudes
Whether one supports the theory of evolution depends on one’s __________.
Beliefs
A speech about whether a governing body has the right to determine the life or death of a convicted criminal addresses the listeners’ core __________.
Values
When your audience knows little or nothing about your topic, you should __________.
Stick to the basics including background information on the topic.
If you are faced with a listener who expresses negative attitudes toward your topic, you should __________.
Find areas of agreement
You can create a sense of identification between yourself and the audience by __________.
All of the options are correct
When a speaker carefully considers the audience’s expectations and emotions toward a speech event, the speaker is analyzing the __________.
Occasion
The individuals whom the speaker is most likely to influence in the direction that he or she seeks are known as __________.
Target audience members
Age, gender, religion, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status are examples of audience __________.
Demographics
Cultures that do not emphasize the needs of the group are known as __________.
Individualistic Cultures
A(n) __________ culture values the opinions of the family over those of the individual.
Collectivistic
Which cultures generally accept the most variation in individual behavior?
Low-Uncertainty avoidance cultures
Techniques for learning about your audience include all of the following except __________.
Using stereotypes
If you are assigned to speak about the same topic more than once, you must __________.
Adapt to the rhetorical situation
A student states that she will inform her audience about the environment. She has identified her __________.
General speech purpose
__________ speeches help audience members to understand topics, ideas, or concepts.
Informative
Which of the following is not listed in the text as a category of informative topics?
Controversies
Speeches that aim to change a specific behavior are __________.
Persuasive
Commencement speeches or acceptance speeches are examples of __________.
Special occasion speeches
Which of the following is not a reason for choosing a topic that relates to a personal interest?
No research will be necessary
“Exercise—elliptical trainers—personal trainers—weight training” is an example of __________.
Word association
Which of the following is not a brainstorming technique?
Rationalizing
Which of the following is a brainstorming method that can help you visualize related ideas?
Topic Mapping
A(n) __________ search offers alphabetized general topics that are useful for brainstorming word associations.
Directory
Researching your speech topic by using a library’s online portal will ensure that your sources are __________.
Credible
__________ will answer the following question: “Precisely what is it about my topic that I want the audience to learn, do, reconsider, or agree with?”
The specific speech purpose
“Investing in a hybrid vehicle can help the environment.” This sentence is an example of a(n) __________.
Thesis statement
Looking forward to learning and bringing a sense of enthusiasm to your presentation are advantages of choosing a(n) __________ speech.
Personal Interest
What is the function of supporting material?
All of the options are correct
When used in a speech, which of the following make ideas, items, or events more concrete?
Examples
Which of the following types of examples offer a single illustration of a speech point?
Brief
“You may save a life if you donate your organs.” This type of supporting material is known as a(n) __________.
Hypothetical Example
Why are stories often a powerful means of conveying a message?
They have universal appeal to diverse listeners
An environmental scientist’s eyewitness account of an event such as the Gulf Coast oil spill is a form of __________.
Expert Testimony
Most people need evidence in the form of __________ before they will accept someone else’s claims or position.
Facts and Statistics
Which of the following does not represent a fact?
It rains too much in seattle
When including statistics as supporting material in a speech, it is important to __________.
choose statistics selectively so as to not overwhelm the audience and to support your message in a compelling way
Frequency is best used in a speech to accomplish which of the following goals?
To help listeners understand a trend
Differences or similarities of magnitude between things can be best expressed through __________.
Percentages
When you want to inform your audience of the most frequently occurring average temperature in the year 2010, you would utilize which kind of average?
Mode
When a speaker makes the unethical choice to include only statistics that prove his or her point and purposefully omits competing information, he or she is __________.
Cherry Picking
When your speech relies heavily on statistical information, considering presenting it with __________.
Tables graphs and other visual aides
Audience members will accept your supporting material as legitimate only if they believe that it is derived from sources that are __________.
Credible
Which of Aristotle’s canons of rhetoric refers to the process of selecting information that will be used in a presentation?
Invention
Original research and material that you personally gathered are examples of ______ for information in your speech.
Primary Sources
A textbook is considered which of the following types of sources?
Secondary
When you plan your research strategy, you should remember that __________.
You need to substantiate your thesis with material that is most likely to be accepted by the audience.
Which of the following sources provides the most in-depth detail and perspective through examples, stories, facts, and statistics?
Books
Which of the following sources have content that is evaluated by experts or scholars before it is published?
Refereed Journals
Which of the following sources contain journal-type entries maintained by individuals or groups?
Blogs
Which of the following is an example of a secondary source that summarizes knowledge on a specific topic or topics but whose information is found in original form elsewhere?
Encyclopedia
Where might you find ideas for introducing or concluding your speech or for illustrating points in the speech body?
In a poetry collection
Which of the following is a method by which a speaker collects primary information through face-to-face communication?
Interviewing
If you need an effective source of support for topics related to the attitudes, beliefs, and values of individuals, which of the following might you use?
Survey
How do you critically evaluate your secondary resources?
All of the options are correct
Which of the following is not necessary to include in a bibliography?
Address of the author
What is the easiest way to keep track of your potential sources as you are doing research?
Maintaining a working bibliography
eter makes up an eyewitness account to make his speech more believable. What is this an example of?
Fabrication
Which of the following is a potential problem you could have when using search engines such as Google or Yahoo!?
All of the options are correct
Which of the following is a way to overcome common Internet search engine pitfalls?
Start from your school’s library portal
Which of the following is an entry point into a large collection of research and reference materials reviewed by experts?
Library Portal
Which of the following statements about a virtual library is true?
Virtual Libraries are considered to be part of the deep web
Which of the following search engines is a virtual library that features high-quality information produced by scholars and vetted by information specialists?
Academic Info
The __________ refers to information that does not readily appear in general search engines.
Invisible web
When searching for credible sources on the Internet, be careful to distinguish between accurate information and data that has been misconstrued to be inaccurate or false, including __________.
All of the options are correct
An example of an individual search engine that compiles its own database of Web pages is __________.
All of the options are correct
Which of the following search engines can scan a variety of individual search engines simultaneously?
Meta-search engine
How do you locate a specialized search engine that is geared to your speech topic?
Type the topic term, “AND,” and “search engine.”
Which of the following is a searchable catalog of Web sites organized into categories and edited by a human being?
Library Portal
When advertisers pay search engine companies for a higher rank within search results, it is called __________.
Paid Placement
To search for an exact phrase on the Internet, you should __________.
Surround your phrase with quotation marks such as “white wine”
Which of the following is an example of a Boolean operator, placed between key words in a search to eliminate potential items that are unrelated to the search?
All of the options are correct
Using the keywords “exact phrase,” “at least one,” and “without” to filter your search is a method of __________.
Field Searching
Why is it important to credit the sources you use in your speech?
All of the options are correct
At which point in your speech should you credit material that was derived from someone else’s idea?
As you present the idea
Which of the following is not required when giving an oral citation of another person’s idea?
A complete bibliographic reference
Which of the following statements about source reliability is false?
A reliable source is always accurate
You are developing a speech on a topic you know little about. Which of the following would be the best approach to take when seeking sources of information?
Seek a variety of reliable sources to support your major points
What is a source qualifier?
A brief description of why a source is qualified to address your topic
Which of the following is an example of a source qualifier?
Second president of the United States
Which of the following strategies is most effective in helping listeners to better process a main point in your speech?
Previewing a claim before identifying it’s source
You are writing a speech about bird watching and need to show the reliability and credibility of one of your sources. Which of the following is least likely to accomplish your goal?
Including details about your source’s passion for scuba diving
It is not necessary to use a source qualifier when identifying which of the following sources?
None of the options are correct
Which of the following would not be considered plagiarism
Not including the source of a fact that is considered common knowledge
When are statistics unlikely to add credibility to claims you make in your speech?
When you do not tell listeners what the numbers actually mean.
A brief overview of another person’s ideas or theories is called a __________.
Summary
You are including an expert testimony in your speech and want your listeners to get a feeling for the way your source speaks. To accomplish this, you would choose which of the following?
Direct quotation
Which of the following is not necessary to include when orally citing a Weblog?
The name of the segment
For which of the following does a speaker decide how to organize main points?
Arrangement
Through which of the following processes can a speaker locate weaknesses in the argument or organization of his or her speech?
Outlining
__________ is a skill required for speeches that can also be a valuable life skill.
Organization
The structure of a speech follows which order of parts?
Introduction, Body, Conclusion
Which of the following express the key ideas and major themes of a speech?
Main points
When creating main points for a presentation, what should you do first?
Think about what you want to share
When a speaker makes fewer main points in a speech, the odds are greater for __________.
Keeping the audience’s attention
What could it mean if your speech contains too many main points?
The topic has not be sufficiently narrowed
What does stating the main points of your speech in parallel grammatical form accomplish?
It helps listenters retain the main points
Which of the following speech elements help speakers to substantiate or prove a thesis with examples, narratives, facts, or statistics?
Supporting points
How should supporting points usually be enumerated in an outline?
Indent them below the main points and identify them with capitol letters
n a written outline, ideas that are __________ are given equal weight and aligned parallel to each other; an idea that is __________ to another is given relatively less weight and indented below the more important points.
coordinate;subordinate
Which part of a speech should be the longest?
body
Which of the following is not a function of transitions?
to provide support
What are the words or phrases “similarly,” “likewise,” “just as,” “as a result,” and “in conclusion” all examples of?
Transitions
Which of the following is not a topic for an informative speech?
The cause and possible solutions of global warming
The goal of an informative speech is to __________.
increase listeners awareness and understanding by imparting knowledge
In order to present an effective informative speech, you must __________.
Gauge the audience’s informational needs
t is beneficial to incorporate __________ information in your presentation because audience members are generally seeking to learn something.
new
Which of the following is not a suggestion for helping your audience retain information?
Present simple information that is familiar to the audience.
A presentation about the War of 1812 would fall under the category of __________.
Speeches about events
If you give a speech to increase the audience’s understanding and awareness of a topic that is readily disputed, you have chosen to speak about a(n) __________.
Issue
When you attempt to clarify for the audience the theory of evolution, you are presenting a speech about a(n) __________.
Concept
A speech that defines something by explaining what it does is conveying information through what method?
operational definition
“Houdini was not supernatural” is an example of which type of definition?
Definition by negation
If you want your audience to understand an eating disorder, you might choose to convey this through __________, which will help the audience to visualize what you are talking about.
Description
Stripping furniture, beading jewelry, applying for a loan—these are topics for what kind of informative speech?
Demonstration
Which of the following titles most likely represents a speech of demonstration?
It’s easy as pie, how to make the perfect pastry
When presenting new information to an audience, you can help them grasp the concepts by using __________, which link the unfamiliar with the familiar.
analogies
If you want someone with a kinesthetic learning style to understand your presentation, you should make sure to __________.
Include an activity that will give them hands on experience