SOCL Final

Examples and types of authority.
Traditional – based on customs.

Rational – legal regulations

Charismatic authority – outstanding and influential conversational qualities

Berger suggests that ________ is the ultimate foundation of any political state.
Types of democracy
Direct – voters express opinions

Indirect/Representative – voters choose representatives to speak for them

Power is divided among many special interest groups, so that it is difficult for one group to dominate
Power elite
Corporate, political, and military collaboration to push a certain agenda
The three conditions identified by Nicholas Timasheff that is essential to incite war
1. Antagonistic situations, disagreement and conflict
2. Cultural traditions
3. Antagonistic fuel
The first noticeable conditions of social inequality occurred in human societies when:
When surplus was generated through division and labor
Forms of capitalism
Laissez – Faire Capitalism: No govt. interference

Welfare/state capitalism: economic/business laws

The theorist who contended that an item’s value is based on the work that has gone into it, and the only way that a profit can be made is to pay workers less than the value of their work was:
Karl Marx
The primary criticisms of socialism and capitalism:
Do not respect individuals rights, controls other people’s lives, and gives everyone an equal chance to be poor.
Systems of descent
The way people trace kinship over generations.
Functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm because it:
Facilitates the socialization of children as it avoids role confusion.
Second shift
Women working a full time job and performing domestic duties.
Marital homogamy
The tendency for people to marry individuals with similar characteristics.
There are approximately __ million married couples in the US, of which __ million are mixed marriages.
60 and 3.5
Marriage squeeze
When there are fewer unmarried men than there are unmarried women.
The primary source of strain in the typical one-parent family is
Sociologists Blumstein and Schwartz found that same-sex couples faced the same problems that heterosexual couples did but they were:
More likely to stay together than divorce.
Serial fatherhood
Initially, a divorced father maintains high contact with his children
When it comes to injuries occurred during battering:
More wives than husbands require medical attention
Credential society
A society where job eligibility based off qualifications
Manifest and latent functions of the American education system
Manifest – learning and creating knowledge

Latent – child care services for guardians, integration, gate-keeping, tracking

According to conflict theorists, the hidden curriculum perpetuates __________.
Durkheim referred to any group of people united by their religious practices as
the perpetuation of hidden inequalities
praying and church-going
A unified picture of the world and universe
The phrase, “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed…the opium of the people,” can be credited to
Karl Marxq
Protestant ethic
self-denying approach to religion
Sunday morning between ten and eleven has been called “the most segregated hour in the United States.” The reason for this segregation is:
People tend to attend churches of the same race.
Argues that poor nations remain poor because they hold onto traditional beliefs and values
Geopolitics is the realignment of national-regional powers that occurred after:
An important threat to global control by the G8, the group of nations that decide world policy, is the:
dealing with worldwide ethnic conflicts
Multilinear and unlinlinear evolutionary theories of societies
Multilinear – attempt to solve the inevitably “superior culture” conclusion

Unilinear – The path must be the same for every society

According to historian Arnold Toynbee, all civilizations
Peak, decline, and die.
According to Marx, human history shows that struggle develops between the thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis. Marx called this
dialectical process
All societies use technology, but the chief characteristic of postmodern societies is technology that increases our ability to:
Communication, gather information, and travel.
Sociologist Mayer Zald suggests that during some periods of time there are very few social movements in a society and, at other times, a wave of social movements will emerge. He suggests that the number of social movements increases:
cultural issues and crises.
Different types of social movements
Revolutionary – most drastic

Revisionary – seeks limited or partial change

Conservative – maintain the status quo of traditional values

Reactionary –

Acid rain
Increased acidity in rainfall due to industrialized societies
Global warming
An increase in the earth’s temperature
According to the text, there is no energy shortage now or will there ever be as fossil fuels are not the only source of energy available. Conflict theorists argue that these abundant alternative energy sources are not used because they:
Pose a threat to multi-national oil companies.
Social stratification
The division among large numbers of people related to their property, power, and prestige.
Slavery in ancient Greece and Rome
These individuals did the work, freeing up citizens to engage in the arts and politics.
The sabotaging of people who are thought to be legally harming the environment
With the rain forests disappearing rapidly, it is believed that:
Social class according to
Bourgeoisie attempt to preserve capitalism with false consciousness.

Proletariat and bourgeoisie class conflict would lead to capitalism’s downfall.

False consciousness
Marxist theory detailing an individual’s inability to see social issues.
Social class according to Weber
wealth, prestige, and power
Ideology v. force as a means to maintain stratification
In democracies, the ruling elite use two methods to control information. These two methods include:
Elites utilized threat of force to control information; in democracies, they manipulate the media with the same agenda in mind.
Global stratification
An uneven distribution of privileges, material rewards, power, and prestige.
Core nations
Industrialized, capitalist countries with high production
Semiperiphery nations
Most capitalism, industrialized countries
Periphery nations
Less developed countries
External areas
Left out of the development of capitalism.
The power elite defined
The wealthy 1% and their control over wealth and political power.
Erik Wright’s revision of Marx’s concept of social classes
Suggests that some people occupy more than one class.
The social class most shaped by education is the:
upper-middle class
The upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next describes ________ mobility.
intergenerational mobility
The working poor and underclass together account for approx. ___ of the US population.
Numerically, most of the poor in the US are
Feminization of poverty
The meaning of race
categorized peoples based off shared characteristics
Minority and dominant groups
Ethnic work
construction and maintaining of ethnic identity
Prejudice and discrimination
The attitude and the behavior.
Individual discrimination
Institutional discrimination
Selective perception
Reserve labor force and split labor market
The separation of people based off race, religion, and class.
Internal colonialism
Dominant group exploitation of minorities for economic advantage.
Gradual process when a person adopts the practices of another culture.
Mass killing of people.
Forced assimilation
When the minority is absorbed into the majority by force. Conformity.
The greatest number of Latinos in the US trace their heritage to:
William Julius Wilson argues that _____ _____ has become the most significant factor in the lives of Af-Ams in today’s US society.
social class
Gender differences and behavior between men and women
Female circumcision is a custom in some societies. Feminists believe that this practice is:
Frederick Engels proposed that patriarchy developed in conjunction with:
In the video, who was the main auto manufacturer profiled?
Social darwinism
Standards by which people believe are desirable or needed.
Norms that are enforced because they are thought to be core values.
Prohibited or restricted by social customs.
Positive –

Negative –

Bodily communication.
Culture within a culture, yet distinguishes it’s differences.
A culture that opposes another culture.
Total institutions
A number of people are disconnected with society and live a formally administered, structured, life.
Social institutions
Established patterns of rule-governed behaviors.
behaviors and privileges attached to status.
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Smaller group of people within a larger group.
Reference groups
Groups designed to be compared to another.
The iron law of oligarchy
Inevitable rule by an elite.
Hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor
Bureaucratic alienation
C. Wright Mills – hardships of workers of the past replaced by a psychological malaise.
Harriet Martineau
Early sociologist who hid her “masculine” writings. Published “Society in America”, which reported on the new nation’s customs.
Jane Addams
Successful advocate of combining sociology with social reform. Founded the Hull House and the only sociologist to win the Nobel Prize.
Af-Am civil rights activist and author.
George Mead
Founder of Pragmatism, and pioneered the development of the symbolic interaction perspective. A founder of social psychology.
Talcott Parsons
Highly influential sociologist whom laid the foundation for what was to become modern functionalism. Developed action theory; a general theory for the study of society.
Charlie Cooley
The Looking Glass-Self developer. Emphasizes primary and secondary relationship development.
Karl Marx
This man believed class conflict would cause social change.
W.I. Thomas
Ernest Burgess
Auguste Comte
Coined the term sociology. Focused on social principles and applying them to reformations. Based his theories from his own observations.
Herbert Spencer
This sociologist developed the theory of social Darwinism. “Survival of the fittest” for societal evolution (the smartest, most capable humans would thrive).
Conflict theory
Structual functionalism
Symbolic interactionism
Mead’s theory of role-taking
Imitation –

Play –

Games –

Max Weber
This man used cross-cultural and historical info to trace social change. Coined the term “protestant ethic,” which means financial success implies God is with an individual.
Id (Freud)
Personality that is unconscious and includes instinctive behaviors.