Any object that reinforces the speaker’s point visually or orally so the audience can better understand it is called a
Presentation aids are beneficial because it is said that a person learns more from ________ than from all of the other senses combined.
Karen wanted to show a picture of the area of the country she was discussing because she knew that people who simultaneously see something and hear about it remember ________ of the information.
As she thought about her presentation, Parul assumed the role of an audience member and considered not only what the audience members hear, but also what they would see in her presentation aids. Parul is demonstrating the concept of a ________ rhetorician.
Molly brought in her collection of Barbie dolls to enhance her presentation on toys that had been popular for more than 50 years. What type of presentation aid is Molly using?
Since he couldn’t bring in an actual 1960 Chevrolet Corvette, Michael bought a kit and built one to show the class. What type of presentation aid does this represent?
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The most common type of presentation aid is the ________ aid.
Kylie’s speech is on the digestive system and she created a presentation aid that showed the system in three colors with callout words that helped describe the system. Kylie has created a
In order for her audience to visualize the declining conditions of the school lunchroom, it would be best for Janette to use a ________ as her presentation aid.
According to the text, a typical map is designed to be read from a distance of no more than ________ feet.
Charlie wants to create a picture out of all of his statistical data. What type of presentation aid does Charlie need?
Which type of graph is best to use if a speaker wants to demonstrate data that covers an extensive period of time?
In order to create the most professional presentation, a speaker should consider using
To show her audience the chart she had created for her presentation, Natalie held up her notecard and passed it back and forth slowly in front of herself. What is the biggest principle Natalie violated when creating her presentation aid?
make it big enough for the audience to see
What rule should a speaker follow when using handouts?
don’t distribute handouts during the speech unless your audience must refer to them
A speech to ________ shares information with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of the concepts being presented.
According to the text, a speech to inform is based on three goals: to enhance understanding, to maintain interest, and to
Statistics show that most listeners remember about ________ of what they hear in a speech from the day before.
Jessie’s speech on the Washington Monument was well received by the class. His speech was about a(n)
Which of the following is an example of a speech about a procedure
Trish told the class how to prepare their first resume
A biographical speech is an example of a speech about
For Josiah’s speech on the history of the Olympic Games, he decided to talk about the political and economic impact of the games. He has organized his speech
Of all the types of informative speeches, speeches about ________ are considered the most abstract.
When a speaker’s message demonstrates ________, the ideas are expressed so that the listener understands the intended message accurately.
The art and science of teaching adults is known as
Kinesthetic learners learn best when they __________ while learning
Connie learns best when she watches a YouTube video about the topic. Connie can be described as a(n) ________ learner.
The text provides three strategies to help a speaker motivate an audience to listen. Which one of the following is NOT one of those strategies?
build in redundancy
To enhance audience recall, a speaker should make the key ideas short and simple. This is proven by studies that show people can hold about ________ pieces of information in their short-term memory.
Halle knows her speech will focus on encouraging audience members to join the Big Brothers/Big Sisters organization. Halle has determined her
A ________ search engine indexes World Wide Web information in a specific field.
Trisha is opening a flower shop and wants to set up a Web site so her customers can find her shop. What type of domain is typically associated with a company that sells products and services like Trisha?
After looking at the Web site, Jarret decided not to use it as a source because the site was unsigned and there was no sponsoring organization. Which criteria for evaluating an Internet resource does this represent?
In order to access an online database, you would typically have to
go to a library
Which source of supporting material requires the use of a card catalog?
Which of the following is NOT one of the five research strategies recommended in the text?
develop a final bibliography
A ________ bibliography consists of a list of promising potential sources a speaker might use.
Micala told her audience about the time she drove through the mountains and was frightened her car would fall off the edge. Her story is an example of a(n)
As she started her speech, Anne asked her audience to imagine what it would be like to swim across the English Channel like Diana Nyad. This is an example of a(n) ________ illustration.
A speaker would use a(n) ________ to make clear how something is done or why it exists in its present form.
Chad told his audience that the horse he was referring to was a type of race horse. This demonstrates what type of definition of the horse?
definition by classification
An analogy can best be described as a
The original collector and interpreter of data is known as the ________source
While she is not a veterinarian, Jan has had a dog her entire life and felt she was a good source on grooming tips for pets. If she was used as source, Jan’s information would be an example of
Marcus needs to discuss the Theory of Relativity in his speech to the science department. When choosing supporting material, he should focus on those things that provide ________ to give his audience specific examples of the theory.
According to the principle of ________, a speaker should discuss his or her most important points first.
Which organizational pattern is based on the principles of primacy, recency, or complexity?
Connor’s presentation details the battles of the Civil War from the earliest to the latest. Which type of organizational pattern best suits his topic?
By the end of Sicily’s speech, she wanted her audience to be able to describe the three campgrounds available to large groups within the Smoky Mountains. For this speech, Sicily should use the ________ organizational pattern.
Demonstrations that are based on how to do something—such as to change a car tire—should be organized using the ________ pattern.
Robert decided to compact his statistics for his presentation, so he started with broad statistics and progressed to precise statistics. What principle is Robert using to incorporate this supporting material for his speech?
Hypothetical illustrations and analogies are both examples of ________ that can be used as supporting material.
If a speaker places his or her most important supporting material at the end of the speech, then that speaker is using the principle of
Transitions, previews, and summaries are all examples of
The ________ preview is usually used in conjunction with the central idea within the introduction of the speech.
As she reached the conclusion of her speech, Trisha said “In summary, the lack of clean water is a detriment to everyone. I urge you to get out and vote tomorrow. Thank you.” Which part of her summary is an example of a transition?
A ________ is a recap of what has been said and provides additional exposure to the speaker’s ideas.
If a speaker says “Let’s review for just a moment,” that speaker is going to include a(n) ________ in the speech.
A speaker would use the mapping technique when he or she is
developing the outline
Hillary wrote “take a pause” and “walk to the right” on her speaking notes to remind her to do these things during her speech. These directions on the speaking notes are called
Which of the following would a speaker first do when developing a speech
select a topic
What is the correct order of events a speaker should go through when preparing a speech?
select and narrow the topic, determine the purpose, develop the central idea
Throughout every single phase of speech preparation, it is vital that a speaker take into consideration the
In order to come up with a topic for her speech, Stephanie took out a sheet of paper and wrote down everything she could think of over a three-minute period. What technique did Stephanie use?
Brainstorming, listening, reading, and scanning Web directories are all strategies used to
select a topic
Once a speaker has selected a topic, he or she must
determine a purpose
When a professor lectures to a classroom of students, it is an example of a speech to
Which of the following speakers is speaking to persuade
Natalie urged the audience to register to vote before August 1
The teacher asked Glen if his speech was designed to inform, persuade, or entertain. What part of the speech was the teacher asking Glen about?
the specific purpose should be based on
a single idea
Kelly wants her audience to understand the need for clean water treatments. Kelly’s goal for her speech is known as the
The thesis for a speech should be written as a
complete declarative sentence
The central idea for Tonya’s speech is: In my opinion, garbage removal should occur one day each week instead of the two our town is currently using and wasting. What type of language is Tonya using?
The subdivisions of the topics within a speech are known as the
A statement of the central idea plus a preview of the main ideas known as a
Candace’s teacher told her to be an audience-centered speaker. She can accomplish this by doing all of the following EXCEPT
organizing her speech based on her general purpose
Which of the following is an example of a demographic
religious views of the audience
A survey question that can be answered with a yes or no is called a(n) ________ question.
The process of examining information about the listeners who will hear your speech is known as
Janice plans to give a talk on bike safety to a group of cyclists that she bikes with every week. She is pleased that her audience is also involved in biking. Janice has identified a way in which she and her audience are alike. This is known as
Since she knew the majority of her audience had voted against the immigration bill, Heidi decided to still talk about the importance of immigration laws in the U.S. By failing to customize her message based on the information she gathered, Heidi was failing at
Geoff could tell just by looking that the majority of his audience consisted of women under the age of 40. He used ________ audience analysis to determine this.
The generation known as millennials were born no earlier than
The culturally constructed and psychologically based perception of one’s self as feminine or masculine is known as
Paulette is from Paris and believes that everything French is better than anything American. Paulette’s views are an example of
The specific segment of the audience a speaker wants to address is known as the ________ audience.
A ________ audience analysis explores the audience’s attitudes toward a topic, purpose, and speaker while probing underlying beliefs and values that might affect these attitudes.
Melinda is interested in what location and time of day her speech will take place as well as the size of the audience. To determine this, she should use a ________ audience analysis.
Charles quickly realized that his audience was confused about his three main points. What does the text suggest a speaker do when an audience appears confused?
ask for feedback from an audience member to clarify the situation
Which of the following is NOT one of the four responses the text lists to determine feedback following a speech?
From the studies cited in the text, which of the following accurately describes the fear of public speaking?
It is normal to be nervous
When speaking to people from a culture different from their own, who is more likely to experience anxiety?
Maria has always been nervous when called upon to speak; it is a general tendency for her. This exemplifies anxiety triggered by a
Which of the following speakers demonstrates public-speaking apprehension triggered by a state?
Jeremy is comfortable speaking with new people he meets, but he is feeling very anxious about the speech he has to give tomorrow at work.
The text suggests that speakers rename their anxiety in order to tame it. How would a speaker do this?
Tim told himself that his anxious feelings were a sign of excitement and would increase his adrenaline to improve his energy level for the speech.
At what point in the process of public speaking does the speaker feel the least anxiety?
during a speech preparation
If you have a(n) ________ style of communication anxiety, you have a generally positive approach to communication in public
In order to be associated with an insensitive style of communication apprehension, a speaker must have had
previous public speaking experience
Knowing your communication apprehension style can help in three ways. Which of the following is NOT one of those ways?
It remedies the apprehension you experience
One way to manage speech anxiety is to be a(n) ________-centered speaker
Jason spoke at the senior citizens’ meeting last week. His topic focused on the three best ways to get into college. When his audience seemed to grow listless during the speech, Jason became very nervous and his voice began to shake. What did Jason fail to do to minimize his speech anxiety?
consider the audience
Which of the following suggestion will help a speaker minimize anxiety
practice the speech aloud
As the text notes, one way to minimize anxiety is to focus on your ________ and not your fear.
Before rising to speak, one technique a speaker can use to channel nervous energy is to
take a deep breaths
Which of the following speakers is attempting to reduce his or her anxiety by using positive self-talk?
Griffin reminds himself that people like to talk to him and he is good at speaking one-on-one.
While Michael feels comfortable using slang with his coworkers, he would never use it in a presentation to the directors. Which aspect of conversation versus public speaking does this represent?
Public speaking is more formal than conversation
Which of the following represents one of the three key differences between conversation and public speaking?
Public speaking is more prepared than conversation
When a speaker delivers a speech with competence and confidence because he or she has the resources and information to make a good presentation, that speaker is experiencing
According to the text, what are the two long-term advantages related to studying public speaking?
empowerment and employment
Carson made sure to listen carefully to the human resource manager’s presentation. He wanted to make sure he heard everything about the new 401k plan so that he could research it more carefully at home to see if it was relevant to his needs. In this instance, Carson is using ________ thinking skills.
When you practice ________, you listen to and analyze information you hear to judge its accuracy and relevance.
The ________ model of communication is represented by a simple transfer of meaning from a sender to a receiver.
Which aspect of public speaking involves the use of encoding
What are the two channels used in public speaking
visual and auditory
_________ is anything that interferes with the communication of a message
Which of the following speakers is being influenced by physiological noise?
Karen has a bad cold and the medicine she took to alleviate her symptoms has clouded her memory
Realizing that the linear model of communication was too simplistic, later communication theorists added which two elements to make the interactive model?
feedback and context
The most recent model developed by theorists is the _____ model
For his speech on the civil rights movement, Connor delivered the “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King Jr. By delivering this famous speech, Connor was practicing the art of
Which of the five classical canons developed by the ancient Romans is characterized by the creative process of developing the ideas for a speech?
Thee first state of the listening process is to…
Bella snapped out of her daydream when the speaker quoted the statistics concerning violence on her college campus. Which stage of listening is Bella in now?
After listening to the speaker talk about the dangers of GMOs in food, Katrine went home and immediately threw away everything she had containing the substance. What stage of listening does Katrine’s behavior represent?
Which of the following represents the correct order of the steps in the listening process
select, attend, understand, remember, respond
What is the premise associated with the working memory theory
When a listener’s capacity is reached, then it is harder to concentrate and remember what is heard
Which of these listeners is demonstrating prejudice during a speech
When Sylvia first saw the speaker walk into the room, she thought he looked like he just crawled out of bed, and she knew he wouldn’t have anything to say that would interest her.
When Sylvia first saw the speaker walk into the room, she thought he looked like he just crawled out of bed, and she knew he wouldn’t have anything to say that would interest her.
Which is an example of a nonverbal cue?
For his speech on economic reform, Bruce dressed in a suit and tie and made sure his shoes were polished. The type of nonverbal cues Bruce is using will communicate ________ to his audience.
After listening to the speaker describe how her dog saved her life during a fire, Janice felt very emotional and started to cry. What type of listening style does this represent?
While his coworkers dislike presentations that focus on numbers and financial forecasts, Leo loves information that is full of facts and details. Leo is a(n) ________ listener.
The process of listening to evaluate the quality, appropriateness, value, or importance of the information you hear is known as ________ listening.
The speaker told the group of baseball fans that the Chicago Cubs would win the championship if they drafted the pitcher in the first round. The speaker’s prediction is an example of a(n)
The contemporary meaning of ________ is the process of using symbols to create meaning to achieve a goal
Robert’s professor suggested that instead of saying “You barely smiled at all,” Robert could say “I noticed that you smiled during the introduction and the conclusion.” The professor wanted Robert to be ________ in his criticism.
Carson knew he could save money by visiting only half of his clients, but refused to do that because he knew it would be wrong. Carson is basing his decision on
Stem-cell research and cloning are two current-day topics that focus on ________ debates among medical professionals.
According to the National Communication Association’s Credo for Communication Ethics, ethical communication is fundamental to responsible thinking, relationship development, and
Which of the following aspects of credibility is directly connected with ethics?
Which Greek rhetorician introduced the word ethos to refer to a speaker’s credibility?
After rehearsing her speech in front of three friends, they told Lilly that while she sounded knowledgeable about the topic, she didn’t present it dynamically. Knowledge and dynamism are both characteristics associated with
While the Sedition Act was eventually allowed to lapse, what constitutional freedom did it restrict?
The American Civil Liberties Union was founded based on which restriction to free speech?
clear and present danger
When the Supreme Court ruled that “actual malice” must be proven in slander cases, it was making this ruling for cases involving
In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court defended the ________ of the U.S. flag as a speech act protected by the First Amendment.
Following the September 11th terrorist attacks, ________ broadened the investigative powers of the government and was criticized by various groups for its infringement on free speech.
The patriot act
While the real reason for his presentation was to sell time-share space at the condominium, Robert told his audience that they were there to hear about the new golf course opening up across the street. By misleading his audience, Robert can be labeled as a(n) ________ speaker.
Fran is doing research for her speech and has met a professor who opposes her point of view. Rather than ignore his thoughts, Fran takes time to meet with him and understand his beliefs. Fran’s willingness to listen demonstrates the idea of
Rather than write his own speech, Ken found a speech on the Internet and presented it word-for-word without crediting his source. Ken is guilty of
Lacing a speech with compelling phrases that the speaker finds in a source but does not credit is known as
Which one of the following should be considered during ever aspect of the speech making process?
Steven decided to include information on obtaining a driver’s license as well as renewing a license since he had both high school students and senior citizens in his audience. Steven is demonstrating the importance of considering the ________ when preparing a speech.
Lillian’s teacher told the students they should prepare a speech to introduce themselves to the rest of the class. This tells Lillian the ________ of her speech.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three standard questions a speaker should ask themselves when trying to decide what to talk about?
Who else is speaking
Zeynep wants to convince her audience to volunteer for the American Red Cross. What is the general purpose of her speech?
The ________ is a concise statement indicating what the speaker wants the audience to be able to do after hearing the speech.
To ______ is NOT one of the three general purposes used for speeches
The name given to one-sentence summary of a speech is
Which of the following is an example of a central idea?
The new waste management system is designed to minimize costs and allow for greater controls
The key ideas within the body of a speech are known as the
Sloane is working on a speech for her class and realizes that her topic can be broken down into four major divisions. These ideas will be the ________ of her speech.
For his speech introducing three new local restaurants, Kevin provided the audience with fresh, hot samples from the appetizer menu of each restaurant. What did Kevin do with his supporting material that made it successful?
appealed to the audience’s senses
The three main organizational parts of every speech are an introduction, a conclusion and a
Kyle is trying to decide if he should talk to his audience like they were his best friends or address them as if they might hire him for a job someday. What is Kyle trying to determine?
The text cites advice columnist Ann Landers advice to speakers, “Be sincere, be brief, and be