SOL H English

Parts of a Sentence
1. Dependent Clause-group of words with a subject, it cannot stand on its own without the info that follows it.
ex.
While the rain poured down
until the street lights come on
2. Prepositional phrase-begins with a preposition and ends with its object
ex. in the morning
on the corner
after the flood
3. Subject- person or thing the sentence is about
Bill and Martha
Exercise
My house
4. Predicate-part of the sentence containing the verb, tells something about the subject.
ex. go jogging every day
is healthy
flooded after a bad storm.
5. Verb-action of the sentence
ex. act, begin, argue, burn, flood, jog
Five Comma Rules
1. Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series.
Examples:
The talented athlete played football, wrestled, and ran track.
She forgot to buy dishwasher soap, paper towels, and dog food at the grocery store.
2. Use a comma and a conjunction to separate two complete thoughts.
Examples:
The talented athlete played football in the fall, and he wrestled during the winter.
She forgot several items at the grocery store, yet her bill was the highest it had ever been.
The Comma Splice
Two complete thoughts joined with only a comma creates a problem: Always use a comma and one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) to avoid this common mistake!
3. Use a semi-colon to fix a comma splice.
Example:
The athlete played football in the fall; he wrestled during the winter.
A semi-colon joins two related thoughts that could be complete sentences on their own. If you do not want to use the FANBOYS to connect the thoughts, you can use a semi-colon instead.
4 .Use a comma to set off a phrase or clause of three or more words at the beginning of a sentence.
Examples:
During the winter sports’ season, the talented athlete wrestled and prepared for the upcoming track season.
When she went to the store, she had a list in her hands but lost it, which caused her to forget the things she needed.
5. Use a comma to set off a parenthetical element or appositive. A parenthetical element is a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. An appositive is a clause or phrase that renames a noun and can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Examples:
Water skiing, as many experts point out, can be a challenging summer sport to learn.
The talented athlete, who had won several state championships, played several sports in high school and hoped for an athletic scholarship for college.
6. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives.
Examples:
The talented, disciplined, athlete impressed us with his determination to do his best in school and on the field.
The little old lady lost her long, tattered grocery list somewhere in the parking lot.
Correct the following sentence:
The solution I think is to try our best and see what happens.
The solution, I think, is to try our best and see what happens.
Correct the following sentence:
The rough frightening waves washed over our tiny sailboat.
The rough, frightening waves washed over our tiny sailboat.
Correct the following sentence:
After the game we ran a mile swam a half-mile and biked five miles.
After the game, we ran one mile, swam a half-mile, and biked five miles.
Correct the following sentence:
Because he is so incredibly shy we introduced Greg our best friend to Sue.
Because he is so incredibly shy, we introduced Greg, our best friend, to Sue.
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Correct the following sentence
I ironed all of the clothes I did not get a chance to do the dishes feed the dogs take out the trash.
I ironed all of the clothes, but I did not get a chance to do the dishes, feed the dogs, or take out the trash.
narrative writing
A piece of writing that tells a story.
Pitfalls of narrative writing
vague words: Things, a lot, stuff, many, very, really
repetition
common words
Root words to know
ami/ amo—love
de—away, from
eu—good, well
fid / fide—faith, trust
grav—heavy, weighty
path—feeling, emotion
sent / sens—feel
Which of the following sentences contains a comma error?

Before the game started the team, warmed up to energizing music.

Before the game started the team, warmed up to energizing music. B is incorrect

After being infected with a virus, the computer hard drive crashed.

Our tiny canoe was overwhelmed by the sudden, intense storm.

Identify the comma rule that the following sentence breaks:

In their homeroom classes, students learned of a new very strict rule that would affect their parking privileges

Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series.

Use a comma to set off a phrase or clause at the beginning of a sentence.

Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives. answer

Complete this statement:

A coordinate adjective is

a pair of words that describe a noun. answer

a group of words that joins other words and phrases

two words that are similar in meaning

.
Which sentence is punctuated correctly?

After we ate lunch we went to a movie, ate popcorn and did some shopping.

During the long, intermission of the play everyone chatted about the first act.

Dad cooked a fancy, and, delicious dinner and I set the table with our best dishes.

Due to the earlier malfunction, the aviation mechanic double-checked the wires. answer

Using your knowledge of roots, choose the best word to complete the following sentence:

I never thought I would have to write and deliver the ____________________________ of anyone, let alone my best friend.

perfidy

apathy

gravity

eulogy answer

Fill in the blank: A synonym for “faithfulness” is ____________________________

euphoria.

fidelity. answer

empathy.

confidant.

Using your knowledge of roots, choose the best word to complete the following sentence:

Mark had a gift for ___________________________; he seemed to be able to relate to anyone’s pain and sorrow.

empathy

apathy

perfidy

gravity

Using your knowledge of punctuation, choose the best place to separate words with a comma.

The store was a massive exciting place to shop

The, store was a massive exciting place to shop.

The store was a massive, exciting place to shop. answer

The store, was a massive exciting place to shop.

The store was, a massive exciting place to shop.

Read the following short excerpt of student writing. Use your vocabulary and grammar knowledge to determine which suggestions you would make to improve his or her grammar and word choice.

I really thought she loved me but I discovered her grave betrayal one afternoon. It was easy to figure out because she accidentally sent a text to me that was meant for him. I was confused by the text because it said, “Don’t tell Mike.” I felt insulted that she thought she could get away with this infidelity. At first I felt very angry bitter and hateful but then I felt so hopeless and depressed. I longed for her to call me. I thought if I could just hear her pleasing voice, maybe then I would not be filled with such bitterness. Instead of calling her I talked to another friend who is good at listening and feeling my pain. Talking with her makes me feel euphoric. I think I may be on the road to recovery.

What word would you suggest to replace the underlined word or words in this excerpt?
I really thought she loved me but I discovered her grave betrayal one afternoon. It was easy to figure out because she accidentally sent a text to me that was meant for him.

fidelity

sympathy

perfidy answer

gravity

Read the following short excerpt of student writing. Use your vocabulary and grammar knowledge to determine which suggestions you would make to improve his or her grammar and word choice.

I really thought she loved me but I discovered her grave betrayal one afternoon. It was easy to figure out because she accidentally sent a text to me that was meant for him. I was confused by the text because it said, “Don’t tell Mike.” I felt insulted that she thought she could get away with this infidelity. At first I felt very angry bitter and hateful but then, I felt so hopeless and depressed. I longed for her to call me. I thought if I could just hear her pleasing voice, maybe then I would not be filled with such bitterness. Instead of calling her I talked to another friend who is good at listening and feeling my pain. Talking with her makes me feel euphoric. I think I may be on the road to recovery.

Which comma rule does this student need to apply to this passage?

I really thought she loved me but I discovered her grave betrayal one afternoon. It was easy to figure out because she accidentally sent a text to me that was meant for him. I was confused by the text because it said, “Don’t tell Mike.” I felt insulted that she thought she could get away with this infidelity. At first I felt very angry but then I felt so hopeless and depressed.

Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series.

Use a comma and a conjunction to separate two complete thoughts. answer

Use a comma to set off a phrase or clause at the beginning of a sentence.

Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives.

Write one paragraph of three to five sentences about any topic. In your paragraph, use two of the vocabulary words from this lesson. You must also include two of the following examples in your sentences:

commas in a series
comma with a conjunction
comma with a phrase or clause at the beginning of a sentence
commas with coordinate adjectives
commas around parenthetical or appositive phrases or clauses
Use proper spelling and grammar.

My Grandmother was the kindest person I knew. Everyone who knew her said she was kind, fun, and loving. She had a gift for empathy that made everyone feel at home. The day of her funeral I delivered the eulogy, and placed flowers at her grave. Many friends and relatives who came to visit had kind words in remembrance of her.
Simile
Figure of speech that compares two unlike things using the words “like” or “as”
Personification
Figure of speech in which inanimate or nonhuman things are given human characteristics or abilities
Metaphor
Figure of speech that compares two unlike things without using any comparison words
Apostrophe
Figure of speech that directly addresses an abstract quality, a nonhuman, or an individual that is not present
Hyperbole
Figure of speech that uses exaggeration for effect
Onomatopoeia
Figure of speech in which the sound of the word corresponds to its meaning
Alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds
ex Sing a song of seasons
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds within words
Consonance
Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of words
Understatement
Figure of speech that makes something seem less important or serious to emphasize the opposite
Rhyme
Identical sounds, usually at the end of words or lines of poetry where the final vowel sound and following consonant sounds are the same
Diction
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words
Connotation
words, images, and emotions associated with a word
Denotation
dictionary definition
.
Connotation is

the dictionary meaning of a word

the opposite meaning of a word

the unlikely meaning of a word

the emotional meaning of a word answer

Writers who use imagery

are using the senses to get audiences to visualize answer

must describe either fire or water in great detail

rarely become considered “great” writers over time

usually do so because they do not like figurative language

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.

“Beat! Beat! Drums!” by Walt Whitman

Beat! beat! drums!-blow! bugles! blow!

Through the windows-through doors-burst like a ruthless force,

Into the solemn church, and scatter the congregation,

Into the school where the scholar is studying,

Leave not the bridegroom quiet-no happiness must he have now with his bride,

Nor the peaceful farmer any peace, ploughing his field or gathering his grain,

So fierce you whirr and pound you drums-so shrill you bugles blow.

What literary device does the poet use in the line in the last line?

Rhyme

Imagery answer

Extended simile

Onomatopoeia

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.

“O Captain! my Captain!” by Walt Whitman

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;

The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won;

The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:

But O heart! heart! heart!

O the bleeding drops of red,

Where on the deck my Captain lies,

Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;

Rise up-for you the flag is flung-for you the bugle trills;

For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths-for you the shores a-crowding;

For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;

Here Captain! dear father!

This arm beneath your head;

It is some dream that on the deck,

You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;

The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;

From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won;

Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!

But I, with mournful tread,

Walk the deck my Captain lies,

Fallen cold and dead.

What connotation does the poet use for the words “mournful tread”?

Misery answer

Celebration

Fury

Romance

.
Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.”O Captain! my Captain!” by Walt Whitman

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;
The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up-for you the flag is flung-for you the bugle trills;
For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths-for you the shores a-crowding;
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head;
It is some dream that on the deck,
You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;
From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won;
Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
But I, with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

Examine the imagery in the first stanza. What is the significance of the two different images?

The poet is trying to show that there are people mourning, but they do not feel the excitement of the speaker.

The poet is trying to show that there are people celebrating, but they do not feel the pain of the speaker. answer

The poet is trying to show that he and his captain are happy, but the rest of the world does not understand.

The poet is trying to show that he and his captain did not agree with war, but the rest of the world wants it.

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.

“I Like to See it Lap the Miles” by Emily Dickinson

I like to see it lap the miles,
And lick the valleys up,
And stop to feed itself at tanks;
And then, prodigious, step

Around a pile of mountains,
And, supercilious, peer
In shanties by the sides of roads;
And then a quarry pare

To fit its sides, and crawl between,
Complaining all the while
In horrid, hooting stanza;
Then chase itself down hill

And neigh like Boanerges;
Then, punctual as a star,
Stop—docile and omnipotent—
At its own stable door.

This poem describes a train as if it were a horse. What literary device does the poet use in this poem?

Apostrophe

Extended simile

Misery

Extended metaphor answer

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.

“I Like to See It Lap the Miles” by Emily Dickinson

I like to see it lap the miles,
And lick the valleys up,
And stop to feed itself at tanks;
And then, prodigious, step

Around a pile of mountains,
And, supercilious, peer
In shanties by the sides of roads;
And then a quarry pare

To fit its sides, and crawl between,
Complaining all the while
In horrid, hooting stanza;
Then chase itself down hill

And neigh like Boanerges;
Then, punctual as a star,
Stop—docile and omnipotent—
At its own stable door.

This poem describes a train as if it were a horse. Examine the imagery of the stanza in bold. What does it describe?

The rumbling a train makes as it passes by

The smell of train tracks after a train has gone

The sound a train makes as it blows its horn answer

The feeling of being on a train for a vacation

Imagine you are writing a love poem. Which of the following words use the appropriate connotation?

Flower buds answer

Harsh tune

Sudden attack

Grave digger

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows.

“When I Was One-and-Twenty,” by A.E. Housman

When I was one-and-twenty
I heard a wise man say,
‘Give crowns and pound and guineas
But not your heart away;

Give pearls away and rubies
But keep your fancy free.’
But I was one-and twenty,
No use to talk to me.

When I was one-and-twenty
I heard him say again,
‘The heart out of the bosom
Was never given in vain;
‘Tis paid with sighs a plenty
And sold for endless rue.’
And I am two-and-twenty,
And oh, ’tis true, ’tis true.

In one paragraph of at least three to five sentences, analyze the tone and imagery used in the line in bold. Identify the mood the author intended to create with this imagery, as well as the connotations used in the words “vain,” “endless rue,” and “oh.” Use proper spelling and grammar.

At the beginning of the poem the young twenty-one year old is warned about being in love, but ignores the advice. By the end of the poem he realizes that being in love can hurt and feel terrible. The connotations of the words vain, endless rue and oh, suggest the poet has experienced heartbreak and regret as a result of being in love and has realized in the year that has passed that the wise man was correct about being in love, “Give crowns and pounds and guineas, But not your heart away (*lines 3-4).”
O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;
The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills;
For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a—crowding;
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head;
It is some dream that on the deck,
You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;
From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won;
Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
But I, with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

In one paragraph of at least three to five sentences, analyze the imagery in the first stanza. Identify the mood the author intended to create with this imagery, as well as the connotations used in the diction. Use proper spelling and grammar.

The first stanza of this poem introduces a solider describing his feelings upon returning from battle. The group of people gathered is celebrating the victory in battle and relief that the battle is over. The poet, however, does not feel like celebrating because his captain, whom he adores, has died in battle and the speaker is heartbroken, “But O heart! heart! heart! (line 5).” The speaker is brokenhearted at the death of his captain and does snot feel like celebrating a victory. The mood of this stanza is cold and somber, “O the bleeding drops of red Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead (lines 7-8).” These lines bring to mind the image of the captain lying dead on the deck of the ship with a heartbroken soldier nearby and the roar of the crowds in the distance as he stands there grieving.
Hyperbole:

A device that uses exaggeration for emphasis

Examples:

Her smile was a mile wide.
She broke his heart into a million pieces.
Explanation:

From this hyperbole, we know that this woman has a very wide grin and is very happy.
The exaggeration “a million pieces” helps us to know just how heartbroken the man is.

ex. We can be so tired that we sleep for a century, or we can be so wired that do not sleep a wink.

ex. She has the bear’s ethereal grace She has an awkward appearance.
The bland hyena’s laugh Her laugh is annoying.
The footstep of the elephant She is clumsy.
The neck of a giraffe She walks around noisily.

Understatement

A figure of speech in which the words written are less than what a writer or speaker means; the opposite of hyperbole or exaggeration.

Example: On graduation day, Albert wore five glittering medals around his neck and carried 10 awards under his arm; one might say that he had done a decent job during his high school years.

Explanation: With all of these awards and honors, it is clear that Albert did much better than “decent.” This understatement emphasizes just how great he did.

ex. Our feathers can be ruffled when someone attacks us, or we can stick a feather in our hat when we are happy.

Pun:

A play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings.

Example: When the beginning art student accidently sat down on his classmate’s fresh painting, he was sent out of the classroom to change; he was not the only one who got a little behind in his work that day.

Explanation: This is a play on the word “behind.” The student who sat in the wet paint got behind on his work because he had to leave class; the student whose painting was sat upon also got a behind in his work—literally.

ex. A good pun is funny, while a bad pun is punny.

Oxymoron

A contradictory combination of words

Examples:

A fine mess
Awfully pretty
Serious fun
Working vacation
Sincere lie
Explanation:

A mess is rarely, if ever, fine.
“Awful” usually denotes a negative quality that contradicts “pretty.”
“Serious” and “fun” tend to be opposites.
The very idea of vacation is that we leave our work behind.
Being sincere means being honest; a lie is not, by definition, honest.

ex. One can have adult children, be brilliantly dull, or love fresh sour cream!

Malapropism:

Humorous misuse of words—usually by confusing similar-sounding words.

Examples:

The water damage from the storm was so bad that we had to evaporate our home.
Density has brought me to you.
Explanation:

“Evaporate” and “evacuate” have been confused here.
“Density” is used when “destiny” is what was mean

Verbal Irony

A device in which what one means does not match what one says.

Examples:

Verbal: Diana’s homecoming date arrived late and left early—without her. When her friends took her home, they hugged her and said, “What a great night and date!”

Explanation: Diana’s friends are trying to jokingly make the point that they know it was a bad night and a terrible date. They are using verbal irony because they know it was not a “great night” for their friend.

Situational Irony:

A device in which what one expects to happen does not actually occur.

Examples:

A fire station burns to the ground.
I organized my room and cannot find anything now.
Explanation:

We would not expect a fire station to catch on fire—let alone burn down entirely.
You would expect that getting organized would make it easier to find things, but instead it is more difficult.

Dramatic Irony

A device in drama in which the audience knows something that the characters do not.

Example: In a movie or play, a man boards a plane to fly to see his love on the other side of the world; meanwhile, the audience knows that his love has already left to fly home and surprise him.

Explanation: The audience knows that the man and woman are going to miss each other as they fly to different continents, but the characters do not know, making their actions dramatic irony.

irony
A contrast between expectation and reality
ex. We can ship something, but it arrives by truck. We fill out paperwork by filling it in, and we can get lost in our online finds. Irony
tone

One aspect of voice. The author’s attitude toward his or her subject. Expressed through diction imagery, details, syntax, figurative language.

affectionate agitated ambivalent anxious
apathetic apologetic appreciative apprehensive
authoritative arrogant bewildered bitter
blunt bossy brusque candid
casual choleric coarse compassionate
conciliatory condescending confident consoling
contentious cynical dejected delightful
depressed derisive derogatory desperate
diabolic disappointed ecstatic effusive
empathetic encouraging enthusiastic expectant
facetious fatalistic foreboding frantic
frightened frustrated gleeful gloomy
grave greedy harsh haughty
hilarious hollow hopeless humble
humorous incisive incredulous indignant
introspective instructive ironic jocund
joyful lethargic lighthearted loud
manipulative melancholy mirthful miserable
mocking mournful nervous nostalgic
paranoid passive persuasive pleading
proud questioning relaxed reticent
romantic sarcastic sardonic scared
scornful seductive serene serious
sinister skeptical solemn soothing
stressful surprised suspicious sympathetic
tearful tender terse thoughtful
timorous uncaring uneasy uninterested
unhappy unsympathetic vibrant whimsical
wistful zealous

mood
the feeling the reader gets during and after reading. the feeling the reader gets during and after reading and is influenced by setting, conflict, theme and characterization.
diction
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words
imagery
anything that appeals to our senses: sight, taste, touch, sound, and smell. Imagery is very helpful in creating tone because it invites readers to share in the experience.
Details
refer to what facts a writer chooses to include and what he or she omits.
Syntax
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
Sentence structure. Short and choppy sentences, versus long and flowly create a different tone. Use of punctuation such as exclamations marks, caps, commas….
Elements of fiction
Plot, conflict, setting, characters, point of view, theme
Plot

What happens in the story. This element of fiction can be broken down into five parts:

Exposition: The introduction to characters, setting, and situation of the story.
Rising Action: The development of complications and conflict. This part of the plot diagram may be the longest side of the triangle if the rising action is the bulk of the story. Or it may be shorter if the climax occurs early in the story.
Climax or Crisis: The moment of greatest emotional intensity or tension that usually comes at the turning point in a story.
Falling Action: The action that follows the climax.
Resolution: The revelation of the outcome of the conflict, also called the “denouement,” which means “tying up.”

Conflict
The main struggle or the many struggles a character faces; without conflict, there is no story.
Setting
The location and time in which a story takes place. Sometimes, it is simply the backdrop of the story, but sometimes it functions as a character, influencing the meaning and mood of the story.
Characters
The individuals in a work of fiction. Characters can be well developed, or they can be minor characters about whom we only know one or two characteristics.
Point of View
The angle or perspective from which the narrator tells the story. The point of view affects what a reader knows about the characters and action of the story.
Theme
The meaning of the work or the life lesson that readers should learn as a result of reading the story.
Point of View
Point of view is the perspective the author uses to tell a story. The narrator can be a character, an observer, or an all-knowing presence. Point of view is significant because it affects what the reader knows and how the story is told.
First-person:
Narrator is a character and participates in the action. Effect: Narrator and, therefore, reader have limited knowledge of events or thoughts and feelings of other characters but complete knowledge of the narrator’s experience. Narrator confides in reader; we often feel close to a first person narrator. This point of view uses pronouns like “I,” “we,” and “me” because the narrator is part of the action.
Objective
Narrator is unidentified, a detached observer. Effect: Like a video camera that follows the characters and the action, this type of narrator reports on events and lets the reader supply the meaning. We have to draw our own conclusions about what characters are thinking or feeling.
Omniscient:
Narrator is all-knowing. The narrator knows what everyone is thinking and feeling and reveals that information to the reader. An omniscient narrator may provide his or her opinion of events and characters, or he or she may let the reader come to his or her own conclusions. Thanks to the insights of a third-person omniscient narrator, we might feel sympathy or anger toward another character because we know the other “pieces” of the story. This point of view uses pronouns like “he,” “she,” and “they” because the narrator is not part of the action.
Limited omniscient:
Narrator knows the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of a single character. The narrator shares his or her limited knowledge with the reader, leaving some things unknown. This point of view may use pronouns like “he,” “she,” and “they” because the narrator is not part of the action.
Pace
Speed a story moves at. To speed things up and make our hearts race, an author might use fast-paced writing. To slow things down and build suspense, an author would use slow-paced writing.
Fast Pace
To create the sense that time is going quickly and to make our hearts race, an author might:
– use short sentences or long sentences with many short phrases
– use many short phrases connected by commas
– use repetition of words
Slow Pace
To create the sense that time is going slowly and to build suspense, an author might:
– use punctuation like commas or semicolons to make the reader pause
– use long sentences full of descriptive phrases
– use words or phrases that slow a sentence
Match the term with its definition.
1. Point of view the angle or perspective from which the story is told
2. Falling action the action that follows the climax
3. Plot the story line or action of the story
4.
Exposition the introduction to the characters, setting, and situation

Read the following short passage.

I started for school very late that morning and was in great dread of a scolding, especially because M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles, and I did not know the first word about them. For a moment, I thought of running away and spending the day out of doors. It was so warm, so bright! The birds were chirping at the edge of the woods; and in the open field back of the sawmill the Prussian soldiers were drilling. It was all much more tempting than the rule for participles, but I had the strength to resist, and hurried off to school.

When I passed the town hall there was a crowd in front of the bulletin board. For the last two years all our bad news had come from there-the lost battles, the draft, the orders of the commanding officer-and I thought to myself, without stopping:

“What can be the matter now?”

Which point of view is used in this excerpt?

omniscient

objective

first person answer

limited omniscient

.
______________________ is the point of view that makes the reader feel like a close friend or confidant.

Limited omniscient

First person answer

Objective

Omniscient

Using your knowledge of “Was It a Dream?” match the event with its part of the plot.

We learn that the main character was madly in love. Exposition

The main character falls unconscious on the grave.
Falling action

The main character reads the true inscription on his lover’s tombstone. Climax

The main character spends the night in the cemetery. Rising action

What technique most contributes to the pace of the following excerpt?

“I looked all around me, but I cannot say how long I remained there; I was paralyzed with terror, cold with fright, ready to shout out, ready to die.”

use of several short phrases connected by commas answer

use of very detailed and descriptive imagery

use of words that slow the sentence down

none of the above

.
What point of view is used in “Was It a Dream?” How does this point of view affect your experience as a reader? In one to two paragraphs, explain your answer.
The point of view used in “Was It a Dream” is the first person narrator. This technique is very effective at allowing the reader to experience the strong emotions of the grieved lover along with him. Rather than being told a story about a guy this happened to from an omniscient narrator, who would have objective knowledge of his mistress, the reader experiences the love and loss along with the grieved lover.
The reader does not know anything more about the woman, her actions or why she may have become sick and only knows what the lover knows and learns as he does and learns only of this lovers absolute affection for his girl. The readers knowledge is limited by the feelings, impressions and knowledge of the grieving young lover. This technique strongly affects the emotional reaction of the reader. If the story had been told by a narrator that told the reader all about the girl objectively, the reader may have a very different reaction to this grieved lovers loss.
The title “Was It a Dream?” could be interpreted in different ways. Explain at least two ways that the title could be . Which interpretation do you think fits the story best? In one to two paragraphs, explain your answer.
The title of the short story, “Was It a Dream?” suggests different interpretations of what events are being questioned. The question being asked in the title of whether it was a dream of not could suggest the author just cannot believe something has happened, that events seem unreal, or that he is questioning his very sanity or even, that in his grief, the lines between reality, dream and insanity have become blurred. The opening of the story suggests an interpretation where the grieved lover is questioning whether the events of the past year had really happened at all, “I am going to tell you our story, for love has only one, which is always the same…I no longer cared whether it was day or night, whether I was dead or alive, on this old earth of ours. And then she died. How? I do not know; I no longer know anything (paragraph two to three).”
This past year is like a dream, he met a girl, loved her and she died and is gone, did it all really happen? A second interpretation of the title of the short story, “Was It a Dream?” involves the graveyard sequence. During this scene the lover sees all the skeletons in the graveyard come out of their graves and write the truth of their lives on their graves, including his mistress who writes of a deceit the lover knows nothing about. In this interpretation of the short story title the dream refers to the questioning of the grieved lovers visions in the graveyard. Was this simply a dream that his grieved, terrified and exhausted mind made up, or did that really happen? Did his lover really deceive him? The final line of the story, “It appears they found me at daybreak, lying on the grave unconscious” suggests that this a a valid interpretation of the short story title. Additionally it is possible that the title is meant to have the reader question the lovers state of mind throughout the story and that all of these interpretations are ones that were meant to be considered. interpreted
How does the author of “Was It a Dream?” communicate his feelings about love relationships? In one to two paragraphs, explain your answer.
In the opening lines of the story, the author clearly communicates his feelings about love relationships, describing how when you are in love, there is not two stories but one, “I am going to tell you our story, for love only has one, which is always the same. I met her and loved her; that is all.” The lover in this story is madly in love, it is all consuming and his mistresses loss is equally all consuming. Returning to their apartment is more than he can bear, “Happy is the man whose heart forgets everything that it has contained, everything that has come before it, everything that has looked at itself in it, or has been reflected in its affection, in its love! How I suffer!” The lover cannot look upon the scene and smile at fond memories, for him the love is all consuming and overtakes everything, he feels as though he is better to forget. The author gets so caught up in his love, and the idea that their two stories are one, that he does not realize that she had her own story until the madness of his mind questions whether she had deceived him. His love for her was so great that all he saw was the strength of his love and devotion and overlooked any flaws.
Flashback
A literary technique in which past information in a story is newly revealed. A flashback allows writers to provide exposition, or background information, in creative ways throughout a story.
Plot Structure
Design or layout of the sequence of events in a story
Types of Plot Structure
Parallel Plots
Parallel plots follow different characters through their own separate narratives, but their experiences are related and eventually converge as the story is resolved. Featuring parallel plots is a strategy authors use to build interest and give additional details about their characters as they react differently to conflicts they encounter.
Episodic Plot Structure
Chapters, like episodes, often tell shorter stories within the larger plot of the novel. By using episodic plots, authors can go into specific detail about key events and reveal more about the characters through their reactions to conflict and their interactions with each other.
In Medias Res: “Come late; leave early”
When a story ends in the middle of the action- makes a story more exciting
or When a story ends before everything is resolved, readers tend to think about it longer.
Flash Forward
a plot structure technique in which the ending or a later event may be revealed or suggested early in the narrative. A flash-forward interrupts the regular flow of the story to provide a glimpse of something that will happen in the future. By using a flash-forward, the author piques the readers’ interest by making them wonder, “How is that going to happen?” “Why does that happen?”
ex. Story starts with a scene in the future then goes back to tell how it got to that point.
Flashback
literary technique in which past information in a story is newly revealed. A flashback breaks the current narrative to give important information that provides background and insight into the characters and events. Some stories are told entirely in flashback; the author might begin by explaining that you are about to read everything that happened on a specific fateful day.
Dream sequence
a plot structure technique in which authors introduce a break in the main narrative through the use of dreams by one or more of the characters, the dreams often contain symbolic elements relative to the story. Revealing a character’s dreams allows an author to provide key details and insight into characters’ actions and identity.
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Word choice is

the way words and phrases are used to tell the story

the key elements of the story and the details that support them

the way sentences are written and flow together to tell the story

the descriptive words and phrases make the writing interesting answer

Organization is

the way words and phrases are used to tell the story

the key elements of the story and the details that support them

the format, structure and timeline of the story answer

the use of proper spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar

Which of the following Six Traits that you learned about are used during the draft process? There are multiple answers. Select all that apply.

✓ Ideas

Understanding

✓ Word choice

Project management

Elements used by Greek and Roman Mythology. Used to be told orally
Action packed Plot, Descriptive details, major conflict, realistic characters
Conflict
the main struggle or the many struggles a character faces; without conflict, there is no story. There are four types of conflict
Types of Conflict
Character versus character
external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. It is an example of one person against another and is also called Man vs. Man.
Character versus Nature
When a character can’t do something because of the weather or environment, this also an external conflict because the problem occurs outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Nature because it is an example of nature working against a person.
Character versus Society
external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Society because it is an example of society working against a person.
Character versus Self
With “man against self” conflict, the struggle is internal. This is a conflict that is usually associated with an internal conflict. A character must overcome his own nature or make a choice between two or more paths—good and evil; logic and emotion.
Protagonist
leading character, hero, or heroine in a story.
Antagonist
enemy, adversary, or one who struggles against the protagonist.
Mood
the feeling the reader gets during and after reading.
ex. Gloomy Comforting Lonely
Peaceful Suspenseful Hopeful
Threatening Violent Desperate
Imagery
Descriptive language that interacts with any and all of reader’s senses-sound, touch, temperature, smell, taste, and movement.
Voice
the flavor and character of a piece of writing, achieved through the author’s use of diction, imagery, detail, syntax, tone, and figurative language
Sentence fluency
the rhythm and flow of the language, the sound of word patterns, the way in which the writing plays to the ear, not just to the eye. How does it sound when read aloud?
To achieve sentence fluenchy
You can combine short phrases and insert descriptive phrases to orchestrate complex sentences that flow together. Combining words, to link two phrases, are called subordinate conjunctions:
After Although As Because
Before Even if Even though If
Once So that Than That
Though Unless Until When
Whenever Where Whether While
example;
Instead of:
Life is too short. I am going to travel around the world to see what there is to see.Use This:
Because life is too short, I am going to travel around the world to see what there is to see.

Absolute Phrase
Descriptive phrases that modify entire sentences
example
add an absolute phrase to “The toy was old”
“The toy was old, its torn and tattered stuffing filled with a decade of precious memories.”
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Select a trait that is associated with descriptive writing.

Interesting word choice answer

Strong plot structure

Complex conflicts

Surprising endings

Select the option that uses a correct subordinate conjunction to join the following sentences together:

I finish my homework. I go to the park.

I finished my homework, I went to the park.

After I finish my homework, I go to the park. answer

I finish my homework, I go to the park.

I finish my homework until I go to the park.

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Select the absolute phrase in the following sentence:Music blaring, the car sped down the highway on the way to the beach.

the car

to the beach

sped down the highway

Music blaring answer

Rewrite the following sentence to use an original absolute phrase. All work must be your own. Use proper spelling and grammar.

He wanted a car.

He wanted a car, a sleek and shiny symbol of independence.

In this lesson, we have focused on using strong and interesting word choices, combining short phrases to achieve complex sentences, and using subordinate conjunctions and absolute phrases. Use these tools to help you write a descriptive paragraph of three to five sentences for the following situation. Use proper spelling and grammar.

Learning something new

Before my first lesson, my heart pounded in my chest, my palms slippery with sweat and my legs felt shaky on their two feet. This shining symbol of independence was both awe-inspiring and terrifying. When I pulled out of the driveway, all my fears immediately disappeared and there was nothing but smooth roads ahead for me.
Temporal clues

These are transitions that bring your reader through the story from the beginning to the end.

Use a temporal transition when you have:

A change in the setting
A change in the action
A change in the character’s emotions or thoughts

ex.
with reference to
together with
in the same way
in comparison
likewise
coupled with
moreover
correspondingly
with regard to
for the time being
simultaneously
first of all
earlier
meanwhile
in time
by the way
in the distance
over there

Rules for dialogue
All lines of dialogue are place inside quotation marks
Ending punctuation marks are placed inside the quotation marks
When a quoted statement is divided, the second part of the quotation is not capitalized.
Start a new paragraph each time a speaker in a conversation changes.ex. “Come on, then,” I said, “let’s get you where they can see you and flag one down.”

.
Select the temporal transition that would be best to show relationship

“In a flash…”

“In the distance…”

“In the same way…” answer

“All of a sudden…”

.
Select the dialogue that is punctuated properly.

“Let’s go to the movies tonight,” she said. “There are some good ones out.” answer

“Let’s go to the movies tonight.” She said. “There are some good ones out.”

“Let’s go to the movies tonight”, she said. “There are some good ones out”.

“Let’s go to the movies tonight,” She said, There are some good ones out.

.
When a quoted statement is divided,

the writer has made an error.

the reader is likely to be confused.

the second part is not capitalized. answer

the story is going to feel longer.

Rough draft
Think of your rough draft as a simple collection of ideas. You may have many errors throughout that you plan to correct later. Your thoughts may not flow together as smoothly as you would like, but you have the basic plan on the screen.
First draft
structured collection of your ideas for a narrative story. There may still be some errors, but you have tried to find them and correct them. Your thoughts may not flow together as smoothly as you would like, but you have tried to incorporate some effective transitions.
Uses four of the six traits of writing; ideas, voice, word choice, sentence fluency.
Final draft
final draft should show major revision work from your first draft, and it will be a much better product. publishable revision of your first draft. There should be no errors, and your thoughts should flow together as smoothly as possible. You will use effective transitions and word choices to show your reader what is happening.
Revising
requires you to look at your writing in a different way to see what can be improved. The following traits from the six traits should be revised;
voice, word choice, ideas, sentence fluency, organization
Editing
is the final step in the process where you go back through what you’ve written to correct any conventions errors: spelling, grammar, capitalization, and punctuation.
only conventions are edited
six traits of writing
conventions, word choice, voice, ideas, sentence fluency, organization
sonnet
highly structure poem containing fourteen lines broken down into three quatrains and one couplet
Quatrain
section of a poem has four consecutive lines that make up a stanza
Couplet
two consecutive lines that make up a stanza
Rhyme scheme
the ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or verse.
Most modern works can be interpreted on several levels
Three levels of interpretation:
Literal: This level of understanding is the most basic but is also very important. It answers the basic who, what, when, where, and how questions. If someone were to ask you what the story was about, more than likely you would begin at the literal level, telling him or her about what happens in the story.
Social and Historical: This level of interpretation challenges us to look at a work—literary, film, or art—and the major events, concerns, and ideas of the time in which it was produced. elements such as events, concerns, and ideas shape authors’ creations.
Universal: gets to the theme and ultimate meaning. This level of interpretation might look at a character as a metaphor for all of humanity or a metaphor for some quality like greed or optimism. An obstacle in the story might represent a struggle that most people endure, such as gaining independence or facing death.
When analyzing a work at this level, ask the following questions:
What is this work saying about life?
What is it saying about humanity’s strengths or weaknesses?
What lesson, if any, does it convey?
Allegory
A form of extended metaphor with the following;
Objects, people, and actions in the story represent something more than their literal meaning.
Characters often represent some abstract quality like betrayal, goodness, greed, joy, jealousy, etc.
The underlying meaning is usually social, political, or religious. An allegory could be a full-length novel or play, or it could take the form of a parable or fable.
Parable
a very short and simple story, focusing on one or two characters and a specific conflict or issue through which they must work. Parables are meant to instruct their audiences on some moral lesson.
Fable
usually takes the form of a short story with animal characters that talk and act like human beings.

Read these sentences and answer the question that follows.

Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect.
Frank Lloyd Wright designed hundreds of buildings.
American Institute of Architects recognized Frank Lloyd Wright as the greatest American architect of all time.

Which of these best combines the ideas in the group of sentences above to make an interesting sentence?

Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed hundreds of buildings and was recognized by the American Institute of Architects as the greatest American architect of all time.

Frank Lloyd Wright, an American architect who designed hundreds of buildings, was recognized by the American Institute of Architects as the greatest American architect of all time. answer

Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect who designed hundreds of buildings and who was recognized by the American Institute of Architects as the greatest American architect of all time.

The American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, the designer of hundreds of buildings, who was recognized by the American Institute of Architects, was the greatest American architect of all time.

Read the following sentence and answer the question that follows.

Most people dislike paying taxes; although, taxes pay for services that most people like.

Which of these changes would remove the grammatical error in this passage?

Changing “although” to “however” answer

Replacing the semicolon with a colon

Removing the comma from after “although”

Changing the semicolon to a period and capitalizing “although”

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Read the sentence below and answer the corresponding question.I will never forget the happy look on my daughter’s face as she read her acceptance letter.

Which word is a synonym for happy as used in the sentence?

annoyed

bitter

ecstatic answer

incensed

Which of these is an example of a metaphor?

She is a rose without a thorn. answer

My love is like a red, red rose.

The flames made darkness visible.

The wind was awake and disturbed the lake.

Read the sentence, then answer the question below.

In the deep forest, the old trees can hear.

This sentence contains

alliteration

personification answer

metaphor

simile

“A Valentine”

by Edgar Allan Poe

For her this rhyme is penned whose luminous eyes,
Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,
Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies
Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader.
Search narrowly the lines!-they hold a treasure
Divine-a talisman-an amulet
That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure-
The words-the syllables! Do not forget
The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor
And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
If one could merely comprehend the plot.
Enwritten upon the leaf where now are peering
Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus
Three eloquent words oft uttered in the hearing
Of poets, by poets-as the name is a poet’s, too,
Its letters, although naturally lying
Like the knight Pinto-Mendez Ferdinando-
Still form a synonym for Truth-Cease trying!
You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do.
What does the phrase search narrowly, used in line 5, mean?

To look scarcely

To look closely answer

To look with decreasing attention

To look with increasing attention

“A Valentine”

by Edgar Allan Poe

For her this rhyme is penned whose luminous eyes,
Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,
Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies
Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader.
Search narrowly the lines!-they hold a treasure
Divine-a talisman-an amulet
That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure-
The words-the syllables! Do not forget
The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor
And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
If one could merely comprehend the plot.
Enwritten upon the leaf where now are peering
Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus
Three eloquent words oft uttered in the hearing
Of poets, by poets-as the name is a poet’s, too,
Its letters, although naturally lying
Like the knight Pinto-Mendez Ferdinando-
Still form a synonym for Truth-Cease trying!
You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do.
What is the best description of a Gordian knot in lines 10 and 11?

A precious decoration

Easily unknotted

A necessary tool

Impossible to unknot answer

“A Valentine”

by Edgar Allan Poe

For her this rhyme is penned whose luminous eyes,
Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,
Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies
Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader.
Search narrowly the lines!-they hold a treasure
Divine-a talisman-an amulet
That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure-
The words-the syllables! Do not forget
The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor
And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
If one could merely comprehend the plot.
Enwritten upon the leaf where now are peering
Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus
Three eloquent words oft uttered in the hearing
Of poets, by poets-as the name is a poet’s, too,
Its letters, although naturally lying
Like the knight Pinto-Mendez Ferdinando-
Still form a synonym for Truth-Cease trying!
You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do.
What does the word penned mean in the way it is used in line 1?

Fenced

Fastened or immobilized

Written or composed answer

Established

“A Valentine”

by Edgar Allan Poe

For her this rhyme is penned whose luminous eyes,
Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,
Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies
Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader.
Search narrowly the lines!-they hold a treasure
Divine-a talisman-an amulet
That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure-
The words-the syllables! Do not forget
The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor
And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
If one could merely comprehend the plot.
Enwritten upon the leaf where now are peering
Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus
Three eloquent words oft uttered in the hearing
Of poets, by poets-as the name is a poet’s, too,
Its letters, although naturally lying
Like the knight Pinto-Mendez Ferdinando-
Still form a synonym for Truth-Cease trying!
You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do.
The author’s use of the phrase, “brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,” demonstrates the use of which literary device?

alliteration

antonym

denotation

simile answer

“A Valentine”

by Edgar Allan Poe

For her this rhyme is penned whose luminous eyes,
Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda,
Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies
Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader.
Search narrowly the lines!-they hold a treasure
Divine-a talisman-an amulet
That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure-
The words-the syllables! Do not forget
The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor
And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
If one could merely comprehend the plot.
Enwritten upon the leaf where now are peering
Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus
Three eloquent words oft uttered in the hearing
Of poets, by poets-as the name is a poet’s, too,
Its letters, although naturally lying
Like the knight Pinto-Mendez Ferdinando-
Still form a synonym for Truth-Cease trying!
You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do.
Read the line from the poem, then answer the following question.

And yet there is in this no Gordian knot
Which one might not undo without a sabre,
Which word, if substituted for “Gordian,” would best retain the meaning of the phrase?

beautiful

impossible answer

mysterious

weak

What type of plot structure allows authors to “come late” to their own story?

In medias res answer

Episodic plot structure

Parallel plot structure

Flash-forward

.from “EXTRICATING YOUNG GUSSIE”

by P.G. Wodehouse

She sprang it on me before breakfast. There in seven words you have a complete character sketch of my Aunt Agatha. I could go on indefinitely about brutality and lack of consideration. I merely say that she routed me out of bed to listen to her painful story somewhere in the small hours. It can’t have been half past eleven when Jeeves, my man, woke me out of the dreamless and broke the news: ‘Mrs Gregson to see you, sir.’
I thought she must be walking in her sleep, but I crawled out of bed and got into a dressing-gown. I knew Aunt Agatha well enough to know that, if she had come to see me, she was going to see me. That’s the sort of woman she is.
She was sitting bolt upright in a chair, staring into space. When I came in she looked at me in that darn critical way that always makes me feel as if I had gelatin where my spine ought to be. Aunt Agatha is one of those strong-minded women. I should think Queen Elizabeth must have been something like her. She bosses her husband, Spencer Gregson, a battered little chappie on the Stock Exchange. She bosses my cousin, Gussie Mannering-Phipps. She bosses her sister-in-law, Gussie’s mother. And, worst of all, she bosses me. She has an eye like a man-eating fish, and she has got moral suasion down to a fine point.
I dare say there are fellows in the world-men of blood and iron, don’t you know, and all that sort of thing-whom she couldn’t intimidate; but if you’re a chappie like me, fond of a quiet life, you simply curl into a ball when you see her coming, and hope for the best. My experience is that when Aunt Agatha wants you to do a thing you do it, or else you find yourself wondering why those fellows in the olden days made such a fuss when they had trouble with the Spanish Inquisition.
‘Halloa, Aunt Agatha!’ I said
‘Bertie,’ she said, ‘you look a sight. You look perfectly dissipated.’
I was feeling like a badly wrapped brown-paper parcel. I’m never at my best in the early morning. I said so.
‘Early morning! I had breakfast three hours ago, and have been walking in the park ever since, trying to compose my thoughts.’
If I ever breakfasted at half past eight I should walk on the Embankment, trying to end it all in a watery grave.
‘I am extremely worried, Bertie. That is why I have come to you.’
And then I saw she was going to start something, and I bleated weakly to Jeeves to bring me tea. But she had begun before I could get it.
‘What are your immediate plans, Bertie?’
‘Well, I rather thought of tottering out for a bite of lunch later on, and then possibly staggering round to the club, and after that, if I felt strong enough, I might trickle off to Walton Heath for a round of golf.’
‘I am not interested in your totterings and tricklings. I mean, have you any important engagements in the next week or so?’
I scented danger.
What does Bertie mean when he calls himself a “chappie?”

That he is a serious villain

That he is a lousy scoundrel

That he is a regular man answer

That he is a sickly person

Lines 16-30 below complete the story of Bertie and Aunt Agatha. Read the conclusion of the excerpt and answer the question.

from “EXTRICATING YOUNG GUSSIE”

by P.G. Wodehouse

She sprang it on me before breakfast. There in seven words you have a complete character sketch of my Aunt Agatha. I could go on indefinitely about brutality and lack of consideration. I merely say that she routed me out of bed to listen to her painful story somewhere in the small hours. It can’t have been half past eleven when Jeeves, my man, woke me out of the dreamless and broke the news: ‘Mrs Gregson to see you, sir.’
I thought she must be walking in her sleep, but I crawled out of bed and got into a dressing-gown. I knew Aunt Agatha well enough to know that, if she had come to see me, she was going to see me. That’s the sort of woman she is.
She was sitting bolt upright in a chair, staring into space. When I came in she looked at me in that darn critical way that always makes me feel as if I had gelatin where my spine ought to be. Aunt Agatha is one of those strong-minded women. I should think Queen Elizabeth must have been something like her. She bosses her husband, Spencer Gregson, a battered little chappie on the Stock Exchange. She bosses my cousin, Gussie Mannering-Phipps. She bosses her sister-in-law, Gussie’s mother. And, worst of all, she bosses me. She has an eye like a man-eating fish, and she has got moral suasion down to a fine point.
I dare say there are fellows in the world-men of blood and iron, don’t you know, and all that sort of thing-whom she couldn’t intimidate; but if you’re a chappie like me, fond of a quiet life, you simply curl into a ball when you see her coming, and hope for the best. My experience is that when Aunt Agatha wants you to do a thing you do it, or else you find yourself wondering why those fellows in the olden days made such a fuss when they had trouble with the Spanish Inquisition.
‘Halloa, Aunt Agatha!’ I said
‘Bertie,’ she said, ‘you look a sight. You look perfectly dissipated.’
I was feeling like a badly wrapped brown-paper parcel. I’m never at my best in the early morning. I said so.
‘Early morning! I had breakfast three hours ago, and have been walking in the park ever since, trying to compose my thoughts.’
If I ever breakfasted at half past eight I should walk on the Embankment, trying to end it all in a watery grave.
‘I am extremely worried, Bertie. That is why I have come to you.’
And then I saw she was going to start something, and I bleated weakly to Jeeves to bring me tea. But she had begun before I could get it.
‘What are your immediate plans, Bertie?’
‘Well, I rather thought of tottering out for a bite of lunch later on, and then possibly staggering round to the club, and after that, if I felt strong enough, I might trickle off to Walton Heath for a round of golf.’
‘I am not interested in your totterings and tricklings. I mean, have you any important engagements in the next week or so?’
I scented danger.
‘Rather,’ I said. ‘Heaps! Millions! Booked solid!’
‘What are they?’
‘I-er-well, I don’t quite know.’
‘I thought as much. You have no engagements. Very well, then, I want you to start immediately for America.’
‘America!’
Do not lose sight of the fact that all this was taking place on an empty stomach, shortly after the rising of the lark.
‘Yes, America. I suppose even you have heard of America?’
‘But why America?’
‘Because that is where your Cousin Gussie is. He is in New York, and I can’t get at him.’
‘What’s Gussie been doing?’
Gussie is making a perfect idiot of himself.’
To one who knew young Gussie as well as I did, the words opened up a wide field for speculation.
‘In what way?’
‘He has lost his head over a creature.’
On past performances this rang true.
Which sentence best summarizes the central idea of this story?

Bertie strongly dislikes his Aunt Agatha because she treats him poorly.

Aunt Agatha wishes Bertie to do something that he does not want to do. answer

Gussie has fled to America to escape from the expectations of Bertie and Aunt Agatha.

Jeeves resents being asked to perform chores for Bertie and his Aunt Agatha.

from “EXTRICATING YOUNG GUSSIE”

by P.G. Wodehouse

She sprang it on me before breakfast. There in seven words you have a complete character sketch of my Aunt Agatha. I could go on indefinitely about brutality and lack of consideration. I merely say that she routed me out of bed to listen to her painful story somewhere in the small hours. It can’t have been half past eleven when Jeeves, my man, woke me out of the dreamless and broke the news: ‘Mrs Gregson to see you, sir.’
I thought she must be walking in her sleep, but I crawled out of bed and got into a dressing-gown. I knew Aunt Agatha well enough to know that, if she had come to see me, she was going to see me. That’s the sort of woman she is.
She was sitting bolt upright in a chair, staring into space. When I came in she looked at me in that darn critical way that always makes me feel as if I had gelatin where my spine ought to be. Aunt Agatha is one of those strong-minded women. I should think Queen Elizabeth must have been something like her. She bosses her husband, Spencer Gregson, a battered little chappie on the Stock Exchange. She bosses my cousin, Gussie Mannering-Phipps. She bosses her sister-in-law, Gussie’s mother. And, worst of all, she bosses me. She has an eye like a man-eating fish, and she has got moral suasion down to a fine point.
I dare say there are fellows in the world-men of blood and iron, don’t you know, and all that sort of thing-whom she couldn’t intimidate; but if you’re a chappie like me, fond of a quiet life, you simply curl into a ball when you see her coming, and hope for the best. My experience is that when Aunt Agatha wants you to do a thing you do it, or else you find yourself wondering why those fellows in the olden days made such a fuss when they had trouble with the Spanish Inquisition.
‘Halloa, Aunt Agatha!’ I said
‘Bertie,’ she said, ‘you look a sight. You look perfectly dissipated.’
I was feeling like a badly wrapped brown-paper parcel. I’m never at my best in the early morning. I said so.
‘Early morning! I had breakfast three hours ago, and have been walking in the park ever since, trying to compose my thoughts.’
If I ever breakfasted at half past eight I should walk on the Embankment, trying to end it all in a watery grave.
‘I am extremely worried, Bertie. That is why I have come to you.’
And then I saw she was going to start something, and I bleated weakly to Jeeves to bring me tea. But she had begun before I could get it.
‘What are your immediate plans, Bertie?’
‘Well, I rather thought of tottering out for a bite of lunch later on, and then possibly staggering round to the club, and after that, if I felt strong enough, I might trickle off to Walton Heath for a round of golf.’
‘I am not interested in your totterings and tricklings. I mean, have you any important engagements in the next week or so?’
I scented danger.
How does this line from the story help the reader better understand Bertie’s character?

Do not lose sight of the fact that all this was taking place on an empty stomach, shortly after the rising of the lark.

It introduces readers to Bertie’s poverty and lack of opportunity.

It encourages readers to focus on Bertie’s appearance.

It reinforces for readers the idea that Bertie is not happy about Aunt Agatha’s visit. answer

It lets readers know that Bertie prefers seeing Aunt Agatha early in the day.

from “EXTRICATING YOUNG GUSSIE”

by P.G. Wodehouse

She sprang it on me before breakfast. There in seven words you have a complete character sketch of my Aunt Agatha. I could go on indefinitely about brutality and lack of consideration. I merely say that she routed me out of bed to listen to her painful story somewhere in the small hours. It can’t have been half past eleven when Jeeves, my man, woke me out of the dreamless and broke the news: ‘Mrs Gregson to see you, sir.’
I thought she must be walking in her sleep, but I crawled out of bed and got into a dressing-gown. I knew Aunt Agatha well enough to know that, if she had come to see me, she was going to see me. That’s the sort of woman she is.
She was sitting bolt upright in a chair, staring into space. When I came in she looked at me in that darn critical way that always makes me feel as if I had gelatin where my spine ought to be. Aunt Agatha is one of those strong-minded women. I should think Queen Elizabeth must have been something like her. She bosses her husband, Spencer Gregson, a battered little chappie on the Stock Exchange. She bosses my cousin, Gussie Mannering-Phipps. She bosses her sister-in-law, Gussie’s mother. And, worst of all, she bosses me. She has an eye like a man-eating fish, and she has got moral suasion down to a fine point.
I dare say there are fellows in the world-men of blood and iron, don’t you know, and all that sort of thing-whom she couldn’t intimidate; but if you’re a chappie like me, fond of a quiet life, you simply curl into a ball when you see her coming, and hope for the best. My experience is that when Aunt Agatha wants you to do a thing you do it, or else you find yourself wondering why those fellows in the olden days made such a fuss when they had trouble with the Spanish Inquisition.
‘Halloa, Aunt Agatha!’ I said
‘Bertie,’ she said, ‘you look a sight. You look perfectly dissipated.’
I was feeling like a badly wrapped brown-paper parcel. I’m never at my best in the early morning. I said so.
‘Early morning! I had breakfast three hours ago, and have been walking in the park ever since, trying to compose my thoughts.’
If I ever breakfasted at half past eight I should walk on the Embankment, trying to end it all in a watery grave.
‘I am extremely worried, Bertie. That is why I have come to you.’
And then I saw she was going to start something, and I bleated weakly to Jeeves to bring me tea. But she had begun before I could get it.
‘What are your immediate plans, Bertie?’
‘Well, I rather thought of tottering out for a bite of lunch later on, and then possibly staggering round to the club, and after that, if I felt strong enough, I might trickle off to Walton Heath for a round of golf.’
‘I am not interested in your totterings and tricklings. I mean, have you any important engagements in the next week or so?’
I scented danger.
‘Rather,’ I said. ‘Heaps! Millions! Booked solid!’
‘What are they?’
‘I-er-well, I don’t quite know.’
‘I thought as much. You have no engagements. Very well, then, I want you to start immediately for America.’
‘America!’
Do not lose sight of the fact that all this was taking place on an empty stomach, shortly after the rising of the lark.
‘Yes, America. I suppose even you have heard of America?’
‘But why America?’
‘Because that is where your Cousin Gussie is. He is in New York, and I can’t get at him.’
‘What’s Gussie been doing?’
Gussie is making a perfect idiot of himself.’
To one who knew young Gussie as well as I did, the words opened up a wide field for speculation.
‘In what way?’
‘He has lost his head over a creature.’
On past performances this rang true.
What aspect of Bertie’s character is revealed through his interactions with Aunt Agatha?

He is disrespectful of women.

He is jovial and light-hearted.

He is self-conscious about his activities.

He is weak-willed when it comes to family. answer

.from “Was it a Dream?”

by Guy de Maupassant

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

And I saw that all had been the tormentors of their neighbors-malicious, dishonest, hypocrites, liars, rogues, calumniators, envious; that they had stolen, deceived, performed every disgraceful, every abominable action, these good fathers, these faithful wives, these devoted sons, these chaste daughters, these honest tradesmen, these men and women who were called irreproachable. They were all writing at the same time, on the threshold of their eternal abode, the truth, the terrible and the holy truth of which everybody was ignorant, or pretended to be ignorant, while they were alive.

I thought that SHE also must have written something on her tombstone, and now running without any fear among the half-open coffins, among the corpses and skeletons, I went toward her, sure that I should find her immediately. I recognized her at once, without seeing her face, which was covered by the winding-sheet, and on the marble cross, where shortly before I had read:

“She loved, was loved, and died.”

I now saw:

“Having gone out in the rain one day, in order to deceive her lover, she caught cold and died.”

* * * * * * *

It appears that they found me at daybreak, lying on the grave unconscious.

Read the following sentence and answer the question.

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

Why is this passage a turning point in the story?

It changes the narrative tone from romance to horror.

It sets up the events necessary for the surprising conclusion. answer

It serves as the beginning point for a lengthy flashback.

It replaces the original limited narrator with an all-knowing one.

from “Was it a Dream?”

by Guy de Maupassant

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

And I saw that all had been the tormentors of their neighbors-malicious, dishonest, hypocrites, liars, rogues, calumniators, envious; that they had stolen, deceived, performed every disgraceful, every abominable action, these good fathers, these faithful wives, these devoted sons, these chaste daughters, these honest tradesmen, these men and women who were called irreproachable. They were all writing at the same time, on the threshold of their eternal abode, the truth, the terrible and the holy truth of which everybody was ignorant, or pretended to be ignorant, while they were alive.

I thought that SHE also must have written something on her tombstone, and now running without any fear among the half-open coffins, among the corpses and skeletons, I went toward her, sure that I should find her immediately. I recognized her at once, without seeing her face, which was covered by the winding-sheet, and on the marble cross, where shortly before I had read:

“She loved, was loved, and died.”

I now saw:

“Having gone out in the rain one day, in order to deceive her lover, she caught cold and died.”

* * * * * * *

It appears that they found me at daybreak, lying on the grave unconscious.

Read the following short passage and answer the question.

I recognized her at once, without seeing her face, which was covered by the winding-sheet, and on the marble cross, where shortly before I had read:

“She loved, was loved, and died.”

I now saw:

“Having gone out in the rain one day, in order to deceive her lover, she caught cold and died.”

Why did the author include this passage in the story?

It explains why the narrator was so greatly upset by his beloved’s death.

It makes the narrator look foolish for having decided to visit the graveyard.

It surprises both the narrator and the reader by revealing the dead woman’s character. answer

It supports a claim made by the narrator at the beginning of the story.

from “Was it a Dream?”

by Guy de Maupassant

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

And I saw that all had been the tormentors of their neighbors-malicious, dishonest, hypocrites, liars, rogues, calumniators, envious; that they had stolen, deceived, performed every disgraceful, every abominable action, these good fathers, these faithful wives, these devoted sons, these chaste daughters, these honest tradesmen, these men and women who were called irreproachable. They were all writing at the same time, on the threshold of their eternal abode, the truth, the terrible and the holy truth of which everybody was ignorant, or pretended to be ignorant, while they were alive.

I thought that SHE also must have written something on her tombstone, and now running without any fear among the half-open coffins, among the corpses and skeletons, I went toward her, sure that I should find her immediately. I recognized her at once, without seeing her face, which was covered by the winding-sheet, and on the marble cross, where shortly before I had read:

“She loved, was loved, and died.”

I now saw:

“Having gone out in the rain one day, in order to deceive her lover, she caught cold and died.”

* * * * * * *

It appears that they found me at daybreak, lying on the grave unconscious.

Read the sentence from the passage and answer the question that follows.

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

Which word, if substituted for inscribed, would best retain the meaning of the passage?

Scratched

Pierced

Carved answer

Erased

from “Was it a Dream?”

by Guy de Maupassant

On turning round I saw that all the graves were open, that all the dead bodies had emerged from them, and that all had effaced the lies inscribed-engraved or written on the gravestones by their relations, substituting the truth instead.

And I saw that all had been the tormentors of their neighbors-malicious, dishonest, hypocrites, liars, rogues, calumniators, envious; that they had stolen, deceived, performed every disgraceful, every abominable action, these good fathers, these faithful wives, these devoted sons, these chaste daughters, these honest tradesmen, these men and women who were called irreproachable. They were all writing at the same time, on the threshold of their eternal abode, the truth, the terrible and the holy truth of which everybody was ignorant, or pretended to be ignorant, while they were alive.

I thought that SHE also must have written something on her tombstone, and now running without any fear among the half-open coffins, among the corpses and skeletons, I went toward her, sure that I should find her immediately. I recognized her at once, without seeing her face, which was covered by the winding-sheet, and on the marble cross, where shortly before I had read:

“She loved, was loved, and died.”

I now saw:

“Having gone out in the rain one day, in order to deceive her lover, she caught cold and died.”

* * * * * * *

It appears that they found me at daybreak, lying on the grave unconscious.

Read the sentence from the passage and answer the question that follows.

And I saw that all had been the tormentors of their neighbors-malicious, dishonest, hypocrites, liars, rogues, calumniators, envious; that they had stolen, deceived, performed every disgraceful, every abominable action

Which word, if substituted for rogues, would best retain the meaning of the passage?

Citizens

Heroes

Scoundrels answer

Felons

Why do writers write
to amuse and entertain
to be creative
to learn
to inform
to persuade
to teach
to reflect on an experience
to explore an issue
Forms writing can take
story
non-fiction
poetry
film
What influences their writing?
personal passions
childhood
interests
values
culture
world events
what most affects our writing
our purpose
our audience
and our experiences.
Historical context
Historical context refers to the time and place in which a story occurs. Historical context can influence the authors values, purpose and point of view.
Time and place
Where and when the story takes place, and how this influences or changes the story.
When was the book published? What does the date lead you to expect about the characters?
When is the main character living? Is it long ago? Now? In the future?
Obstacles
Impediments
Something that blocks or stands in the way
The way people react to these obstacles changes the story
Cause and effect
a relationship between actions or events such that one or more are the result of the other or others.
What has caused an obstacle to exist? What specific effects does it have on the person’s life? What effects will certain reactions have down the road? The answers to all of these questions depend on the historical context.
cultural beliefs
traditions and values of people. These change with place and time and can influence a writers opinion.
Elements of Fiction
Characters: the individuals in a work of fiction, characters can be well developed, or they can be minor characters about whom we only know one or two characteristics
Setting: location and time a story take place. Sometimes it is the backdrop of the story, and sometimes it functions as a character that influences the meaning and mood of the story.
Conflict: main struggle or struggles a character faces
Plot: storyline or actions and events in a story.
Theme: meaning of the work or the life lesson that readers should learn.
point of view: angle or perspective from which a writer tells the story. Point of view affects what a reader knows about the characters and actions of the story.
Historical contex

Pertains only to the author’s time and place

Refers to the way time and place affect a story ✓ answer

Pertains only to the character’s time and place

Is a form of note taking about time and place in fiction

Historical context can tell us important information about

The rising action

The fate of the character

The story’s conclusion

The author’s point of view ✓ answer

Read the following excerpt and answer the question that follows.

Abridged from Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind.

What does the historical context of the writing demonstrate or tell you? (10 points)

Even in that time, there was a lower, middle, and upper class of society. ✓ answer

Unlike today, people in that time were all of the same class in society.

There were no middle class citizens in that time; only very rich and very poor.

Ideas of class separation did not become common until after that period in time.

Identify the book you are reading. What is the setting of your book, the time and place of the characters and their story? Based on what you have read so far, what purpose might the author have for writing this book? Use details from your reading to explain why you think the way you do. Use proper spelling and grammar.
The novel, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck seems to be set during the 1900’s around the time of the great depression in the farm and ranch lands of the state of California. The novel introduces two migrant farm workers, George and Lennie. They are friends, and Lennie depends on George, who acts as his protector. There may be a couple purposes for writing this book, the author describes the difficulty the two men have had in finding and keeping work, as well as their lack of food, illustrating the plight of migrant farm workers during this time period. In addition, Lennie appears to have a disability. The author provides details like his inability to remember where his work and bus ticket were, or where they were going as well as the way he likes to strike the fur of mice and does not seem to know his own strength and power. George helps to protect Lennie and finds work and food for them both and is constantly giving Lennie rules to follow. The setting, time and place, influence the characters struggles to find work and food as well as their ability to deal with Lennie’s disability.
Identify the book you are reading. What is a major obstacle or conflict a character in your book is facing? Explain the conflict or obstacle and how your character handles it. What does this conflict reveal about the character? Use examples from the book to explain why you think the way you do. Use proper spelling and grammar.
Potential conflicts in Of Mice and Men, include Lennie’s seeming inability to properly understand social situations. He needs constant warning and rules from George. George tells Lennie to stay away from Curly, who seems to want to fight everyone, unless Lennie’s life is in danger. He also tells him to stay away from Curly’s wife, who seems like nothing but trouble. A major conflict in this story is Lennie’s struggle with his own ability and the conflict with Curly and Curly’s wife.
Other conflicts:
racism: Crooks vs other ranchhands
sexism: Curley and other men vs Curley’s wife
value of life: Carlson wanting to kill Candy’s dog
George vs Lennie: can George continue to take care of Lennie.
Plot Structure