Speech final review Rothrock Online Weatherford College

1. Define and analyze the problem
2. Eztablish criteria for evaluating solutions
3. Identify possible solutions
4. Evaluate solutions
5. Select the best solution
6. Test selected solution
Six steps of the problem solving sequence (in order)
A small group format and which each member of the group delivers a relatively prepared talk on some aspect of the topic. Often combined with a forum.
A small group format in which “experts” meet to discuss a topic or solve a problem; participants often speak without any set pattern.
Symposium – forum
Consists of two parts.: A symposium with prepared speeches, and the Forum; A period of questions from the audience and responses by the speakers
Quality Circle
Groups of workers usually 6 to 12) whose task is to investigate and make recommendations for improving the quality of some organizational function
Focus Group
A group designed to explore the feelings and attitudes of its members; usually follows a question-and-answer and answer format
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Encounter group
Often referred to as a sensitivity or T (training) group, this type of group constitutes a form of psychotherapy; these groups try to facilitate members personal growth and to Foster their ability to deal effectively with other people
Intervention group
A type of group in which participants gathered to help one of their members confront and overcome some problem
Consciousness-raising group
A type of group that aims to help people cope with the problems Society confronts them with
Assertiveness training group
A type of group that aims to increase the willingness of its members to stand up for their rights and to act more assertively in a wide variety of situations
Group Norm
Rules or expectations for appropriate behavior for a member of a group
High context culture
A culture in which much of the information and communication is in the context or in the person rather than explicitly coded in the verbal messages
Low context culture
A culture in which most of the information and communication is explicitly stated in the verbal messages
A technique for generating ideas either alone or, more usually, and a small group.
Problem solving sequence
A logical step by step process for solving a problem that is frequently used by groups; consists of defining and analyzing the problem, establishing criteria for evaluating Solutions, identifying possible solutions, evaluating Solutions, selecting the best solution, and testing the selected Solutions.
Decision-making methods
Authority, majority rule and consensus
Nominal group technique
A method of problem-solving that she’s is limited discussion and confidential voting to obtain a group decision
Information Seeker or Giver
Asks for or gives facts or opinions, seeks clarification of issues being discussed, and presents facts or opinions to group members
The initiator – contributor
Presents new ideas or New Perspectives on Old ideas, suggest new goals, or proposes new procedures or organizational strategies
Gas examples and tries to work out possible solutions, trying to build on what others have said
Procedural technician
(Recorder) takes care of various mechanical duties, such as Distributing group materials and arranging the seating; writing down the group’s activities, suggestions, and decisions and/or serving as the group’s memory
Individual roles
Behavior in groups that is usually dysfunctional and works against the sense of groupness
Expresses negative evaluation of members and attacks the group
Recognition Seeker
Tries to focus attention on themselves, boast about their accomplishments rather than the task at hand, and expresses their own feelings rather than focusing on the group
Special interests pleader
Disregard the goals of the group includes the case of some special group
Tries to run their group or members by pulling rank, flattering numbers, or acting the role of boss
Six communication guidelines
Be group oriented, Center conflict on issues, be critically open-minded, beware of social loafing, ensure understanding, and beware of groupthink
A tendency that shuts out realistic and logical analysis of a problem and of possible alternatives
Social loafing
The theory that you exert less effort when you’re part of a group then went alone
Situational approach to leadership
The effective leader shifts his or her emphasis between task accomplishment and member satisfaction on the basis of the specific group situation
Laissez-faire leader
Takes no initiative and directing or suggesting alternative courses of action
Provides Direction but allows the group to develop and progress the way its members wish; this form of leadership is similar to the participating style in the situational approach.
Authoritarian cohesiveness
The members closeness and liking for each other
1. Prepare members and start interaction
2. Build group cohesiveness
3. Maintain effective interaction
4. Manage conflict
5. Mentor
5 leadership skills
A process that occurs when an experienced individual helps to train less experienced group members
Collective / individual orientation
Collective orientation is a cultural orientation that stresses the group’s rather than the individual’s goals and preferences. Individual orientation is the opposite
High power distance cultures
Cultures in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few, and there is a great difference between the power held by these people and the power held by the ordinary citizen. Contrast: low power distance cultures
Gain experience, think positively be realistic, see public speaking as conversation, focus on your listeners, stress similarity
5 ways to reduce public speaking apprehension
1. Select your topic
2. Analyze your audience
3. Research your topic
4. Collect supporting materials
5. Develop your main points
6. Organize your speech materials
7. Where’d your speech
8. Construct your conclusion, introduction, Transitions, and outlines
9. rehearse you’re speech
10. Deliver your speech
10 steps in public speaking preparation and delivery in order
Sociological analysis of an audience
Don’t assume that people covered by the same label or necessarily alike
Qualifications, currency, fairness, sufficiency, and accuracy
5 essential criteria for evaluating research, especially on the internet
Structure – function organizational pattern
2 main points, one for structure and one for function
Claim and proof organizational pattern
Basis is essentially the claim, and each main point supports the claim
Multiple definition organization pattern
Each of the main points consist of a different type of definition
Comparison and contrast organization pattern
Main points might be the main divisions of the topic
Visual imagery
Enables you to describe people or objects in images the audience can see
Auditory imagery
Help to appeal to your listeners sense of hearing
Tactile imagery
Enables you to make listeners feel the temperature or Texture you’re talking about
Repetition of the same initial consonant sound in two or more words close to one another
Use of extreme exaggeration
Attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects
Comparing two unlike things
Comparison of two unlike objects using the words like or as
Words are statements that connect what was said to what will be said
Internal summary
A statement that summarizes what you have already discussed in the speech, usually some major subdivision of your speech
Impromptu delivery method
Speaking without preparation
Manuscript delivery method
Write out the speech and read it
Extemporaneous delivery method
Useful when exact timing and wording are not required
1. Rehearse the speech from beginning to end, rather than in parts
2. Time to speech during each rehearsal
3. Rehearsed this speech under conditions as close as possible to those under which you’ll deliver it
4. We heard the speech in front of a full-length mirror to help you see how you appear to the audience
5. Don’t interrupt your rehearsal to make notes or changes
Five effective rehearsing strategies
The process of influencing attitudes, beliefs, values, and or behavior
Selective exposure
The tendency of listeners to actively seek out information that supports their existing opinions, Belize, attitudes, and values and to actively avoid information that contradicts them
Reasoning from causes and effects
Reasoning either from cause to effect or from effect to cause
Reasoning from sign
Drawing a conclusion on the basis of the presence of clues or symptoms that frequently occur together
Reasoning from specific instances
Examining several specific instances and then concluding something about the whole
Ad hominem
(of an argument or reaction) directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining.
Ad numerum and ad populum
is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition is true because many or most people believe it: “If many believe so, it is so.”
Slippery slope
Involves the assumption that one of them will lead to another event that everyone agrees would be undesirable
Questions of fact
Concerned what is not true, what does or does not exist, what did or did not happen.
questions of policy
Concerning what should be done, what procedures should be adopted, what laws should be changed – in short, what policy should be followed
Questions of value
To persuade listeners in the value of something, that something is good, moral, or just
Shows listeners that you are knowledgeable and thoroughly familiar with your topic
One of the qualities of credibility, the individuals honesty and basic nature, moral qualities
A combination of your personality and dynamism as seen by the audience
The degree to which your audience regards you as a believable spokesperson
In order from top to bottom of the triangle:
Self-actualization needs, self-esteem needs, belonging and love needs, safety needs,
physiological needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in order
1. Gain attention
2. establishing a need
3. Satisfy the need
4. Visualize the needs satisfied
5. Move to action
Five steps of the motivated sequence in order