Sociology vocab

Primary Sex Characteristics
genitals, organs of reproduction
Secondary Sex Characteristics
body development, aside from genitals, that differentiates biologically mature females and males
Intersexuality
persons born with sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that do no fit the typical definition of male and female
Transexual (Transgender)
appearing or behaving in ways that challenge conventional cultural norms concerning how females and males should look and act
Cissexual
denoting or relating to a person whose self-identity conforms with the gender that corresponds to their biological sex
Sexual Orientation
persons romantic and emotional attraction to another person
Economy
the social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Primary Economic Sector
part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
Secondary Economic Sector
part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
Tertiary Economic Sector
part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
Capitalism
economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
Socialism
economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
Communism
a hypothetical economic and political system in which all members of a society are socially equal
Welfare Capitalism
economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
State Capitalism
economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government
Primary Labor Markets
jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers
Labor Unions
organizations of workers that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies, including negotiations and strikes
Secondary Labor Markets
jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers
Collective Bargaining
negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees.
Underground Economy
economic activity involving income not reported to the government as required by law
Monopoly
domination of a market by a single producer
Oligopoly
domination of a market by a few producers
Power
ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
Authority
power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
Traditional
power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns
Charismatic
power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience
Rational-Legal
power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations
Social Change
transformation of culture and social institutions over time
Four (4) Characteristics of Social Change
1. change happens all the time
2. change is sometimes intentional but often it is unplanned
3. change is controversial
4. some changes matter more than others
Mechanical Solidarity
social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values. This type of social solidarity is typical of traditional, rural life.
Organic Solidarity
social bonds based on specialization and interdependence. This type of social solidarity is typical of modern, urban life.
Gemeinschaft
A type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition.
Gesellchaft
A type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest.
Rationalization and Bureaucratization
Fetishism of Commodities
Urbanization
The concentration of population into cities.
Metropolis/Metropolitan Area
A large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area.
Megalopolis
A vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.
Suburbs/Suburbanization
Urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city.
Durkheim’s Understanding of the Division of Labor
specialized economic activity. Every member of a traditional society performs more or less the same daily round of activities; modern societies function by having people perform highly specific jobs.
Exurbs/Edge Cities
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Urban Ecology
The study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Global Cities
what draws people to living in cities
1. George Simmel’s Early 20th Century Ideas
2. Richard Florida’s Late 20th Century Ideas
Collective Behavior
Activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous.
Primary Characteristics of Collective Behavior
Diverse
Variable
Transitory
Groups vs Collectivities
Groups

Collective – A large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms.

Social Movements
an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
Stages in Social Movements
1. Emergence
2. Coalescence
3. Bureaucratization
4. Decline (Including 5. Reasons for Decline)
Emergence
Defining the public issue
Coalescence
Entering the public arena
Bureaucratization
Becoming formally organized
Decline
Due to failure or, sometimes, success
Social Change Movements
1. Reformative Social Movements
2. Revolutionary Social Movements
Reformative Social Movements
Seeks limited change in the whole society. (Example: the environmental movement)
Revolutionary Social Movements
Seeks radical change in the whole society. (Example: the Communist party)
Personal Transformation Movements
1. Alternative Social Movements
2. Redemptive Social Movements
Alternative Social Movements
Seeks limited change in specific individuals. (Example: Promise Keepers)
Redemptive Social Movements
Seeks radical change in specific individuals. (Example: Alcoholics Anonymous)
Theories of Social Movements
1. Deprivation Theory
2. Mass Society Theory
3. Culture Theory
4. Resource Mobilization Theory
5. Structural-Strain Theory
6. Political Economy Theory
7. New Social Movements
Deprivation Theory (7 theories)
1. Deprivation Theory
2. Mass Society Theory
3. Culture Theory
4. Resource Mobilization Theory
5. Structural-Strain Theory
6. Political Economy Theory
7. New Social Movements
Deprivation Theory (definition)
Social movements arise among people who feel deprived of something, such as income, safe working conditions, or political rights.
Mass Society Theory
Social movements attract socially isolated people who join a movement in order to gain a sense of identity and purpose.
Culture Theory
Social movements depend not only on money and resources but also on cultural symbols that motivate people.
Resource Mobilization Theory
Success of a social movement is linked to available resources, including money, labor, and the mass media.
Structural-Strain Theroy
A social movement develops as the result of six factors. Clearly stated grievances encourage the formation of social movements; undirected anger, by contrast, promotes rioting.
Political Economy Theory
Social movements arise within capitalist societies that fail to meet the needs of a majority of people.
New Social Movements
Social movements in postindustrial societies are typically international in scope and focus on quality-of-life issues.
Theories of Growth
1. Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone
2. Hoyt’s Sector Model
3. Harris and Ullman’s Multicentered Model
Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone
Model where city centers are business districts bordered by a ring of factories, followed by residential rings with housing that becomes more expensive the farther it is from the noise and pollution of the city’s center.
Hoyt’s Sector Model
Model where distinctive districts sometimes form wedge-shaped sectors.
Harris and Ullman’s Multicentered Model
argued that cities do not grow a single nucleus but several separate nuclei
Theoretical Perspectives on Collective Behavior
1. Contagion Theory
2. Convergence Theory
3. Emergent Norm Theory
Contagion Theory
Views crowds as anonymous, suggestible, and swayed by rising emotions.
Convergence Theory
States that crowd behavior reflects the desires people bring to them.
Emergent Norm Theory
Suggests that crowds develop their own behavior as events unfold.
Urban Social Problems
1. Concentrated Poverty
2. Racial Residential Segregation
3. Spatial Mismatch
Concentrated Poverty
refers to areas in which very high proportions of the populations live in poverty
Racial Residential Segregation
Refers to the physical separation of the races in residential contexts.
Spatial Mismatch
the mismatch between where low-income households reside and where suitable job opportunities are available.
Theories of Global Change and Inequality
1. Modernization Theory
2. Dependency Theory
3. World Systems Theory
Modernization Theory
claims that in the past, the entire world was poor and that technological change, especially the Industrial Revolution, enhanced human productivity and raised living standards in many nations.
Dependency Theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones