SPED 370: Overview

According to the APA, in order to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, an individual must meet each of these criteria EXCEPT
A) clinically significant, persistent defects in social communication and interactions
B) restricted, repetitive pattern of behavior, interests, and activities
C) symptoms must be present in early childhood
D) evidence of echolalia, a unique language pattern with repetition of words and phrases
A condition characterized by normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by a significant loss of skills is
A) Asperger syndrome.
B) Rett syndrome.
C) childhood disintegrative disorder.
D) pervasive developmental disorder.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, how many people have an autism spectrum disorder?
A) about 1 out of 110
B) about 1 out of 2,500
C) about 1 out of 333
D) about 1 out 88
Most scientists argue that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT
A) a widening of the criteria used for diagnosis.
B) a greater awareness of autism in general.
C) widespread use of vaccinations for babies.
D) “diagnostic substitution” (diagnosing with autism rather than intellectual disability).
Each of the following supports a neurological basis for autism EXCEPT
A) People with autism have a high incidence of brain seizures and cognitive deficits.
B) Postmortem and neurological imaging studies have implicated several areas of the brain that differ from those of people without disabilities.
C) People with autism may have experienced sudden, excessive brain growth followed by a deceleration in growth.
D) Studies show that when one sibling is diagnosed with autism, the chances are much higher that another sibling has autism. (Genetic Causes)
The desire to communicate for social reasons is
A) pragmatic language.
B) communicative intent.
C) echolalia.
D) conversational impetus.
Repetitive, ritualistic motor movements such as twirling, flapping hands, and rocking are known as
A) impaired social responsiveness.
B) impaired communication.
C) stereotypic behaviors. a.k.a verbal behaviors
D) preoccupation with objects.
The social skills that are not taught directly but people are assumed to know, or social rules or conventions that most of us learn incidentally, are what is referred to as the
A) hidden curriculum.
B) secret curriculum.
C) social curriculum.
D) undisclosed curriculum.
The way people use language in social situations is
A) communicative intent.
B) semantics.
C) pragmatics.
D) syntax.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) includes each of the following components EXCEPT
A) using structured lessons.
B) limited use of reinforcement.
C) focus on functional skills.
D) require continuous assessment of progress.
Functional behavioral assessment is used to reduce or eliminate negative behaviors. The purposes the behaviors serve for a person are
A) antecedents.
B) setting events.
C) consequences.
D) motivations.
Communication requires
A) language.
B) encoding and decoding.
C) speech.
D) listening and speaking.
Each of the following is a misconception about autism spectrum disorders
A) It is a single, well-defined category of disability.
B) People with autism spectrum disorders are all intellectually disabled.
C) People with autism are impaired in some cognitive areas but are highly intelligent or geniuses in others.
D) There is no evidence that bad parenting causes autism.
Requesting objects, rejecting interactions, sharing ideas, and seeking social interaction are examples of
A) communicative function.
B) communication.
C) language.
D) expressive language.
The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning is
A) speech.
B) language.
C) communication.
D) phonology.
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
A) expressive language.
B) receptive language.
C) discourse.
D) communication.
Decoding, or understanding messages, is referred to as
A) communication.
B) expressive language.
C) discourse.
D) receptive language.
The neuromuscular activity of forming and sequencing the sounds of oral language is called
A) communication.
B) discourse.
C) speech.
D) phonology.
“Phonology” refers to linguistic rules governing
A) construction of sentences.
B) sound combinations.
C) patterns of language use.
D) construction of word forms.
The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as
A) morphology.
B) pragmatics.
C) syntax.
D) semantics.
A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is
A) communication.
B) semantics.
C) speech.
D) pragmatics.
Which one of the following is an articulation disorder?
A) lisping
B) stuttering
C) aphasia
D) mutism
The dimensions of voice are
A) resonance, pitch, and tone.
B) resonance, loudness, and quality.
C) pitch, loudness, and quality.
D) resonance, pitch, and quality.
The most common fluency disorder is
A) stuttering.
B) acquired aphasia.
C) echolalia.
D) dysarthria.
The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?
A) phonology
B) semantics
C) pragmatics
D) morphology
From the physiological perspective, the distinction between “deaf” and “hard of hearing” is based on
A) decibels levels detected.
B) frequency of sounds detected.
C) location of hearing loss.
D) language ability.
From an educational point of view, how is “deafness” best defined?
A) a condition present since birth
B) an inability to understand speech even with a hearing aid
C) a hearing loss of more than 90 dB in at least one ear
D) a condition of old age
The term “hard of hearing” is used to describe people with hearing impairment who
A) were not born deaf but became deaf later in life.
B) have a mild hearing loss.
C) have a conductive hearing loss.
D) have enough residual hearing to process sound with a hearing aid.
Simon has a hearing loss that occurred when he was seven years old. His loss is best described as
A) conductive.-transfer of sounds with the middle or outer ear
B) sensorineural.-problems of hearing with the inner ear
C) congenital.-born deaf
D) postlingual.
The “speech reception threshold” is best defined as the
A) dB level at which one can understand speech.
B) intensity and frequency of spoken English.
C) Hz level at which the average person can detect sound.
D) level at which the human ear can discriminate between similar sounds.
The most severe hearing impairments are associated with which part of the ear?
A) middle ear
B) eardrum
C) inner ear
D) outer ear
All of the following are problems associated with inner ear hearing loss EXCEPT
A) sound distortion.
B) balance problems.
C) ringing noises. -as well as roaring problems
D) draining fluid.
As a disability of children, blindness is
A) one of the most prevalent disabilities.
B) about average in prevalence compared to other sensory disabilities.
C) the least prevalent disability.
D) increasing rapidly in prevalence.
The legal definition of blindness involves assessment of
A) color perception and visual acuity.
B) field of vision and depth perception.
C) visual acuity and field of vision.
D) depth perception and color perception.
Even though he has visual acuity of 20/20, Jeff is considered legally blind. This is possible if he has severely restricted
A) angular vision.
B) peripheral vision.
C) partial vision.
D) low vision.
The educational definition of blindness and low vision stresses
A) the method of reading instruction.
B) using visual acuity as a predictor of how people will function.
C) the method of vision assessment.
D) using whatever remaining sight a person has.
For educational purposes, individuals who are blind
A) are able to use a magnifying device.
B) can still read print if it is large enough.
C) have absolutely no sight.
D) must use braille or aural methods.
Many students who are legally blind would not be considered blind from an educational perspective because they
A) have a coexisting condition.
B) are able to use vision for learning.
C) are able to read Braille.
D) are able to use hearing for learning.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is caused by
A) premature birth.
B) excessive oxygen given to infants at birth.
C) fetal alcohol syndrome.
D) degenerative hereditary disease.
Most professionals now agree that the intelligence of people with blindness
A) is usually higher than that of people with sight.
B) is markedly lower than that of people with sight.
C) is slightly lower than that of people with sight.
D) can’t be compared directly to that of people with sight.
Which of the following statements about the conceptual abilities of children with visual impairment is true?
A) The performance of infants with visual problems is the same as that of their peers with sight on conceptual tasks.
B) Adults need to directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own.
C) Touch is just as efficient as sight for arriving at conceptualizations of objects.
D) Infants with vision problems pick up information incidentally in the same way as their peers with sight.
A skill used by people who are blind to aid them in acquiring mobility is
A) sequential mapping.
B) spatial ability.
C) Doppler effect.
D) tactual perception.
When walking, Lisa, an eighteen-year-old with blindness, has learned to attend to the subtle changes in pitch of echoes from objects as she moves towards them. Which phenomenon is responsible for these changes?
A) obstacle sense
B) Doppler effect
C) echolalia
D) tactual perception
People who are blind
A) develop better acuity in their other senses.
B) are superior to sighted people in musical ability.
C) have lowered thresholds for sensation in touch and hearing.
D) learn to make better use of the sensations they obtain.
Each of the following statements about severe and multiple disabilities is true EXCEPT
A) A person with TBI can be expected, with time and care, to recover completely and function without disabilities.
B) Many people with severe and multiple disabilities can now live independently or semi-independently.
C) People who cannot speak can still carry on conversations.
D) Many people with severe and multiple disabilities can be employed outside of sheltered workshops.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common injuries of
A) children over 5 because of falls.
B) males over 30 because of vehicular accidents.
C) the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
D) adults over 20 because of risk-taking.
Each of the following is a feature of definitions of TBI EXCEPT
A) injury to the brain can be caused by a degenerative or congenital condition.
B) injury to the brain is caused by an external force.
C) there is a diminished or altered state of consciousness.
D) neurological or neurobehavioral dysfunction results from the injury.
Brain damage caused by internal compression, stretching, or other shearing motion of neural tissues within the head is due to
A) open head injuries.
B) external force.
C) closed head injuries.
D) degenerative conditions.
Possible effects of TBI include each of the following EXCEPT
A) problems learning new information.
B) difficulty processing information.
C) sudden improvement in memory.
D) becoming easily tired
The primary distinguishing characteristic of children with physical disability is
A) intellectual and health problems.
B) intellectual and medical problems.
C) medical or health problems.
D) medical or cognitive problems.
A condition that may be severe but resolves with treatment is
A) progressive.
B) episodic.
C) chronic.
D) acute.
A condition that is incurable is
A) progressive.
B) episodic.
C) chronic.
D) acute.
A condition that recurs at successive times but does not necessarily become more severe overtime is
A) progressive.
B) episodic.
C) chronic.
D) acute.
A condition that becomes more and more severe over time is
A) progressive.
B) episodic.
C) chronic.
D) acute.
Impairments that are the result of injury to the brain that also affect the ability to move parts of one’s body are
A) neurological impairments.
B) traumatic brain injuries.
C) orthopedic impairments.
D) neuromotor impairments.
Cerebral palsy is
A) a neurological disease.
B) subject to frequent remission.
C) sometimes contagious.
D) a nonprogressive disorder.
Cerebral palsy is a condition that occurs
A) during the birth process.
B) before birth.
C) after birth.
D) before brain maturity.
Cerebral palsy is classified by
A) the limbs involved and type of motor disability.
B) time period during which brain damage occurred.
C) severity of the symptoms.
D) the effect on intellectual functioning.
Stiffness or tenseness of muscles and inaccurate voluntary movements is known as
A) choreoathetosis.
B) atonicity.
C) spasticity.
D) reflexivity.
The extent of the paralysis in spina bifida depends on
A) the stage of development during which it occurs.
B) the success or failure of the surgery to close the opening.
C) the success or failure of the surgery to repair the nerve damage.
D) the location of the spinal cord defect.