SPED Praxis Study Material

An IEP that ensures a student is working on goals and objectives that are aligned with state benchmarks and that promotes participation in the general curriculum is considered to be

A.transition based

B.standards based

C.an initial IEP

D.based on reevaluation

B.standards based

The question tests understanding of the components of an IEP. A Standards-based IEP includes goals that are aligned with the state’s academic content standards for a student’s assigned grade level.

One of the most critical educational components of providing an appropriate learning environment for a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is to

A.allow the student to self‑select activities because of an inability to communicate

B.create a carefully structured environment with established routines and procedures

C.allow the student to be isolated from the rest of the class

D.expect the student to follow classroom rules because of a need of socialization skills

B.create a carefully structured environment with established routines and procedures

The question tests understanding of planning and the learning environment. This answer is correct because students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) need a highly structured environment with predictable routines to minimize disruptive and distractive behaviors.

Which of the following types of information is generally the most useful in making decisions about instruction for a student with a disability?

A.Scores from standardized tests

B.The category of the disability

C.Curriculum‑based assessment

D.The amount of time the student spends in the resource room

C.Curriculum‑based assessment

The question tests knowledge of specific information needed to design individualized instruction. Curriculum‑based assessment tells the teacher how the student is performing on the current curriculum under the current teaching conditions and is the most relevant.

Which of the following types of assessments provides data such as percentile level, stanine scores, and standard scores?

A.Curriculum‑based

B.Formative

C.Standardized

D.Rating scale

C.Standardized

Standardized assessments are formal tests that provide percentiles, stanine scores, and standard scores.

Of the following, which student would receive services under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act?

A.A student who requires related services

B.A student who requires special education

C.A student who is not successful in the resource room

D.A student placed in an out‑of‑district school

A.A student who requires related services

The question tests knowledge of the major legislation that affects the field of special education. This answer is correct because a student who does not require special education is not entitled to the rights and protections of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and, therefore, receives service under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

Sarah, a third‑grade student, has been arguing with her teacher and occasionally throwing objects at her classmates. Sarah’s teacher talks to her to find out the cause of such behavior in order to help her develop self‑control and plan for more appropriate behaviors in the class.

Which of the following models would best reflect on this technique to manage student behavior?

A.Ecological model

B.Biological model

C.Psychoeducational model

D.Humanistic model

C.Psychoeducational model

The psychoeducational model focuses on how teachers must understand the causes of negative behavior and how to help the student acquire self control through reflection and planning.

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Kadijah is a sixth‑grade student who often engages in disruptive behaviors in the classroom. She was recently referred to the Response to Intervention (RTI) team at the school, and they met to discuss her records. Her elementary school file shows that Kadijah has average intelligence and average grades, and that behavioral issues were reported several times.

Which of the following should be the first step to determining the cause of Kadijah’s behavioral difficulties?

A.Referring Kadijah to the IEP team

B.Asking Kadijah’s teachers to complete an antecedent, behavior, consequence chart

C.Calling a parent‑teacher conference to discuss Kadijah’s behaviors in the classroom

D.Sending Kadijah to a counselor to discuss the consequences of negative behaviors

B.Asking Kadijah’s teachers to complete an antecedent, behavior, consequence chart

The item tests knowledge of assessing how to identify behavior problems in the classroom in order to establish a behavior management plan. This answer is correct because the teacher can collect data on Kadijah’s behavior to find out the trigger and come up with a consequence using an antecedent, behavior, consequence (ABC) chart. Determining the cause of the behavior is a prerequisite for a functional behavioral assessment.

Which of the following is an appropriate functional writing skill to teach a high school student with an intellectual disability?

A.Writing in cursive

B.Writing an essay for a college application

C.Filling out job applications

D.Spelling basic sight words

C.Filling out job applications

The question tests understanding of a functional curriculum. Learning to fill out job applications is an appropriate functional writing skill for a student with an intellectual disability.

An Individualized Education Program (IEP) includes information on which THREE of the following?

A.Placement

B.Long‑term goals

C.Present levels of functioning

D.IQ score

A.Placement
B.Long‑term goals
C.Present levels of functioningA student’s IEP must have the following information -Placement, Long-term goals and Present levels of functioning.

Mary is a high school student with a mild intellectual disability and a moderate hearing loss. She chats in the hall with her friends and is often late for class. Which of the following assistive technologies will best help her to be on time for her classes?

A.FM monitor

B.Telephone with a video screen

C.Vibrating prompting device

D.Audiobook player

C.Vibrating prompting device

A vibrating prompting device can be programmed to signal Mary when it is time to get to class. It can also repeat the steps for completing a task and help Mary remember important dates and times.

Which of the following is an important component of teaching Lee, an elementary student with ADHD whose learning style is more impulsive than reflective?

A.Ensuring that Lee takes prescribed medications every day

B.Showing Lee’s parents how to help with homework

C.Praising Lee at times when she is focused and attentive

D.Scolding Lee when she does not follow clear and limited directions

C.Praising Lee at times when she is focused and attentive

A child who has ADHD needs many accommodations and needs to know when she is doing well.

Sergio is a 5‑year‑old student who was recently adopted from Russia. Which of the following should the teacher expect when assessing the student’s readiness for kindergarten?

A.Supportive and understanding parents

B.Difficulty communicating in English

C.Poor peer relationships

D.Proficiency in mathematics

B.Difficulty communicating in English

The child’s lack of knowledge in English will most likely affect his performance on verbal tasks and responses to verbal directions.

Wai has a specific learning disability in the area of writing, specifically dysgraphia. The second‑grade class that Wai is in is learning to write in cursive. Which of the following strategies is most likely to benefit Wai during cursive writing instruction?

A.Teaching Wai metacognition techniques

B.Allowing Wai to use colored pencils to write

C.Having Wai trace script letters in the air using two fingers

D.Exempting Wai from the requirement of writing in cursive until he is older

C.Having Wai trace script letters in the air using two fingers

The question tests knowledge of teaching strategies. The multisensory teaching strategy known as “sky writing letters” will help the student learn to write in cursive.

For each description, indicate whether it is or is not characteristic of differentiated instruction for preschool students.

Description Yes No

1. Flexible grouping of students

2. Teach the lesson to each student individually

3. Use centers for independent practice

1. Yes
2. No
3. YesBy differentiating instruction through small groups and independent learning centers a preschool teacher can ensure maximum student success in the classroom.

Which of the following is the best method for nonverbal students with intellectual disabilities to employ for independently expressing their wants and needs?

A.Using maps

B.Grabbing what they want

C.Using picture cards and symbols

D.Crying for what they want

C.Using picture cards and symbols

The question addresses knowledge of instructional strategies and techniques. Students will be more independent when they use picture cards or symbols to express their wants and needs.

Which of the following best describes how proximity control is used in the classroom?

A.The teacher determines the student’s level of understanding and teaches just above that level.

B.The teacher requires that students who misbehave must sit next to her at lunch.

C.The teacher makes seating assignments so that students with disabilities are near the point of instruction.

D.The teacher stands or sits close to a student who appears ready to start a disruption.

D.The teacher stands or sits close to a student who appears ready to start a disruption.

This explanation correctly describes the strategy of proximity control in the classroom.

Lynne, a second‑grade student with a learning disability, is significantly below grade level in the area of reading. Which of the following reading strategies is most likely to help Lynne improve her reading skills?

A.Readers’ theater in front of a class to build reading fluency and comprehension skills

B.Silent reading with a partner to build independent reading and comprehension skills

C.Multisensory reading activities in a small group to develop fluency and comprehension skills

D.Round‑robin reading in a whole group to develop fluency and comprehension skills

C.Multisensory reading activities in a small group to develop fluency and comprehension skills

The question tests knowledge of effective instruction strategies. This answer is correct because students with a learning disability need to be taught reading skills using multisensory approaches, which include audio, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile methods.

The technique of guided practice is best demonstrated by a teacher who

A.assigns a work sheet to be completed in class

B.allows students to work in cooperative groups

C.prepares follow‑up activities supporting retention

D.monitors students who are working on an assignment

D.monitors students who are working on an assignment

The question tests knowledge of instructional strategies. This answer is correct because in guided practice the teacher needs to observe the students working during a class period, monitoring their progress in order to remediate if there are difficulties.

Mr. Sempler has a ninth-grade student with EBD who frequently engages in inappropriate and disruptive behavior in the classroom. Mr. Sempler decides to conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to establish a behavior plan for the student. Place each of the following steps in an FBA in sequence from left to right, beginning with the first step.

A. Analyze the behavior and form a hypothesis on the function of the behavior

B. Describe the targeted behavior in measurable, observable terms

C. Collect information on possible functions of the targeted behavior

D. Devise an intervention plan to replace the behavior

E. Categorize the behavior to determine the deficit

B. Describe the targeted behavior in measurable, observable terms

C. Collect information on possible functions of the targeted behavior

E. Categorize the behavior to determine the deficit

A. Analyze the behavior and form a hypothesis on the function of the behavior

D. Devise an intervention plan to replace the behavior

A functional behavior assessment involves the following steps: Describe the targeted behavior in measurable, observable terms; collect information on possible functions of the targeted behavior; categorize the behavior to determine the deficit; analyze the behavior and form a hypothesis on the function of the behavior; devise an intervention plan. These steps help to develop an effective behavior plan.

A student with an articulation disorder lacks confidence speaking in a large‑group setting. Which of the following instructional techniques will be the most effective to provide an opportunity for the student to participate meaningfully in a class discussion?

A.Modeling the skill to be learned

B.Connecting the objective to the student’s prior knowledge

C.Providing a note‑taking template

D.Using a think‑pair‑share activity

D.Using a think‑pair‑share activity

The question tests understanding of grouping formats. Think‑pair‑share is a cooperative discussion strategy in which students think about their answers and discuss them with a partner prior to sharing with the whole group.

What is the purpose of a cognitive assessment?

A.To analyze emotional development

B.To calculate adaptive behavior

C.To test fine motor skills

D.To measure intellectual ability

D.To measure intellectual ability

The question tests understanding of the uses of assessments. Cognitive assessments test how well an individual solves problems, interprets information, and recalls information, which are all part of intellectual ability.

Pamela is a tenth‑grade student who was injured in a car accident over the summer. She is now experiencing severe headaches, memory loss, and slurred speech. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), her disability falls into which disability category?

A.Specific learning disability (SLD)

B.Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

C.Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

D.Other health impairment (OHI)

C.Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

The question tests understanding of the major disability categories. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is damage to the brain caused by a violent impact.

Which of the following are the most likely symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?

A.Yellow stained teeth and reduced growth of long bones

B.Down syndrome and cardiac malformations

C.Spina bifida and juvenile arthritis

D.Distinctive facial features and delayed development

D.Distinctive facial features and delayed development

Numerous studies have supported that when pregnant woman abuse alcohol, the fetus may be premature and exhibit intellectual disabilities.

Rafael has attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of his testing accommodations is to test in a separate room with the special education teacher. Which of the following is a reason for this accommodation?

A.The other students will not hear the test being read aloud to Rafael.

B.Rafael can read the test aloud to himself without distracting other students.

C.The special education teacher can give Rafael cues about the answers.

D.Rafael will be able to concentrate better without distractions.

D.Rafael will be able to concentrate better without distractions.

The question tests understanding of testing accommodations. A separate testing environment will help students who have difficulty focusing, such as students with attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Which of the following demonstrates the most appropriate student involvement in the assessment process?

A.Students create an assignment and the scoring criteria.

B.Students check one another’s homework.

C.Students save all their work in a folder.

D.Students create the content for the test.

A.Students create an assignment and the scoring criteria.

This question tests knowledge of the definitions and uses of assessments. The students are participating in the assessment process by creating a rubric or personal scoring guide.

Which of the following most often characterizes bullying?

A.Confrontations between equals

B.Lopsided victories in competitions

C.Disruptive behavior at sporting events

D.Intentional targeting of individuals

D.Intentional targeting of individuals

The question tests knowledge of understanding bullies. This answer is correct because research has found that bullies seek out and deliberately target individuals to victimize.

Amber was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the age of seven. The local school district decided to place Amber in a private school for children with autism even though the family did not agree with the decision.

Which of the following actions is the most appropriate for the family to take?

A. Moving to a different school district where Amber will be placed in an inclusion classroom

B. Deciding to homeschool Amber to avoid conflict of interest with the school district

C.Accepting the school district’s authority and agreeing to its decision

D.Requesting a due process hearing against the school district for inappropriate placement

D.Requesting a due process hearing against the school district for inappropriate placement

The parents may request a due process hearing if they do not agree with the school’s decision to place Amber in a private school.

What is the most important goal for educators when collaborating with families of students?

A.Focusing on the holistic needs of the family

B.Ensuring that students are successful and learn

C.Finding time to co‑plan and coordinate activities

D.Respecting a family’s cultural or linguistic differences

B.Ensuring that students are successful and learn

At the heart of any collaborative effort is the goal of ensuring that students make adequate progress by increasing instruction as needed and providing opportunities for them to be successful.

The most frequently occurring permanently disabling birth defect, characterized by an abnormal opening in the spinal column, is called

A.spina bifida

B.cerebral palsy

C.muscular dystrophy

D.multiple sclerosis

A.spina bifida

The question tests knowledge of various physical disabilities. Spina bifida is a developmental birth defect caused by the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube. Some vertebrae overlying the spinal cord are not fully formed and remain unfused and open.

Which of the following types of assessment focuses on early milestones and helps to determine whether further testing is needed?

A.Program evaluations

B.Screenings

C.Ecological analyses

D.Adaptive behavior tests

B.Screenings

Screenings are used early in a child’s life to provide information about motor, cognitive, and sensory functioning and to ascertain whether referral for additional testing is indicated.

The number of times a student engages in a particular behavior is referred to as

A.latency

B.frequency

C.topography

D.duration

B.frequency

The question relates to managing student behavior. The definition of frequency is relation to behavior is the number of times a particular behavior occurs.

Which of the following is a procedural safeguard included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) ?

A.Students can be tested for classification only at the request of a parent.

B.An IEP must be reviewed every year.

C.Students must be present at all IEP meetings.

D.Parents have the right to examine all educational records.

D.Parents have the right to examine all educational records.

The question tests knowledge of the federal safeguards of the rights of parents, which include the right to participate in all meetings, examine all educational records, and receive written notice regarding placement.

What is the primary purpose of a formative assessment?

A.Checking student progress so that instruction can be adjusted

B.Determining whether students can pass the standardized test

C.Gauging student learning based on the curriculum

D.Recording mastery of a concept

A.Checking student progress so that instruction can be adjusted

The question tests understanding of the uses of formative assessments, which are used to provide feedback so that instruction can be adjusted based on the needs of the students.

Federal safeguards in IDEA require parental consent before beginning which of the following THREE steps in the IEP process?

A.Initial evaluation

B.Reevaluation

C.Initial provision of services

D.Monitoring student progress

A.Initial evaluation
B.Reevaluation
C.Initial provision of servicesThe question tests knowledge of the steps in the IEP process. According to federal safeguards in IDEA, the steps referred to in the three options all require parental consent.

Which of the following is the most appropriate reason for using reinforcement contingencies with students who exhibit challenging behaviors?

A.To enhance students’ basic lifestyles

B.To modify students’ perceptions of themselves

C.To improve inclusion programs for students

D.To eliminate the use of negative consequences with students

A.To enhance students’ basic lifestyles

The question tests knowledge of positive behavior support. This answer is correct because the most important reason for reinforcing desired and appropriate behaviors is to ensure that students will have a quality of life that is purpose driven and satisfying.

Chelsea, a student with mild hearing loss, often has difficulty following the teacher’s directions in class, particularly when the teacher is doing work at the front of the class. Which of the following is the most appropriate first step for the teacher to try to help Chelsea understand directions?

A.Repeating all directions directly into Chelsea’s ear

B.Providing directions to Chelsea while facing the entire class

C.Providing an interpreter for Chelsea

D.Having another student write down all assignments for Chelsea

B.Providing directions to Chelsea while facing the entire class

The question identifies issues that many students with mild hearing loss may face. Turning away from a student with a mild hearing loss may break down communication significantly, so the teacher should face the class while giving a lecture or providing directions for a task.

To be identified as having an intellectual disability, a child must demonstrate significantly below average intellectual functioning and

A.a discrepancy between ability and achievement

B.genetic abnormalities

C.seizure syndrome and brain dysfunction

D.related limitations in two or more areas of adaptive skills

D.related limitations in two or more areas of adaptive skills

The question tests knowledge of special education classifications of an intellectual disability, which is characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors, with onset before the age of 18.

Which of the following is the best example of a summative assessment?

A.Having students independently complete a set of ten word problems

B.Working with students to complete a set of word problems

C.Questioning students about the problems in order to revise instruction for the following day

D.Providing word problems before beginning a new unit of study

A.Having students independently complete a set of ten word problems

The question tests knowledge of summative assessments, which are cumulative, independent activities that test students’ subject matter knowledge.

Which of the following organizations serves youths with intellectual disabilities, children who are gifted and talented, and children who are abused or neglected?

A.Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

B.American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)

C.National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)

D.Special Olympics

A.Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) serves youth and children with disabilities, individuals who are gifted and talented, and children who are abused or neglected.

Marta is a second grader with a specific learning disability (SLD) in mathematics who uses immature problem‑solving procedures for simple arithmetic problems. Which of the following statements is most likely to be included in her IEP?

A.Marta has difficulty with arithmetic procedures because she does not pay attention to directions.

B.Marta will outgrow her difficulties and learn to solve arithmetic problems as she matures.

C.Marta requires mathematics instruction twice a week in a resource room setting.

D.Marta needs direct instruction in specific strategies for solving mathematical problems.

D.Marta needs direct instruction in specific strategies for solving mathematical problems.

The question tests knowledge of the characteristics of a specific learning disability (SLD). This answer is correct because students with an SLD in mathematics have severe difficulties learning or demonstrating mathematical abilities. Marta will benefit from direct instruction in mathematics.

Which TWO of the following strategies are most likely to be used to encourage positive behavior in a kindergarten class?

A.Find something positive to say to each individual student.

B.Speak to the students in a sharp, firm manner.

C.Establish a reward‑based system in the classroom.

D.Tell the students how poor their mathematics skills are.

A.Find something positive to say to each individual student.
C.Establish a reward‑based system in the classroom.Maintaining a positive attitude and giving the students verbal praise can make kindergarteners feel proud and contribute towards a positive classroom behavior. Furthermore, by establishing a reward system in the classroom like stickers and tokens, the teacher motivates the students to do well in class.

A middle school special education teacher has been assigned a new student with a diagnosis of autism. The student has a history of having difficulty with transitions because the student does not clearly anticipate what is coming next. Which of the following strategies would help the student anticipate transitions?

A.Providing auditory signals immediately before the student must transition between activities

B.Showing the student a map of the school

C.Allowing the student to sit next to the door and watch the other students changing classes

D.Giving the student a schedule with pictures of clocks that show what time classes change

D.Giving the student a schedule with pictures of clocks that show what time classes change

The question tests knowledge of effective classroom management during transitions. A visual schedule will help the student with autism anticipate changes and prepare for transitions.

Martha is an eleventh‑grade student with spina bifida. She uses a motorized wheelchair and has limited fine motor skills. Her testing indicates her cognitive and language skills are on grade level. Which of the following accommodations is most likely to benefit the student in her inclusive history class?

A.Allowing Martha to use a laptop computer to take notes

B.Requiring Martha to learn less material for mastery

C.Providing Martha raised‑line paper to improve her handwriting

D.Providing Martha copies of notes to limit her need for writing

D.Providing Martha copies of notes to limit her need for writing

The question tests knowledge of accommodations. This answer is correct because the student has limited fine motor skills and will have difficulty taking notes.

Which of the following goals will most likely be included in an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for an eighth‑grade student who has autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ?

A.Writing a paragraph using transitional phrases

B.Remaining seated while completing independent work

C.Using eye contact when speaking to the teacher

D.Raising his or her hand before answering a question

C.Using eye contact when speaking to the teacher

The question tests knowledge of setting appropriate goals for a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by poor social interactions, so individuals with this disorder may have difficulty understanding facial expressions and maintaining eye contact.

Danny is a twelfth‑grade student who has been diagnosed with Tourette’s syndrome and epilepsy. Both conditions are controlled with medication. Danny is functioning at grade level with his peers. Which of the following statements best describes the most appropriate services for Danny?

A.Danny’s diagnosis requires an Individualized Education Program (IEP).

B.Danny requires a paraprofessional to assist him in his course work.

C.Danny is covered under a Section 504 Plan because he does not require special education services.

D.Danny should be placed in inclusive classes for all academic courses.

C.Danny is covered under a Section 504 Plan because he does not require special education services.

The question tests knowledge of the major legislation that affects special education. Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, if a student has a disability but requires neither special education nor related services, the student may qualify for protection under a Section 504 Plan.

Paula is a sixth‑grade student with Down syndrome. She is an attentive student who enjoys learning new things in school. Although her expressive speech and language development are more like those of an 8 year old, her receptive language skills are more like those of a 10 year old. Paula reads at the third‑grade level. Which of the following support services is likely to be most beneficial for Paula?

A.Speech therapy

B.Physical therapy

C.Occupational therapy

D.Massage therapy

A.Speech therapy

The question tests knowledge of related services. A speech therapist would help Paula improve in the areas of expressive and receptive speech and language development.

Ari is a 6 year old with an orthopedic impairment. Although he currently uses a wheelchair, his IEP goals include related services to help him strengthen his legs in preparation for using a walker. Which of the following individuals will most likely be responsible for providing these services?

A.A physical therapist

B.A speech‑language pathologist

C.An occupational therapist

D.An audiologist

A.A physical therapist

The question tests knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of professionals who deliver related services. A physical therapist provides services to improve mobility and reduce limitations caused by physical disabilities and/or injuries.

Mylie is 16‑year‑old student with a mild intellectual disability who participates in a vocational training program. She works as a helper in the maintenance department of a bank in her community. She is supervised by a school official and receives minimum wage.

The activities Mylie performs on the job are most likely to be described in which of the following sections of her IEP?

A.Transition services

B.Related services

C.Program modifications

D.Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance

A.Transition services

The activities need to be included in the student’s required transitional plan, which must be developed for students 16 years and older.

Which of the following is most important when designing the physical space in a classroom to accommodate a student who uses a wheelchair?

A.Separate areas for whole‑group and small‑group instruction for effective delivery of lessons

B.A corner in the classroom where all the students can cluster for mini lessons

C.Enough room between furniture for easy accessibility to classroom supplies

D.Desks and chairs arranged neatly in rows so all students face the teacher

C.Enough room between furniture for easy accessibility to classroom supplies

This question tests knowledge of organizing the learning environment. This answer is correct because it is important to consider whether there is enough space for a student in a wheelchair to maneuver around the classroom independently.

The major difference between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic impairment is that TBI

A.affects motor function

B.affects educational performance

C.is caused by a congenital anomaly

D.is an acquired injury

D.is an acquired injury

Traumatic Brain Injury is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force. This kind of injury affects a child’s educational performance.

Jan, who is 17 years old, was diagnosed with cerebral palsy as a young child and has a moderate intellectual disability. She is very outgoing, has much to say, and has a strong desire to communicate. However, individuals who do not know Jan have a very difficult time understanding her oral language. Which of the following actions is most likely to enhance Jan’s communication skills?

A.Developing a book of interactive picture communication boards

B.Training in using body language to communicate

C.Utilizing an electronic speech‑generating communication aid

D.Accessing a bilingual communication tool for nonvocal individuals

C.Utilizing an electronic speech‑generating communication aid

Given Jan’s age and her strong desire to communicate with others, an electronic device that is both small and portable would provide her with the technology she needs to build her vocabulary and communicate with others.

Which THREE of the following are an effective way for a teacher to avoid gender bias in teaching?

A.Recognizing the abilities of all children without regard to gender

B.Screening children’s storybooks for gender stereotypes

C.Avoiding children’s questions about gender differences

D.Using gender‑neutral labels when discussing role models

A.Recognizing the abilities of all children without regard to gender
B.Screening children’s storybooks for gender stereotypes
D.Using gender‑neutral labels when discussing role modelsThese options demonstrate ways to avoid gender stereotyping when teaching students.

Alan is an eighth‑grade student classified with an intellectual disability. Testing shows that Alan is functioning at a third‑grade level in all academic areas. He receives instruction in the resource room. Which of the following is an appropriate goal for Alan?

A.Writing a five‑paragraph essay with no more than six grammatical errors

B.Using correct end‑point punctuation when writing sentences

C.Correctly multiplying two fractions with different denominators four out of five times

D.Identifying major economic factors affecting the United States economy

B.Using correct end‑point punctuation when writing sentences

The question tests understanding of writing appropriate goals. This is the correct answer because using punctuation is appropriate for a student functioning at a third-grade reading level.

Which of the following is an expectation that a student who has difficulty counting money can meet?

A.Student will learn sight words related to using money in daily activities.

B.Student will learn to use adaptations in place of an academic skill.

C.Student will recognize numbers and use them in school and community activities.

D.Student will master grade‑level material with outcomes similar to those of most classmates.

B.Student will learn to use adaptations in place of an academic skill.

Since the student has difficulty counting money, the student needs to learn a routine that is suited for his or her skills, such as putting predetermined amounts of money in an envelope to spend as needed.

Which of the following is most associated with seizures?

A.Cystic fibrosis

B.Epilepsy

C.Asperger syndrome

D.Sickle‑cell anemia

B.Epilepsy

The question tests knowledge of the basic characteristics and defining factors of the major disabilities categories. Epilepsy is characterized by seizures caused by imbalances in the brain.

Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are related to which of the following educational concepts?

A.Bloom’s taxonomy

B.Gardner’s multiple intelligences

C.Classical conditioning

D.Constructivism

A.Bloom’s taxonomy

Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are the six levels of cognitive domain under Bloom’s taxonomy.

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales is most likely to be used in the identification of

A.gifted and talented students

B.learning disabilities

C.intellectual disabilities

D.fragile X syndrome

C.intellectual disabilities

The question tests knowledge of assessment tools. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) was designed to assess personal, social, and adaptive functioning of disabled and nondisabled persons from birth to adulthood.

Students in Mr. Steeger’s first‑grade class are often asked to participate in classroom decisions. They recently voted on where in the classroom to place a new plant and which book to read during a read‑aloud. Which of the following is the most likely benefit to students of this type of classroom?

A.Increased self‑esteem

B.Increased on‑task behavior

C.Improved peer relationships

D.Greater sense of responsibility

A.Increased self‑esteem

The question tests knowledge of planning and organizing the learning environment. This answer is correct because students need to participate in the decision-making process from an early stage to build their self-esteem. Creating opportunities for students to make decisions gives them more control and a sense that the classroom belongs to them.

Which of the following activities would enable a student with an intellectual disability to best demonstrate knowledge of rocks and the rock cycle?

A.Sorting picture cards of rocks by the type of rock

B.Filling in a concept map of the rock cycle with examples for each type of rock

C.Completing an interactive internet activity on rocks and the rock cycle

D.Writing an essay that describes the similarities of and the differences between the three types of rocks and explains how rocks can change from one type to another

B.Filling in a concept map of the rock cycle with examples for each type of rock

The question assesses understanding of adapting student assessments. This answer is correct because filling in a concept map will assess knowledge of the rock cycle, and including examples of each type of rock will demonstrate an understanding of the rock types.

A kindergarten teacher planning phonological awareness activities for the year must ensure that the activities match the phonological awareness continuum. Place the following levels of phonological awareness in the correct order of development.

Syllable awareness
Onset and rime
Listening and rhyming
Phoneme blending

A. Syllable awareness

B. Onset and rime

C. Listening and rhyming

D. Phoneme blending

C. Listening and rhyming
A. Syllable awareness
B. Onset and rime
D. Phoneme blendingListening and rhyming, syllable awareness, onset and rime, and phoneme blending is the correct sequence because generally children develop the ability to notice, hear, identify, and manipulate words and word parts, including phonemes, syllables, and onset and rime, in that specific order.

Mr. Whyte uses an overhead projector to show his first‑grade class how to form their letters correctly using the lines on the paper.

Which of the following techniques best describes Mr. Whyte’s teaching strategy?

A.Cooperative learning

B.Brainstorming

C.Modeling

D.Think‑aloud

C.Modeling

The question tests knowledge of instructional strategies. This answer is correct because the teacher is demonstrating the correct way to form the letters.

Which of the following theoretical approaches includes stimulus‑response associations made by the learner?

A.Behaviorism

B.Cognitivism

C.Social learning theory

D.Constructivism

A.Behaviorism

Behaviorism refers to observing behaviors that are a direct response to stimuli.

Jerry is a third‑grade student diagnosed with a moderate intellectual disability. His teacher has noticed significant problems with impulse control, attention, transitioning, planning, organizing, and initiating tasks.

Difficulties in these areas are most likely indicative of a deficit in

A.visual perception processing

B.information processing

C.adaptive functioning

D.executive functioning

D.executive functioning

Executive functioning includes impulse control, attention, transitioning, planning, organizing, and initiating tasks.

What is the most important information gained from conducting a functional behavioral assessment?

A.Causes of the behavior

B.Student strengths

C.Behavior consequences

D.Skill deficits

A.Causes of the behavior

The question tests knowledge of a functional behavioral assessment (FBA), which helps to identify the causes of a behavior.

Which of the following learning tools will be most beneficial to help Angie, a second‑grade student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), learn how to use a schedule?

A.An audiotape with step‑by‑step directions

B.A visual schedule including picture symbols

C.A written schedule with simplified wording

D.An ink stamp to mark each completed activity on a chart

B.A visual schedule including picture symbols

The question tests understanding of instructional strategies and techniques. Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to be visual learners who benefit from using visual supports and picture symbols.

The most likely reason for administering the entire Woodcock‑Johnson Psycho‑Educational Battery, Third Edition, to a student is to evaluate for

A.intellectual disability

B.learning disabilities

C.serious emotional disturbance

D.attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

B.learning disabilities

The question tests understanding of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Third Edition, as well as an understanding of typical testing in the identification of learning disabilities. This answer is correct because the test can provide a discrepancy score between ability and achievement, which is typically a major component of the diagnosis of learning disabilities.

John is a ninth‑grade student who has been identified as having an orthopedic impairment from cerebral palsy. Which of the following accommodations is most appropriate for John during his inclusive science class?

A.Seating him near the teacher so he can hear the lectures more clearly

B.Allowing him to take frequent breaks during the science class

C.Providing him with large‑print versions of all materials

D.Allowing him to use a computer with word‑prediction software to take notes

D.Allowing him to use a computer with word‑prediction software to take notes

The question tests knowledge of classroom accommodations for a students with a physical disabilities. Students with cerebral palsy often have difficulty writing, so using a computer with word-prediction software will allow John to be independent and take notes using minimal key strokes, which will support his fine-motor delay.

Which of the following is the first federal law to mandate practices to ensure that students with disabilities receive a free and appropriate public education?

A.Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

B.Americans with Disabilities Act

C.Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

D.Public Law 94-142

D.Public Law 94-142

PL 94-142 was developed in 1975 and was the first law which required schools to provide a free and appropriate public education to students with disabilities.

To be eligible to receive special education services under Part B of IDEA, students must be in which of the following ranges?

A.Infant through grade 5

B.Ages 3 to 21

C.Pre‑K through grade 5

D.Grade 6 through grade 12

B.Ages 3 to 21

The question tests knowledge of legislation. This answer is correct because it correctly identifies the ages of students protected under Part B of IDEA.

Least restrictive environment defines that students with disabilities should be

A.placed in classes based on age or grade level, regardless of their ability

B.educated to the maximum extent appropriate with other students who are not disabled

C.provided assistive technology supports in all classes

D.limited in their requirement to perform higher‑order thinking skills

B.educated to the maximum extent appropriate with other students who are not disabled

The term “least restrictive environment” refers to including students with disabilities in the same educational environment with students who are not disabled, to the maximum extent appropriate, while meeting the student’s needs.

Carol is a 4‑year‑old girl who had a mild traumatic brain injury right after birth. Carol did not begin speaking until after her third birthday. She has difficulty understanding what others say and communicating her needs. Her fine and gross motor skills are age appropriate, as are her height and weight. Her favorite game is playing hide‑and‑seek, which she plays with her brothers.

Which of the following most accurately describes the symptoms listed above?

A.Dyscalculia

B.Aphasia

C.Apraxia

D.Autism spectrum disorder

B.Aphasia

Aphasia affects a person’s ability to speak and understand speech most likely after a traumatic brain injury, stroke, dementia, illness and other progressive neurological disorders.

A student who has a moderate intellectual disability examined a set of twelve communication board symbols and could correctly identify the meaning of only five of them. Based on the student’s experience, which of the following can be inferred about the process of selecting symbols to use with a student’s communication board?

A.Symbols without text labels are easily understood.

B.Symbols must be taught to students in a rigid hierarchy.

C.Symbols need to reflect metaphors that come from adult life experiences.

D.Symbols should be taught and used within contexts meaningful to children.

D.Symbols should be taught and used within contexts meaningful to children.

According to research the symbols used on a child’s communication boards should reflect the child’s understandings not those of the adult creating the board.

Special education teachers are expected to hold highly qualified status when teaching which THREE of the following?

A.Core academic subjects

B.Alternate achievement standards

C.Multiple subjects

D.Primary grades

A.Core academic subjects
B.Alternate achievement standards
C.Multiple subjectsThe question tests understanding of the meaning of highly qualified status. These options are correct because teaching these subject areas requires a teacher to be highly qualified.

Sheena is a fifth‑grade student with a hearing impairment. If an FM system is used in the classroom, which of the following would be the most likely benefit to Sheena?

A.Closer friendships with peers

B.Increased academic performance

C.Elimination of the need for special services

D.Improvement in speech‑reading abilities

B.Increased academic performance

An FM system is an assistive technology device that enables an individual with a hearing impairment to access the curriculum, thus potentially increasing their academic performance through improved focus and learning ability.

Which of the following best demonstrates Glasser’s lead teacher concept?

A.Requiring students to take notes in outline form during a lecture on ecology

B.Allowing students to identify interesting research topics for term papers

C.Posting classroom rules, including the penalties for each level of infraction

D.Using graphic organizers to compare the factors of composite numbers

B.Allowing students to identify interesting research topics for term papers

This question tests knowledge of different methods of instruction. This is correct because lead teaching involves letting students make choices about their own learning.

Which of the following skills is most likely to be included in a functional life skills curriculum?

A.Reading fictional grade‑level textbooks

B.Making change with a cash register

C.Solving mathematics word problems independently

D.Walking one mile around a track

B.Making change with a cash register

This question measures how working a cash register is a required skill at a variety of community jobs and thus a functional life skill that would give students hands-on experiences and allow for modeling, demonstration, and multiple means of representation.

Which of the following assistive technologies is most likely to benefit a sixth‑grade student with a specific learning disability in writing?

A.A communication board

B.Speech‑to‑text software

C.An interactive whiteboard

D.A screen reader

B.Speech‑to‑text software

The question tests knowledge of assistive technology. This answer is correct because speech-to-text software helps a student overcome difficulties during the writing process.

Which of the following conditions most often co‑occurs with a traumatic brain injury?

A.Hyperactivity

B.Limited vision

C.A repetitive behavior disorder

D.Personality change

D.Personality change

This question tests knowledge of co‑occurring conditions. This answer is correct because personality change is one of the many conditions that can co‑occur with a traumatic brain injury.

Tim is 11 years old and is classified with autism spectrum disorder. He is in a general education classroom without adaptations. Which of the following is the best example of an appropriate learning outcome in science for Tim?

A.Tim will help his group make a model of the planet Saturn.

B.Tim will identify low‑frequency words used to discuss types of trees.

C.Tim will develop a problem‑and‑solution flowchart about a source of pollution.

D.Tim will graph changes in temperature at the North and South Poles over a year’s time.

A.Tim will help his group make a model of the planet Saturn.

Fifth graders study the solar system and might be expected to build a model of a planet such as Saturn.

Which of the following conditions can be prevented by proper prenatal care?

A.Down syndrome

B.Fetal alcohol syndrome

C.Sickle‑cell anemia

D.Multiple sclerosis

B.Fetal alcohol syndrome

The question tests knowledge of the basic characteristics and defining factors of disabling conditions. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition caused when a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, which passes through the placenta and harms the fetus developmentally.

Chung, a 7‑year‑old student with a learning disability, is learning to spell words with consonant blends. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step for the teacher to use to help Chung develop his reading skills?

A.Encouraging Chung to read a decodable text

B.Introducing Chung to short vowel sounds in three‑letter words

C.Teaching Chung how to do a picture walk in a decodable text

D.Encouraging Chung to sound out each letter of the alphabet

A.Encouraging Chung to read a decodable text

The question tests the knowledge of appropriate instructional strategies in teaching phonics. This answer is correct because systematic phonics instruction is necessary to help Chung not only decode a word accurately but also read and use the word in a context to develop fluency in reading.

Which THREE of the following are characteristics commonly exhibited by students who have acquired a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ?

A.Pronounced inconsistencies in performance

B.Responsiveness to incentive‑based behavioral plans

C.Inappropriate responses in social situations

D.Deficits in problem solving and abstract thinking

A.Pronounced inconsistencies in performance
C.Inappropriate responses in social situations
D.Deficits in problem solving and abstract thinkingChildren who sustain TBI may experience a complex array of problems, including pronounced inconsistencies in performance, inappropriate responses in social situations, and deficits in problem solving and abstract thinking.

Joseph, a 14‑year‑old student with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has frequent outbursts when learning a new academic concept. Which of the following options is most appropriate to help Joseph control his frustrations and increase on‑task behavior?

A.Reteaching the new lesson to Joseph one‑on‑one to ensure maximum retention

B.Assigning a buddy who will help Joseph with his schoolwork

C.Letting Joseph choose what he will work on from a list of possible assignments

D.Working with Joseph to establish a self‑management plan

D.Working with Joseph to establish a self‑management plan

Establishing a self‑management plan can be an effective way of helping Joseph monitor his own behavior and improve it.

A kindergarten teacher uses counters to show her students how to sort by color. After several rounds of guided practice, the students are asked to place the red counters in a cup and the green counters in a bag. What evaluation technique is the teacher using to test the students’ understanding of the concept?

A.Observation

B.Running record

C.Exit card

D.Summary

A.Observation

The teacher uses classroom observation as an informal method of assessment to check students’ understanding of a concept taught in class.

Which of the following adaptations best supports learning for students with intellectual disabilities?

A.Providing seats for the students away from distractions

B.Providing the students with inflatable tactile seat cushions

C.Allowing students to listen to music on headphones

D.Allowing students to take a walk if they become upset

A.Providing seats for the students away from distractions

Minimizing distractions will allow students with intellectual disabilities to listen to instruction, ask questions if needed, and focus on the content.

Max is a 12‑year‑old student who has a full scale IQ of 60 and concurrent deficits in social, academic, adaptive, and communication skills. Max is most likely to be classified with which of the following?

A.A learning disability

B.An intellectual disability

C.Other health impairment

D.Multiple disabilities

B.An intellectual disability

Given the information provided about the student, he meets the criteria for a student who has the classification of Intellectual disability.

Which of the following is the best example of task analysis?

A.Describing the process of tying a shoelace by breaking it down into small steps and then explaining those steps

B.Organizing a social studies project that is to be researched and completed over several weeks

C.Subdividing a text into smaller parts to enable a student to focus on and analyze each part

D.Planning a take‑home assessment that is to be completed in sections over several days

A.Describing the process of tying a shoelace by breaking it down into small steps and then explaining those steps

The question tests knowledge of task analysis. This answer is correct because task analysis is the process of breaking down a life skill, such as tying shoelaces, into smaller, more manageable steps in order to teach the skill. Task analysis is used to teach life skills to students with autism spectrum disorder.

Jason is a seventh‑grade student with an anxiety disorder. He has a flat affect and is generally withdrawn. When he must interact with other students in class, he avoids eye contact and verbal communication. When other students approach him to talk or play a game, he gets out of his seat and walks away.

Which of the following strategies is most likely to improve Jason’s interactions with other students?

A.Displaying posters on social skills in the classroom

B.Assigning Jason to be team captain for a review game

C.Asking Jason to run errands for the teacher

D.Discussing social stories that model talking with others

D.Discussing social stories that model talking with others

The question tests knowledge of planning the learning environment to encourage social interactions. This answer is correct because social stories provide models of conduct and allow students to learn appropriate ways to interact with other students. These stories can be implemented either through read‑alouds or appropriate social skills videos to model real‑life situations and encourage the student to apply those skills in the classroom.

Which of the following is the correct sequence for designing an effective lesson plan?

A.Assessment, independent practice, objective, guided practice, anticipatory set

B.Objective, anticipatory set, guided practice, independent practice, assessment

C.Objective, guided practice, independent practice, anticipatory set, assessment

D.Independent practice, objective, anticipatory set, guided practice, assessment

B.Objective, anticipatory set, guided practice, independent practice, assessment

The question tests knowledge of designing lesson plans. This answer is correct because a good lesson plan follows proper sequencing of the following elements: objective, anticipatory set, guided practice, independent practice, and assessment. The sequential order is important to follow because it provides a sense of coherence and flow in the lesson. It also helps the teacher assess students’ knowledge of the subject matter and their understanding of the lesson taught in a step‑by‑step order.

At the beginning of the school year, Ms. Brennan gives her students, who have been identified with various learning disabilities, a learning‑style inventory. Throughout the year, Ms. Brennan plans to teach her students the accommodations and strategies that will support their learning styles and encourage them to communicate their needs.

Which of the following is being described in the scenario above?

A.Behavior modification

B.Self‑advocacy

C.Child Find

D.Transition

B.Self‑advocacy

Self-advocacy is the ability to understand and effectively communicate one’s needs to other individuals.

List THREE strengths that Benjamin displays in his writing assignment.

Describe TWO instructional strategies that the teachers might use as the next steps to improve and develop Benjamin’s writing skills.

Directions:
Benjamin, a first-grade student with a specific learning disability (SLD), was asked to write about a dream that he had. Below is Benjamin’s assignment sample

The written text reads:

I dr am d uvf a bou h ro s

The sentence is written as: I, space, d r, space, a m, space, d, space, u v f, space, a, space, b o u, space, h, space, r o, space, s.

Below the written text is: parenthesis, I dream of about heroes, period , close parenthesis

Describe THREE different teaching strategies a special education teacher might use to help Josie understand and solve word problems. Explain how EACH strategy might help Josie accomplish her IEP goal.

Teaching Scenario
Josie is a student in a fifth-grade inclusion class. She has a specific learning disability in mathematics and has particular difficulty solving word problems. As soon as she finishes reading a problem, she begins doing computations; additionally, she seems to think that all problems have whole-number answers. One of the annual goals in her IEP is related to learning the process of solving word problems: “Josie will be able to solve grade-appropriate word problems independently 85 percent of the time, using a systematic and logical process.”

Identify THREE different strategies that would enable the teachers in a coteaching environment to develop and maintain a successful collaboration. Explain briefly how each strategy could contribute to a successful collaboration.

Teaching Scenario
A first-year special education teacher is given a coteaching assignment in a high school general science class. The students in the class represent a wide variety of academic functioning. The general education teacher has not taught students with special needs in an inclusion setting before, nor has he collaborated with a special education teacher before this assignment.