Chapter 24: Persuasive Speaking Goal: reach desired ends through an honest means
I. Persuasion ‘the art’ –faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive (not forced) influence 3 factors: Context—social, cultural, political climate Agent—persuader Receiver—audience **Equal opp. To persuade, Complete revelation of agendas—let audience know complete list of goals and how you intend to get audience there, Critical receivers—have to understand what’s being said Responsible agent—takes communication seriously
- Take responsibility for what is said and deal with consequences
- Fosters informed choice—gives all sides
- Appeals to the best in people—not the worst
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- Aware of attempts to influence—be aware of motives
- Informed about important topics
- Know their own biases—know what predisposes us—careful not to engage in defensive listening
- Aware of methods of persuasion
Influence the beliefs, attitude, and acts of others
Focus on motivation: What motivates listeners? Make your message personally relevant Demonstrate the benefit of change Set modest goals
Target issues the audience feels strongly about Establish credibility
II. Speeches built upon argument, 3 forms of appeals: Logos, Ethos, Pathos
- Logos—appeal to reason or logic, *Aristotle wished that all appealing done through LOGOS *Our ability to articulate rationality, appealing to logic and using reasoning to persuade
- Ethos—credibility, moral character. To establish speaker credibility: * Present topics honestly, establish identification, commonality, and goodwill, use personal knowledge
- Pathos—emotional states of audience.
Pride, love, anger etc. rive our actions--Done through vivid imagery **Aristotle said: Two main sources of immediate emotion= LOVE AND FEAR Syllogism— Major premise obvious statement Minor premiseextension of major premises logic Conclusionderived from above two MAIN ONE: All humans are mortal Socrates is human Socrates is mortal RHETORICAL SYLLOGISM=Enthymeme * Created by Aristotle * He claims that this communicates without saying EVERYTHING—audience can fill in blanks * Idea is that we can fill in the blank ourselves—that process is powerful—us persuading ourselves 3 cornerstones of ethical fitness:
Credibility-confidence, character, ETHOS (as speaker)—worthy of trust *Makes people want to listen to us, tend to it with care Integrity—a state of incorruptibility—should signal that we are willing to avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency Stability—respect for others, cooperation, self-sacrifice Being audience centered—to whom and for whom, worthy, honored, and respected as individuals
III. Target listener needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs—each of us has a basic set of needs that range from crucial to self-improving. Ex. To convince one to use seatbelts, appeal to ones need for safety. basic needs: Physiological, Safety, Social, Self-esteem, and Self-actualization
IV. Mental Engagement
Central processing: seriously consider your message, more likely to act Peripheral processing: Lack motivation to judge argument based on merits—most likely won’t experience meaningful change **For Central processing Link argument to practical concerns, present message at appropriate level of understanding, demonstrate common bond, stress credibility
V. Sound arguments—offer conclusion, evidence, link to reasoning
Claim: states conclusion w/ evidence. A line of reasoning is called a warrant. Fact: Focus on truth/lie, what will/won’t happen—address issue with 2+ sides Value: Address judgment issues, right VS wrong Policy: recommend specific course of action—propose specific outcome Deductive reasoning: begin with general principle, use specifics, lead to conclusion Inductive: from specific to generalizations supported—evidence pointing to conclusion
VI. Logical fallacy: false statement leading to invalid reasoning
- Begging the question—argument stated so that it cannot help but be true, even without evidence
- Bandwagoning—uses unsubstantiated opinion as false evidence
- Either-or—gives only two alternatives Ad hominem argument—targets a person and not the argument
- Red herring—relies on irrelevant premise for conclusion
- Hasty generalization—argument where, in an isolated incidence, it proves true and is used to make an unwarranted general conclusion
- Non sequitur—“does not follow” conclusion doesn’t = reasoning
- Slippery slope—fault assumption that one case will lead to events or actions
- Appeal to tradition—Suggest audience should agree b/c its “the way its always been”
- Addressing core values: Cultural norms, cultural premises, emotions **BE SENSITIVE
Motivated sequence: 5 step process, arouse listener attention + end with call of action—effective when you want audience to do something
Step 1 attention, addresses core concerns, relevance, credibility, etc.
Step 2 Need, describes issue at hand, shows importance of need
Step 3 Satisfaction, identify solution—proposal
Step 4 Visualization, vision of anticipated outcome
Step 5 Action, ask audience to act in accordance to acceptance of message 4 pillars of character:
- Trustworthiness—being honest, revealing the true purpose. Honest and dependable
- Respect--recognize audience members are unique—NO PERSONAL ATTACKS, allow audience power of rational choice
- Responsibility—accountability for what we say and do—offering appropriate appeals
- Fairness—acknowledge all sides of issue—giving the audience enough information to make a decision
**In addition—Caring and Citizenship Caring—being kind and compassionate Citizenship—doing our part as citizens Chapter 16: Using Language
I. Style * Simplicity—translate jargon into common terms * Be concise—use fewer words, use repetition * Personal pronouns—Draw audience in, encourage involvement Concrete language VS Abstract Concrete: conveys specific and tangible meanings * Abstract: general, leaves meaning to interpretation Imagery—concrete language that paints pictures * Figures of speech: metaphors, similes, and analogies where words are used in nonliteral fashion to achieve rhetorical effect Code switching: selective use of dialect that can give your speech friendliness, humor, earthiness, nostalgia, etc. AVOID: * Malapropisms—incorrect uses of word where it sounds like it fits * Biased language * Unnecessary Jargon
II. Voice—active, indicates subject relation to action Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language, shows respect for beliefs, norms, and traditions Repetition to create rhythm—repeating key words or phrases to create distinctive rhythm and enforce idea into minds of listeners * Anaphora: Repeated phrase at beginning of successive phrases/clauses/sent. Ex. I Have A Dream-MLK Alliteration for poetic quality—Repetition of same sounds in 2+ neighboring words * Ex. “Down with dope, up with hope”-Jesse Jackson Parallelism—arrangement of words/phrases in similar form Helps to emphasize important ideas of the speech, creates rhythm
* Ex. Orally numbering points Device of antithesis (One small step for man, one giant leap for man kind) * Repeating a key word in intro, body, and conclusion Chapter 25: Speaking on special occasions Speech that is prepared for a purpose dictated by the occasion, can be informative or persuasive **Commemorative speech—pays tribute with fundamental purpose to inspire audience Employ imagery—stylistic devices, varied rhythm * Antithesis, alliteration, assonance * Hyperbole—deliberately overstating in a fanciful way * Analogy Use fresh language—avoid overused phrases, select words that capture the thought * Avoid monotony, vary rhythm, use humor
When using humor: * Familiarize self with devices of humor—exaggeration, iron, anti-statement, joke telling * Analyze our own talents when delivering humorous speeches—focus on what other people think is funny about you, not what YOU think is funny * Avoid humor pitfalls—steer clear of anything offensive * Use humorous everyday experiences—relatable Consider audience—To whom/for whom we speak * Address audience in ways that will resonate with them * Use mood to craft an appropriate message ** Meaning is created in the nexus between speaker and audience
I.Special Occasion Speech function To entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire or set social agenda * Entertain—listeners expect light-hearted, amusing speech. Speaker offers degree of insight on topic * Celebrate—Speaker praises subject of celebration—a degree of ceremony in accordance with norms of the occasion * Commemorate—offer tribute and memories * Inspire—ex. Inaugural address, key note speech, commencement—motivate by examples of achievement * Set social agenda—articulation of goal/group’s values, ex. Fundraisers, banquets, cause oriented gatherings
II.Speech of Introduction: Warms up the audience for main speaker, heighten interest, and build credibility FOUR ELEMENTS background, subject of message, occasion, audience * Speaker background—achievements and facts showing why speaker is relevant * Subject, Preview topic—sense of why subject is of interest, does NOT evaluate speech or comment on it * Ask for audience welcome * Be brief—2 minute max.
III. Speech of Acceptance—response to an award. Purpose: express gratitude for honor * Prepared in advance * Express what the award means to you, convey its value * Show gratitude, thank people by name
IV. Speech of Presentation— (1) communicate meaning of the award and (2) Explain why recipient is receiving it Convey award’s meaning: what it is for and represents, mention sponsors and their link to the award Explain why recipient is receiving it: Highlight achievements, qualifying attributes, and why he deserves it Plan physical presentation: Consider logistics beforehand
V. Roast/Toast, roast—humorous tribute that pokes fun, toast—short celebrating speech focused on achievement * Prepare: draft, rehearse, etc. but appear impromptu * Highlight traits: Limit to 1-2 best attributes that convey qualities hat make the person a focus of celebration * Be positive: have a positive tone as it pays tribute to honoree * Be brief
VI. Eulogy/other, Eulogy derived from Greek words “to praise” Usually done by a close friend or family member of deceased Celebrates a person’s life, commemorating while consoling those left behind * Balance delivery and emotion—Audience is seeking guidance dealing with the loss, give them closure. * Refer to family of deceased—Show respect and mention names, as the funeral is primarily to benefit them * Be positive, but realistic: Emphasize deceased’s positive qualities, but avoid excess praise
VII. After Dinner Speech—light hearted and entertaining; listeners are to gain insight into topic. Usually given at some time during a civil, business, or professional meeting as it is to follow a formal dinner * Recognize occasion—speech should be on topic to avoid appearing canned or used over and over in diff. settings. Keep remarks low key to be considerate to those eating
VIII. Inspiration Speech—motivate listener to positively consider, reflect on, or act according to speaker’s words. Use emotional force; urge us towards purer motives reminding us of a common good. Appeal to emotions—(1) vivid description and (2) emotionally charged words * Use real stories—Examples of REAL people accomplishing goals and triumphing adversities * Be dynamic—inspire through delivery * Have clear goals * Distinctive organization device—help audience remember message Ex. Acronyms * Dramatic ending—inspires audience to feel or act Persuasion Aristotle, called persuasion “rhetoric” or “the art. ”
Defined as: “the faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. ” Kenneth Burke: persuasion“artful use of the resources of ambiguity. …Stay away from specifics; find ways to have the audience identify with the action or side that we want—much like advertising! **Think of “persuasion as enlightenment—as an opportunity to view a different perspective. ”--A chance to create something from nothing by establishing new relationships by sharing experiences, and creating understanding in contentious issues. Ethical Persuasion: Ethical communication and persuasion are an ideal—our communication improves exponentially the closer we get to this ideal. The goal is to reach the desired ends through an honest means. **Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive influence.
Symbolic communication – language is our symbolic representation of reality--Non coercive=not forced, we have a choice. In order for persuasion to occur ethically the target of the persuasive message must have the perception of choice, they must understand that they have a choice whether or not to accept the persuasive appeal. In order for this perception of choice to be a reality, several conditions must be met, if these conditions are not met, then the communicative act is coercion not persuasion. Checklist for responsible persuasion--should do before we engage—ethically, we should aim to ensure certain characteristics/qualities exist.
The three factors:
- I. Context – where, the climate—cultural, political
- II. Agent – the persuader
- III. Receiver – audience
I. Context (three conditions that must be met for ethical persuasion)
1. Both/All sides should have equal opportunity to persuade (if we only hear one side we have no choice! ) and ALL sides should have equal access to communication media (but in most cases one needs money for this).
2. There should be complete revelation of agendas—each side must notify the audience of its true aims and goals and say how it intends to go about achieving them. This means that you must tell the audience where you want to take them eventually, not just steps along the way—they should know your ultimate aim, so you should divulge aim.
3. The third condition, and most important, is that there must be critical receivers, receivers who test the assertions and evidence available. To be ethical communication there must be people who can evaluate what is being said—an informed public with tools to analyze, or the speaker/agent should provide them tools. It is both the speaker and audiences fault because no one wants to take the time to learn, work, critically evaluate, etc.
1. The responsible agent takes communication seriously and is prepared to take responsibility for what is said and to deal with the consequences.
2. Responsible communication fosters informed choice. We should aim to give the audience both sides of the issues we are advocating—to give them all the information that is available and then inform them why our side is better.
3.The responsible agent appeals to the best in people, not the worst. We must be careful not to take advantage of an audience’s fears, ignorance, or biases—if people are coerced they’ll jump ship later.
III. Receiver (four things to consider)
1. Responsible receivers are aware of attempts to influence. We must be alert, critical, and constantly aware of the motives of the messages around us and attempts to persuade.
2. Responsible receivers stay informed about important topics. Issues affecting us must be investigated so that we are ready when persuasive messages hit us. We are the engines of democracy; we must be critical and involved
3. Responsible receivers know their own biases. We must avoid defending against messages simply because a message is unpleasant and or challenges what we believe. We must know what predisposes us to look at things in a certain way, and be careful not to engage in selective listening, etc. This helps us to keep from immediately discounting information.
4. Responsible receivers are aware of methods of persuasion—so we should study and learn methods of persuasion (which you are doing now! ).
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