Special ed Sara

Ensuring that people with disabilities have the opportunity to fully participate in all aspects of their community, and will be protected from any attempts by people to segregate them solely on the basis of their disability is which of the following?
a. Economic self-sufficiency
b. Independent living
c. Equality of opportunity
d. Full participation
d. Full participation
Equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self- sufficiency are all education outcomes for students with disabilities that Congress expects from which of the following?

a. IDEA
b. The Tech Act
c. The No Child Left Behind Act
d. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

a. IDEA
Accountability for results, school safety, parental choice, teacher quality, scientifically based methods of teaching, and local flexibility are all principles of which of the following?
a. Manifestation determination
b. No cessation
c. Equal treatment
d. Interim alternative placement
a. Manifestation determination
Accountability for results, school safety, parental choice, teacher quality, scientifically based methods of teaching, and local flexibility are all principles of which of the following?
a. Tech Act
b. IDEA
c. The No Child Left Behind Act
d. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
c. The No Child Left Behind Act
Two major legislative acts that shape how teachers do their jobs are Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and which of the following?
a. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
b. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
c. Perkins Act
d. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
b. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Ensuring that people with disabilities will be provided with opportunities to engage fully in income-producing work or unpaid work that contributes to a household or community is which of the following?
a. Equality of opportunity
b. Economic self-sufficiency
c. Independent living
d. Full participation
b. Economic self-sufficiency
A school must educate students with disabilities with students who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate for the student. This principle is which of the following?
a. Special Education Services
b. The No Child Left Behind Act
c. An IEP
d. Least Restrictive Environment
d. Least Restrictive Environment
An IEP is an education plan for students ages three through 21 with disabilities. Which of the following is an education plan for students from birth through age two?
a. ITP Individualized Transition Plan
b. IFSP Individualized Family Service Plan
c. IEP Individualized Education Plan
d. IECP Individualized Early Childhood Plan
b. IFSP Individualized Family Service Plan
Which of the following is a range of services from less to more restrictive that schools must offer to students with disabilities?
a. Continuum of services
b. Least restrictive environment
c. Special Education
d. General Education
a. Continuum of services
Present level of performance, long-term goals, short-term objectives, educational placement, and testing accommodations are all requirements of which of the following?
a. Special Education Services
b. The No Child Left Behind Act
c. Least Restrictive Environment
d. An IEP
d. An IEP
At first, with IDEA 1975, the group of students who had a right to special education consisted of which of the following?
a. Only students ages six to 18
b. Only young children ages three to five
c. Only infants and toddlers from birth through age two
d. Only older students ages 14 to 21
a. Only students ages six to 18
What does IDEA stand for?
a. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
b. Individuals with Disabilities Endorsement Association
c. Individuals with Disabilities Education Association
d. Individuals with Disabilities Endorsement Act
a. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Submitting a written request for a student to receive a full nondiscriminatory evaluation is which of the following?
a. Response to Intervention
b. Referral
c. Screening
d. Prereferral
b. Referral
Granting federal funds to the states so that they can help create statewide systems for delivering assistive technology devices and services to people with disabilities falls under which of the following?
a. IDEA
b. The No Child Left Behind Act
c. The Tech Act
d. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
c. The Tech Act
Which law extends civil rights and antidiscriminatory protection for individuals with disabilities into transportation, employment, and state and local government activities?
a. Section 504
b. IDEA
c. ADA
d. No Child Left Behind
c. ADA
Children who need early intervention services because of developmental delays or have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay are provided with services through which of the following?
a. IDEA, Part C
b. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
c. The No Child Left Behind Act
d. Americans with Disabilities Act
a. IDEA, Part C
What is the current age span for services under IDEA?
a. IDEA covers individuals ages birth to 21.
b. IDEA covers individuals ages six to 21.
c. IDEA covers individuals ages six to 18.
d. IDEA covers individuals ages three to age 21.
a. IDEA covers individuals ages birth to 21.
Which of the following was a critical outcome of the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954?
a. Schools must mainstream students with disabilities.
b. Students must use nondiscriminatory assessments.
c. Schools must provide funds for special education.
d. Schools may not segregate by race.
d. Schools may not segregate by race.
Which of the following ensures that people with disabilities have the same chances and opportunities in life as people without disabilities
a. Independent living
b. Economic self-sufficiency
c. Equality of opportunity
d. Full participation
c. Equality of opportunity
Strong accountability, increased flexibility and local control of schools, research-based teaching methods, options for parents, and highly qualified teachers are components of which federal law?
a. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
b. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
c. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
d. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
d. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Which legislation is a federal employment-related law for students with disabilities that provides vocational rehabilitation services and supported employment programs?
a. The No Child Left Behind Act
b. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
c. IDEA
d. The Tech Act
b. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
The IDEA principle that seeks to make schools and parents accountable to each other for carrying out the student’s IDEA rights is which of the following?
a. Zero reject
b. Appropriate education
c. Least restrictive environment
d. Procedural due process
d. Procedural due process
What two disability categories constitute about two-thirds of all students who are classified as disabled?
a. Learning disabilities and emotional disturbance
b. Learning disabilities and speech/language impairments
c. Learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder
d. Learning disabilities and Intellectual disabilities
b. Learning disabilities and speech/language impairments
Which of the following is a benefit of a disability label (such as “learning disabilities”)?
a. Labels qualify students for special education services
b. Labels emphasize students’ instructional needs
c. Labels promote collaboration among team members
d. Labels tell teachers what teaching methods to use
??? not b
To ensure that all students with a disability receive an appropriate education and that schools are safe places for teaching and learning, IDEA regulates how schools do which of the following?
a. Discipline students who qualify for IDEA services
b. Communicate with parents
c. Choose the special education curriculum
d. Report grades and progress for students who qualify for IDEA services
??? not d
Which of the following students are most likely to be educated in special schools?
a. Students with learning disabilities and other health impairments
b. Students with hearing impairments, visual impairments, and deaf-blindness
c. Students with learning disabilities and Intellectual disabilities
d. Students with emotional or behavioral disorders, and autism
d. Students with emotional or behavioral disorders, and
Accommodations do not change the content of assessment; rather they result in changes in teachers’ ways of presenting information, students’ ways of responding, timing, and which of the following?
a. Test scores
b. Achievement
c. Setting
d. Grades
c. Setting
The inclusion movement has tried to limit the need for more restrictive settings by creating which of the following?
a. Stricter laws limit the restrictive settings
b. More lenient academic standards
c. Director of inclusion positions in each school district
d. New partnerships between special and general educators
d. New partnerships between special and general educators
When educators adapt the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address a student’s unique needs, which of the following is occurring?
a. Specially designed instruction
b. An IEP
c. Differentiated instruction
d. Accommodation
??? not a
Students with which disabilities tend to be served in resource rooms?
a. Students with learning disabilities and other health impairments
b. Students with learning disabilities and Intellectual disabilities
c. Students with Intellectual disabilities, autism, multiple disabilities, and emotional disorders
d. Students with hearing impairments, visual impairments, and deaf-blindness
a. Students with learning disabilities and other health impairments
Which of the following refers to the design of instructional materials and activities to make content information accessible to all children?
a. Goals and objectives
b. Universal design for learning
c. Content standards
d. Accommodations
b. Universal design for learning
Which of the following means to determine whether any student, regardless of type of disability, needs more intensive instruction?
a. Alternative assessment
b. Universal Design for Learning
c. Response to intervention
d. Positive behavior supports
??? not a
Specialized settings in schools may include resource rooms and which of the following?
a. Least restrictive classrooms
b. Self-contained classrooms
c. Gifted and talented classrooms
d. General education classrooms
b. Self-contained classrooms
Strategies to address a student’s behavior that impedes learning, the language needs of students with limited English proficiency, instruction in Braille for students who are blind, a student’s communication needs, and the student’s use of assistive technology are considerations of which of the following?
a. The IEP team
b. IDEA
c. NCLB
d. The parents
??? not b
For whom are alternate achievement standards designed?
a. They are an option for teachers who don’t like the state assessments
b. Students with severe cognitive disabilities
c. All special education students
d. Students who don’t pass the state assessments
b. Students with severe cognitive disabilities
Social competence, communication skills, and other developmental skills of students with disabilities have improved in which of the following settings?
a. Inclusive
b. Home-based
c. Self-contained
d. Resource room
a. Inclusive
Which of the following is when educators adapt the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address a student’s unique needs and ensures that the student can participate and make progress in the general curriculum?
a. Alternative Assessment
b. Specially designed instruction
c. Positive behavior supports
d. Response to intervention
b. Specially designed instruction
In which field or discipline did universal design originate?
a. Geography
b. Business
c. Architecture
d. Music
c. Architecture
Different formats for representing and presenting content include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Digital formats
b. Performance formats
c. Text formats
d. portfolios
d. portfolios
Over the last decade, where have students with disabilities been spending more of their instructional time?
a. In the self-contained special education classroom
b. In special schools for those with disabilities
c. In the resource room
d. In the general education classroom
d. In the general education classroom
Universal design for learning promotes flexibility in representing content, presenting content, and which of the following?
a. Demonstrating content mastery
b. Grading
c. Assessment
d. Accommodations
??? not d
Which of the following statements correctly reflects the “third generation of inclusion”?
a. Inclusion first focused on the “where” of inclusion and is now focusing on the “what” and “how.”
b. Inclusion first focused on the “what” and “how” of inclusion and is now focusing on the “where.”
c. Inclusion first focused on the “why” of inclusion and is now focusing on the “what” and “how.”
d. Inclusion first focused on the “what” of inclusion and is now focusing on the “where.”
a. Inclusion first focused on the “where” of inclusion and is now focusing on the “what” and “how.”
All of the following are key characteristics of inclusion EXCEPT:
a. Principle of natural proportions
b. Restructuring teaching and learning
c. Home-school placement
d. Alternative assessment
d. Alternative assessment
Under IDEA, a student who cannot learn the same content as same-age peers who do not have disabilities, and who cannot take the state assessment even with accommodations, is required to do which of the following?
a. Take the standard assessment
b. Be excused from school
c. Be exempt from all assessment
d. Take an alternate assessment
d. Take an alternate assessment
Which of the following is a process that identifies the academic content that students should master, the standards for the student’s achievement of content proficiency, and assessment of student progress in meeting the standards?
a. Student achievement standards
b. Standards-based reform
c. Alternative achievement standards
d. The general education curriculum
??… not d
Reports, exams, portfolios, drawings, performances, oral reports, and videotaped reports are all examples of which of the following?
a. Performance formats
b. Text formats
c. Evidence of student learning
d. Computer-mediated instruction
c. Evidence of student learning
Which of the following refers to services that range from the most typical and most inclusive settings to the most atypical and most segregated settings?
a. Age- and grade-appropriate placements
b. Restructuring and teaching and learning
c. The continuum of placements
d. The principle of natural proportions
??… not a
Which of the following is a systems-level, problem-solving oriented, and data-based approach to reducing problem behavior, improving appropriate behavior, and achieving important academic, social, and communication outcomes throughout the school building?
a. Positive behavior supports
b. Universal Design for Learning
c. Response to intervention
d. Alternative assessment
a. Positive behavior supports
Which of the following students are more likely to attend residential schools?
a. Students with hearing impairments, visual impairments, and deaf-blindness
b. Students with autism, traumatic brain injury, and Intellectual disabilities
c. Students with learning disabilities, Intellectual disabilities, and physical disabilities
d. Students with autism, visual impairments, and traumatic brain injury
a. Students with hearing impairments, visual impairments, and deaf-blindness
Different formats for delivering content information include lectures, computerized visual presentations, role-playing, and which of the following?
a. Performance formats
b. Computer-mediated instruction
c. Digital formats
d. Text formats
b. Computer-mediated instruction
Teachers helping students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural assumptions, frames of references, perspectives, and biases within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it is which of the following?
a. Equity pedagogy
b. Knowledge construction process
c. Content integration
d. Prejudice reduction
b. Knowledge construction process
Using cultural reciprocity, capitalizing upon instructional consultation teams, and implementing response to intervention are strategies for which of the following?
a. Advocating for systems change
b. Increasing knowledge and experiences of other cultures
c. Increasing self-awareness
d. Implementing culturally responsive instruction
d. Implementing culturally responsive instruction
Race/ethnicity, language, income, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, age, and geography are which of the following?
a. Considerations of cultural responsiveness
b. Macro cultures
c. Cultures in the United States
d. Micro cultures found in schools
d. Micro cultures found in schools
Schools that have the highest number of students from diverse backgrounds also tend to have which of the following?
a. Highest funding
b. High parent involvement
c. High community support
d. Greatest number of noncertified teachers
d. Greatest number of noncertified teachers
Which of the following blames their school failure results principally because there is a mismatch (difference) between their culture and the cultures of the schools themselves?
a. Eugenics
b. Cultural deficit theory
c. Cultural difference
d. Genetic deficit theory
c. Cultural difference
Comparing the proportion of a specific racial/ethnic group receiving special education services to the proportion among the total combined other racial/ethnic groups receiving special education is which of the following?
a. Risk ratio
b. Cultural discrimination
c. Segregation
d. Discriminatory evaluation
a. Risk ratio
Examining our own cultural values, bias, stereotypes, and prejudices is which of the following?
a. Cultural reciprocity
b. Increasing knowledge and experiences of other cultures
c. Culturally responsive instruction
d. Enhancing self-awareness
d. Enhancing self-awareness
The proportion of students served in special education by disability and race/ethnicity; the percentage of students in special education in difference educational environments by race/ethnicity; and the percentage of student in racial/ethnic groups receiving special education are which of the following?
a. Data sources related to nondiscriminatory evaluation
b. Data sources related to tracking
c. Data sources related to disproportionate representation
d. Data sources used in the Brown v. Board of Education case
c. Data sources related to disproportionate representation
White students and which of the following are overrepresented in gifted programs?
a. Asian students
b. Hispanic students
c. African American students
d. American Indian/Alaska native
a. Asian students
Content integration, knowledge of the construction process, an equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowering school culture and social structure are elements of which of the following?
a. Increasing knowledge and experiences of other cultures
b. Cultural reciprocity
c. Enhancing self-awareness
d. Culturally responsive instruction
d. Culturally responsive instruction
Culturally responsive schools depend on which of the following?
a. Good teachers
b. Parent participation
c. Effective administrative procedures
d. Culturally responsive societies
d. Culturally responsive societies
Which of the following exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social-class groups?
a. Prejudice reduction
b. Content integration
c. Equity pedagogy
d. Knowledge construction process
c. Equity pedagogy
Silence, early production, speech emergence, intermediate language proficiency, and advanced language proficiency are which of the following?
a. Stages of English proficiency
b. Stages of language acquisition
c. Levels of communication with parents
d. Stages of English Language curriculum
a. Stages of English proficiency
Three special education categories where educators have the greatest leeway for exercising their judgments about students’ abilities and needs are learning disabilities, emotional-behavioral disorders, and which of the following?
a. Autism spectrum disorders
b. Intellectual disabilities
c. Speech and language disorders
d. ADHD
b. Intellectual disabilities
The theory that holds that racial and class inequity are reproduced over time through institutional and individual actions and decisions that maintain the status quo at the expense of less privileged groups is which of the following?
a. Cultural deficit theory
b. Cultural reproduction theory
c. Eugenics
d. Genetic deficit theory
b. Cultural reproduction theory
Which of the following refers to procedures for seeking to improve the human race by encouraging birth of children with allegedly “good” hereditary qualities and discouraging or preventing the birth of those with allegedly “undesirable” hereditary qualities?
a. Cultural reproduction theory
b. Cultural deficit theory
c. Genetic deficit theory
d. Eugenics
d. Eugenics
Which of the following is the extent to which research and practice in instruction and assessment take into consideration the cognitive, linguistic, and social assets of an individual that are culturally determined and shape the ways in which that individual learns and makes sense of his or her experiences?
a. A macro culture
b. Cultural responsiveness
c. A micro culture
d. Culture
b. Cultural responsiveness
Which of the following holds that white people are genetically superior to nonwhite people?
a. Eugenics
b. Genetic deficit theory
c. Cultural difference
d. Cultural deficit theory
b. Genetic deficit theory
Future educators should be concerned that students who are learning English disproportionately are identified as having which of the following?
a. Learning disabilities
b. Speech and language impairment
c. Autism
d. Intellectual disabilities
a. Learning disabilities
The Children’s Defense Fund identified which of the following as the major contributing factor to the disproportionate placement of African American students in special education?
a. Lack of school readiness skills
b. Race
c. Lack of discipline
d. Poverty
d. Poverty
Which of the following are most likely to experience inclusive settings?
a. White students
b. Hispanic students
c. African American students
d. Asian students
a. White students
Which of the following involves teachers using examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area?
a. Content integration
b. Prejudice reduction
c. Knowledge construction process
d. Equity pedagogy
a. Content integration
Learning about the family’s strength, needs and preferences; inviting the family to describe their cultural values; identifying disagreements or alternative perspectives; and showing respect for differences are steps to which of the following?
a. Cultural reciprocity
b. Culturally responsive instruction
c. Enhancing self-awareness
d. Increasing knowledge and experiences of other cultures
a. Cultural reciprocity
One early consequence of the efforts at school racial desegregation was that, as enrollments of culturally and linguistically diverse children in previously all-white schools increased, their enrollment in self-contained programs decreased for which of the following?
a. Gifted students
b. Students with mild intellectual disabilities
c. Students with Learning disabilities
d. Students with Autism
b. Students with mild intellectual disabilities
Which of the following are the least likely to spend the greatest amount of time in the general education classroom and more time in special settings?
a. African American students
b. Asian students
c. Hispanic students
d. White students
a. African American students
Being reliable, using sound judgment, maintaining confidentiality, and trusting yourself are elements of which of the following?
a. Trust
b. Advocacy
c. Commitment
d. Respect
a. Trust
Which of the following is one strategy for reaching win-win solutions?
a. Sharing power
b. Going above and beyond
c. Skilled dialogue
d. Affirming strengths
c. Skilled dialogue
One of the most important elements of gaining and keeping a parent’s trust is which of the following?
a. Communication
b. Joint problem-solving
c. Confidentiality
d. Affirmation
c. Confidentiality
Be friendly, listen, be clear, be honest, and provide and coordinate information are practices for which of the following?
a. Good quality of life
b. Effective communication
c. Disability-related support
d. Good school relationships
b. Effective communication
Embarrassment, guilt, isolation, resentment, increased responsibility, and increased pressure to achieve are sometimes experienced by which of the following?
a. Parents of students of giftedness or disability
b. Siblings of students of giftedness or disability
c. Friends of students of giftedness or disability
d. Teachers of students of giftedness or disability
b. Siblings of students of giftedness or disability
Commitment occurs when partners feel loyalty to each other, but it is hard to achieve when parents and educators believe that the only reason they are working together is because the law compels them to do so. A committed professional will be available and accessible, be sensitive to emotional needs, and which of the following?
a. Set high expectations
b. Treat others with dignity
c. Affirm strengths
d. Go above and beyond
d. Go above and beyond
Which domain focuses on factors such as family members spending time together, talking with each other, and solving problems together?
a. Physical/material well-being
b. Parenting
c. Family interaction
d. Emotional well-being
c. Family interaction
Relationships in which families and professionals collaborate, capitalizing on each other’s judgments and expertise in order to increase the benefits of education for students, families, and professionals are called which of the following?
a. School-family partnerships
b. Parent-Teacher Association
c. Family-professional partnerships
d. Family intervention services
c. Family- professional partnerships
The extent to which the family needs are met, family members enjoy their life together, and family members have a chance to do the things that are important to them is referred to as which of the following?
a. Family-professional partnerships
b. Family quality of life
c. Family-school partnerships
d. Family intervention services
b. Family quality of life
Achieving goals at school or work, making progress at home, making friends, and having a good relationship between the family and service providers are aspects of which domain?
a. Parenting
b. Family interaction
c. Exceptionality-related support
d. Physical/material well-being
c. Exceptionality -related support
A national survey of parents of children in special education found that many parents considered legal action due to which of the following?
a. Bullying in school
b. Inappropriate educational placement of their child
c. Lack of quality of their child’s educational program
d. Inappropriate testing
c. Lake of quality of their child’s educational program
Approximately what percentage of students with disabilities comes from a family where the annual income is less than $25,000?
a. 16
b. 26
c. 36
d. 46
c. 36
Which definition of family is advocated by the authors of this chapter?
a. A group of people who share similar beliefs, customs, and values
b. People who are related or not related, but who love and care for each other
c. Two or more people who regard themselves as a family and carry out the functions that families typically perform
d. A group of people related by birth, marriage, or adoption who reside together and carry out family responsibilities
c. Two or more people who regard themselves as a family and carry out the functions that families typically perform.
Advocacy involves which of the following?
a. Preventing problems
b. Seeking win-win solutions
c. Affirming strengths
d. Keeping your conscience primed
??
Which of the following refers to a situation in which people creatively reframe each other’s diverse perspectives and contradictions so that the perspectives merge to address challenging issues?
a. Equality
b. Anchored understanding
c. Third space
d. Advocacy
c. Third space
Which of the following is defined as a relationship in which families and professionals collaborate with each other by capitalizing on each other’s judgment and expertise in order to increase benefits for students, families, and professionals alike?

a. Equality
b. Respect
c. Advocacy
d. Partnership

D. Partnership
Sharing power, fostering empowerment, and providing options are elements of which of the following?
Choose one answer.

a. Commitment
b. Equality
c. Advocacy
d. Respect

B. Equality
Some ways to communicate with parents include: telephone, email, voicemail, and which of the following?
Choose one answer.

a. Home visits
b. Weekly conferences
c. Dialogue journals
d. Invitations into the classroom

c. dialogue journals
Which of the following approaches helps a student with disabilities with emotional well-being by forming a support network for the student?
Choose one answer.

a. Circle of light
b. Circle of friends
c. Self-determination training group
d. Advocacy support group

B. Circle of friends
The three practices associated with professional competence within family-professional partnerships are providing a quality education, continuing to learn, and which of the following?
a. Good quality of life
b. Setting high expectations
c. Effective communication
d. Physical well-being
b. Setting high expectations
Siblings of children with disabilities often develop problem-solving skills, empathy, the ability to advocate, a capacity for understanding and seeking social justice, and which of the following?
a. Self-determination
b. Self-esteem
c. Self-directedness
d. Self-care
c. Self-directedness
Which of the following occurs when there is a compassionate understanding of differences that comes from truly getting to know individual families?
a. Anchored understanding
b. Third space
c. Equality
d. Advocacy
a. Anchored understanding
Two characteristics contribute greatly to the likelihood that families will experience poverty: the presence of children who have a disability and which of the following?
a. Single female parent as head of the household
b. Single male parent as head of household
c. Two-parent household with both parents unemployed
d. Two-parent household with one parent unemployed
a. Single female parent as head of the household
Families experience better emotional well-being when they have the following: friends or others who provide support, the support they need to relieve stress, outside help available to take care of the special needs of all family members, and which of the following?
a. Good relationships with schools
b. Time to pursue their own interests
c. Good communication skills
d. Good income level
b. Time to pursue their own interests
Professionals who demonstrate respect for others do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Seek win-win solutions
b. Treat others with dignity
c. Honor cultural diversity
d. Affirm strengths
a. Seek win-win solutions
Procedural problems, semantic memory problems, and visual-spatial problems are indications of which of the following?
a. Reading difficulty
b. Language difficulty
c. Executive functioning
d. Math difficulty
d. Math difficulty
The exclusionary standard for determining a learning disability means which of the following?
a. All students with learning disabilities will be included in resource room instruction
b. All students with learning disabilities will be included in schools
c. Identifies what conditions of learning disability are included.
d. Causal conditions of the learning disability are excluded
d. Causal conditions of the learning disability are excluded
Two ways that IDEA allows agencies to determine the presence of learning disabilities are the response to intervention approach and which of the following?
a. Nonbiased assessment
b. IQ test
c. Discrepancy standard
d. Due process
c. Discrepancy standard
Extended time and using a computer or a calculator are ways to do which of the following?
a. Accommodate test taking
b. Differentiated instruction
c. Help students with class work
d. Increase math test scores
a. Accommodate test taking
When determining the presence of learning disabilities using the discrepancy standard, evaluators can compare a student’s IQ and achievement scores. Woodcock (1990) described three types of discrepancies which include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Intracognitive
b. Intra-achievement
c. Aptitude-achievement
d. Norm-referenced
d. Norm-referenced
The inclusionary standard for determining a learning disability means which of the following?
a. All students with learning disabilities will be included in resource room instruction
b. Causal conditions of the learning disability are excluded
c. Identifies what conditions of learning disability are included.
d. All students with learning disabilities will be included in schools
c. Identifies what conditions of learning disability are included.
Being organized, engaging in future planning, and solving problems are which of the following?
a. Language skills
b. Social skills
c. Reading skills
d. Executive functioning skills
d. Executive functioning skills
Who first established the term “learning disabilities” in 1963?
a. Kirk
b. Kavale
c. Forness
d. Turnbull
a. Kirk
Bias against students from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds is one criticism of which of the following?
a. Response to Intervention
b. Discrepancy model
c. Norm-referenced assessment
d. Ecological assessment
b. Discrepancy model
Students with learning disabilities often have problems with written language, including handwriting, productivity, text structure, sentence structure, word usage, composition, and which of the following?
a. Spelling
b. Math
c. Behavior
d. Reading
a. Spelling
Self-directed IEP, self-advocacy, and self-determined model of instruction are ways to get which of the following involved in educational planning?
a. Teachers
b. Parents
c. Administrators
d. Students
d. Students
Using more than one methodology, providing a variety of formats of materials, expanding assessment options, and varying the complexity and nature of the content are elements of which of the following?
a. Response to intervention
b. Universal design for learning
c. Differentiated instruction
d. Embedded learning approach
c. Differentiated instruction
Ensuring that students with learning disabilities do not have another disability is called which of the following?
a. Early intervening services
b. Exclusion clause
c. Response to intervention
d. Discrepancy model
??? not d.
Which one of the following is part of the exclusionary criteria for learning disabilities?
a. An impairment that is caused primarily by brain injury
b. An impairment that is caused primarily by poor instruction
c. An impairment that is caused primarily by dyslexia
d. An impairment that is caused primarily by perceptual difficulties
b. An impairment that is caused primarily by poor instruction
Providing children with lots of practice and capitalizing on a child’s interest and motivation are strengths of which of the following?
a. Universal design for learning
b. Embedded learning approach
c. Differentiated instruction
d. Response to intervention
b. Embedded learning approach
The capacity to use a sound system of language to process oral and written communication is called which of the following?
a. Dyslexia
b. Phonics
c. Language
d. Phonological processing
d. Phonological processing
Which of the following design the curriculum universally and are presented before a learning experience?
a. Pocket organizers
b. Text organizers
c. Advance organizers
d. Graphic organizers
c. Advance organizers
A frequently used method to track progress in reading, writing, spelling, and math for students with disabilities is which of the following?
a. Curriculum-based measurement
b. Nonbiased assessment
c. Response to intervention
d. Differentiated instruction
a. Curriculum-based measurement
A maze task and read aloud are two measures in which of the following?
a. State tests
b. Reading probes
c. Writing probes
d. Testing accommodations
b. Reading probes
College students with disabilities were asked to identify the skills they believed necessary for success in postsecondary education. These skills include which of the following?
a. Writing skills
b. Content reading skills
c. Test-taking skills
d. Understanding their disability
d. Understanding their disability
Environmental causes of learning disabilities may include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Genetics
b. Lead-based paint
c. Teratogens
d. A mother’s alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
a. Genetics
Graphic organizers assist students in all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Identifying key concepts
b. Relating cause and effect
c. Comparing and contrasting information
d. Taking tests
d. Taking tests
Identifying where in the curriculum students with disabilities can receive instruction on content from the general curriculum that is based on the students’ unique learning needs is which of the following?
a. Curriculum mapping
b. Individualized Education Plan
c. Curriculum-based measurement
d. Supplementary services
a. Curriculum mapping
Finding appropriate solutions to social dilemmas, carrying on conversations, and perceiving the nonverbal feelings and emotions of others are which of the following?
a. Metacognition
b. Executive functioning skills
c. Social skills
d. Language skills
c. Social skills
Difficulty with decoding words, comprehending text, and appropriate speed and fluency are elements of which of the following?
a. Reading disorder
b. Language disorder
c. Math disorder
d. Written language disorder
a. Reading disorder
How can I assure my student understands what I am teaching, and how can I assure that my student can express what he/she knows, are two questions that should be asked when doing the following:
a. Planning universal design for learning
b. Planning lessons
c. Choosing textbooks
d. Planning differentiated instruction
a. Planning universal design for learning
Which of the following emphasizes that communication skills are learned through social interactions?
a. Language
b. Social Interaction Theories
c. Apraxia
d. Articulation
b. Social Interaction Theories
Substitutions, omissions, and distortions are characteristics of which of the following?
a. Apraxia of speech
b. Expressive language disorders
c. Articulation disorders
d. Receptive language disorders
c. Articulation disorders
Augmenting speech by activating the student’s communication device in naturally occurring communication interactions at home, school, and in the community is which of the following?
a. System for Augmenting Language
b. Facilitated language
c. Universal design
d. Graphic organizers
a. System for Augmenting Language
Which of the following is a primary component of most early education programs in which others use strategies to promote speech and language development?
a. Graphic organizers
b. System for Augmenting Language
c. Facilitated language
d. Universal design
c. Facilitated language
Which of the following refers to the meaning of what is expressed?
a. Phonology
b. Syntax
c. Semantics
d. Morphology
c. Semantics
Which of the following is a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech?
a. Voice disorders
b. Expressive language disorders
c. Apraxia of speech
d. Receptive language disorders
c. Apraxia of speech
Which of the following is characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information?
a. Receptive language disorder
b. Speech disorder
c. Expressive language disorder
d. Language disorder
c. Expressive language disorder
Which of the following entails receiving, understanding, and expressing information, feelings, and ideas?
a. Reading
b. Communication
c. Language
d. Comprehension
b. Communication
A structured, shared, rule-governed symbolic system for communicating is called which of the following?
a. Syntax
b. Speech
c. Phonology
d. Language
d. Language
What term refers to a language variation used by a group of individuals that reflects regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors?
a. Ebonics
b. Accent
c. Dialect
d. Difference
c. Dialect
Which of the following reflects the interactive relationship of pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, and vocal quality?
a. Voice
b. Expressive language
c. Receptive language
d. Speech
a. Voice
Which of the following focuses on the use of social language the communication between a speaker and a listener within a shared social environment?
a. Phonology
b. Pragmatics
c. Syntax
d. Semantics
b. Pragmatics
Difficulty processing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech is which of the following?
a. Receptive language disorder
b. Expressive language disorder
c. Language disorder
d. Speech disorder
d. Speech disorder
The use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words is called which of the following?
a. Speech
b. Phonology
c. Syntax
d. Language
b. Phonology
Which of the following means a student uses two variations of a language?
a. Bidialectal
b. Bilingual
c. Multilingual
d. Multidialectal
a. Bidialectal
Which of the following entails difficulty receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information?
a. Expressive language disorder
b. Speech disorder
c. Receptive language disorder
d. Language disorder
d. Language disorder
Normal speech requires correct articulation, vocal quality, and which of the following?
a. Fluency
b. Receptive language
c. Speech
d. Expressive language
a. Fluency
Which of the following is a language impairment that is not related to any physical or intellectual disability?
a. Speech impairment
b. Specific language impairment
c. Expressive language impairment
d. Receptive language disorder
b. Specific language impairment
Which of the following refers to the use of communication in contexts?
a. Morphology
b. Pragmatics
c. Semantics
d. Phonology
b. Pragmatics
A student who has difficulty distinguishing between the sound of the word “pen” and the word “pin” has which of the following?
a. Phonological disorder
b. Expressive language impairment
c. Receptive language disorder
d. Articulation disorder
a. Phonological disorder
A student who uses two languages equally well is considered which of the following?
a. Bilingual
b. Multilingual
c. Bidialectal
d. Multidialectal
a. Bilingual
Difficulty with articulation, voice, and fluency are characteristics of which of the following?
a. Speech disorders
b. Receptive language disorders
c. Language disorders
d. Expressive language disorders
a. Speech disorders
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate assessment accommodation for students with language disorders?
a. Provide the students with additional time to take the test
b. Change multiple choice items to essay items
c. Allow the students to use a word processor
d. Provide visual supports
b. Change multiple choice items to essay items
The system that governs the structure of words is which of the following?
a. Syntax
b. Phonology
c. Morphology
d. Semantics
c. Morphology