Speech 1315

When a speaker watches and listens for audience response and adapts the delivered message to that response, the speaker is reacting to audience
feedback
The environment or situation in which a speech occurs is termed
context.
The three types of general speech purposes are
to entertain, to inform, and to persuade.
The purpose of an introduction is
to get the audience’s attention and interest.
From topic selection to outlining, what should be the central focus in speech preparation?
the audience
The specific purpose is
a statement of what your audience should be able to do after your speech.
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Our beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are our
ethics.
Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as
plagiarism.
When facing public speaking anxiety, the goal for the speaker should be to
manage it positively
Grace knew her speech backwards and forwards. She rehearsed it over and over, timing it to make sure she didn’t run over the time limit. When she actually delivered the speech, she found herself much less nervous and much more confident than she expected to be. Which guideline for developing confidence provided in your text applies here?
Be prepared.
The process of listeners relating material to their own experiences and knowledge is to
understand
A listener who suffers from a fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting messages is said to have
receiver apprehension.
A listener who is able to evaluate the reasoning, logic, and quality of the speaker’s ideas is
a critical listener.
What is ethnocentrism?
the attitude that one’s own cultural approach is superior to those from other cultures
Trying to determine what an audience believes or thinks about a speech topic is termed
psychological analysis.
An examination by the speaker of the time and place of the speech, size of the expected audience, and the speaking occasion is
a situational analysis.
Collecting information about an audience concerning their age range, gender, and ethnicity is part of
a demographic analysis.
Observing your audience and asking questions about them are forms of
informal audience analysis
Searching for logical divisions in a subject is a strategy for
determining your main ideas.
Sheena’s informative speech was on the life of Marie Curie. She covered Curie’s early life and marriage, her scientific achievements despite the prejudice against her as a woman, and finally, the importance of Curie’s discoveries on modern life. She concluded her introduction by previewing all the main points, then used an internal summary as a transition to each of the main ideas. In her conclusion, she summarized main ideas, emphasizing the importance of Marie Curie’s life. What strategy to enhance audience recall was Sheena using?
Building in redundancy.
The process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is
persuasion
An enduring conception of what you perceive as right or wrong, good or bad is a
value
Aristotle defined ________ as persuasion relying upon the credibility of the speaker.
ethos
The sense of discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previous attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors is
cognitive dissonance
When your proposition in a persuasive speech focuses on whether something is true or false, it is
a proposition of fact.
The difference in information speaking and persuasive speaking is that only in persuasive speaking does the speech
target change or advocate action from your audience.
In the process of persuading your audience, the most difficult to change is your listeners’
values
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs asserts that the most basic human needs must be satisfied before listeners can be motivated using any higher needs. These basic needs are
physiological
Matt is listening to a persuasive speech on assisted suicide. He feels uncomfortable because he is beginning to question his own opinion. What is the best term for what Matt is experiencing?
cognitive dissonance
The audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism is termed
credibility.
Something that is true because it can be directly observed or proved is
a fact
What is the first step in the motivated sequence?
get attention
When your central idea naturally divides into various areas to be supported, the organizational pattern is
topical
When you save the most important material for last, you are using the principle of
recency
After speakers have organized their main points, what is the next step?
dividing main points into sub points
“An article in the January, 2002 issue of Newsweek about the failure of Enron asserts, ‘Many of Enron’s 20,000 employees lost their retirement savings when the company collapsed…By contrast, chairman Ken Lay made $205 million in stock option profits in the past four years alone….'” This is an example of
a citation of supporting material
The first step in an introduction is
to get the audiences attention
Proximity in an introduction means
relating the topic to the audience
The final step in an introduction is to provide your audience with an overview of your speech. This step is known as
a preview
In an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn’t require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is
a rhetorical question
In the introduction to your speech, a good way to establish your credibility is to
be well prepared and confident
Janet’s introduction contained the following remarks: “How many of you know someone who has tried to quit smoking, successfully or unsuccessfully? Have any of the smokers in this audience tried to quit? Well, if you have tried to quit and failed, you are among the 20 percent of Americans who have tried to quit multiple times. A few months ago I tried to quit, for the umpteenth time, but this time I made it. I’d like to tell you exactly how I made it.” Which of the following statements is accurate about this introduction?
Janet has successfully combined introductory devices of questions to the audience, statistical information, and a personal reference.
Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving an audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of
the speech conclusion
The speaker’s outline which contains the specific purpose, the introduction, all main ideas with supporting material, and a conclusion is
the preparation outline
The ultimate goal of the planning period with your outline is to
insure that all main ideas and sub points are clearly and logically arranged and adequately supported.
The delivery outline is
shorter than the preparation outline
Complete sentences are used in your preparation outline
for your main ideas and subpoints
What is the major benefit of using correct outline form?
It points out relationships between ideas and material.
What aspect of standard outlining procedure is violated in the following example?
I. The Rocky Mountains were formed in stages, over a long period of time.
1. Mountains are affected by geographic and environmental events.
2. Mountains provide a sort of “blueprint” as to what has occurred in a certain region.
II. The Rockies are younger mountains than the Swiss Alps
logical division
Stuart has always been a nervous public speaker, but this time he’s going to prepare an outline that will really help him calm his nerves and build his confidence. He’s going to completely write out his introduction and conclusion and include them on his delivery outline. Is this advisable, according to your textbook?
No; he should only write the first sentence of the intro and final sentence of the conclusion, if needed.
Bernard is rehearsing a class demonstration speech that he has to present in two days. As he rehearses from his delivery outline, he continues to revise the outline. He changes the order of some points, deletes some extraneous detail, and reworks his conclusion. According to your textbook, is this kind of revision advisable?
Bernard is rehearsing a class demonstration speech that he has to present in two days. As he rehearses from his delivery outline, he continues to revise the outline. He changes the order of some points, deletes some extraneous detail, and reworks his conclusion. According to your textbook, is this kind of revision advisable?
Discussing your speech topic with someone who is knowledgeable on the subject is a method of gathering support material known as
interviewing
What is the first source of supporting material a speaker should rely upon?
her or his own personal experience and knowledge
This is considered a critical factor in evaluating Web resources.
accountability
Jack used Internet sources for his informative speech about gun control. However, his over-reliance on the National Rifle Association site caused his speech to be slanted in one direction, rather than presenting multiple sides of the issue. Which of the six criteria for evaluating Internet sources did Jack ignore?
objectivity
When someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, states his/her opinion, this is considered
expert testimony
In his speech about date rape on college campuses, Nathan cites statistics from state and county law enforcement documents; then he includes statistics from incidents on his own campus. Which principle of selecting the best supporting material is Nathan using?
proximity
Allowing the speaker and audience to interact characterizes what distinction between oral and written styles of language?
oral is more personal
Reading a speech word-for-word from material written out on a page is termed
manuscript speaking.
What is the best method to improve manuscript speaking?
speak with vocal variety
Delivering a speech in a conversational style from a well-developed and researched outline is termed
extemporaneous speaking
When asked to deliver a speech at the last moment, the type of delivery style you will use is
impromptu
The ability to monitor your audience’s response and adjust your message accordingly is a benefit of
good eye contact
Which of the following statements is the best guideline for using gestures in a speech?
Make your gestures appropriate to the situation and audience.
Tom is speaking on a stage, behind a rather tall podium. His audience is made up of elementary school children. What does Tom need to do to immediately improve his speech?
remove the physical barriers
The best reason to use presentation aids is that
they help your audience understand and remember.
The most unpredictable presentation aid a speaker could use is
a person or animal
Anna is giving a speech on the basic functions of the Electoral College. As the presentation gets under way, she cannot figure out how to advance to her first slide, and ends up not using her visual aid. What guideline was violated?
considering her own skill and experience with equipment
When determining whether or not a presentation aid will enhance a presentation, a speaker’s first consideration should be to
the audience
Sam was giving a speech on fast food restaurants and made each PowerPoint slide the representative color of individual chains. Was this an effective strategy?
no
Barney was giving a speech on animal-borne diseases. When discussing each disease, his slides contained a definition, symptoms, risks, treatment and ways to prevent the disease. Was this an effective strategy?
no
Which of the following statements about preparing presentation aids is true?
Establish a consistent graphic theme
What action should a speaker take if his or her speech topic calls for an illegal or dangerous presentation aid?
substitute an appropriate representation or model
What is the best advice for timing the use of presentation aids in a speech?
Display presentation aids to correspond with points in your speech.
The art and science of teaching adults to learn is
andragogy