sociology vocab chapter 7

is the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality, thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations. give examples
– when you go to the movies, you automatically sit in a chair, not on the floor. when the traffic signal turns red, you stop without thinking. you do not take these actions because you fear being punished. Rather, you have internalized society’s norms concerning movies and driving.
These are rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms
This is an action that rewards a particular kind of behavior. give examples
positive sanction for an example parents praising their children for good behavior. teachers react favorably to students who turn in good work, giving them good grades. employers may give pay raises to workers who show dedication.
is a punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity. give examples
negative sanction
– getting a parking ticket if you park in the no parking zone.
is a reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency, such as a school, business, or government.
formal sanctions
is a spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or a group.
informal sanction
enforcing norms through either internal or external means
social control
behavior that violates significant social norms.
give examples
– talking to oneself in public
drag racing on a public street
regularly using illegal drugs
using a weapon to attack another person
is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society.
give examples
– in earlier days officials would burn or cut signs into the bodies of criminals to warn others to avoid those people
prisoners have to wear special clothing and are assigned numbers.
developed by Robert K. Merton it views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society.
strain theory
is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable
explains deviance as a natural occurrence.
control theory
this sociological theory explains deviance as behavior learned in much the same way that nondeviant behavior is learned through interactions with others
cultural transmission theory
this concept refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
differential association
focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant
labeling theory
is the occasional violation of norms. individuals who commit these act do not see themselves as deviant and neither does society
primary deviance
refers to deviance as a lifestyle and results in the individual being labeled as deviant and believing the label
secondary deviance
is any act that is labeled as such by those in authority and is prohibited by law
created by edwin sutherland it was used to describe offenses committed by people of high social status in the course of their professional lives
white collar crime
is a large scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or legitimate business through violence or the threat of violence
crime syndicate
the system of police, courts, and corrections that has jurisdiction once a crime has been committed
criminal justice system
is the process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence
plea bargaining
sanctions used to punish criminals. these include imprisonment, parole, probation and community service
the power that police have to decide who is actually arrested.
police discretion
the practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit a crime than white Americans
racial profiling
the term for repeated criminal behavior