Sociology Vocab Ch. 4

social structure
network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction
status
socially defined position in a group or in a society
role
the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
ascribed status
based on a persons inherited traits
achieved status
aquired by individuals through their own direct efforts
master status
the status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity
reciprocal roles
corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
role expectations
the socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
role performance
actual role behavior
role set
the different roles attached to a single status
role conflict
occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
role strain
occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations on a single status
social institution
when statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
exchange
when people interact in an effort to recieve a reward or return
reciprocity
the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return
exchange theory
the volume of exchange in daily interactions
competition
occurs when 2 or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal only one can attain
conflict
deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
cooperation
occurs when 2 or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person
accomodation
a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
group
set of people who interact on a basis of shared expectations and who posess some degree of common identity
subsistence strategies
the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
preindustrial society
when food production is the main economic activity
hunting and gathering societies
daily collection of wild plants and hunting of wild animals
pastoral society
rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs
division of labor
the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
horticultural society
when fruits and vegtables grown in the garden are the main source of food
agricultural society
when animals are needed to pull plows to till the fields
barter
the exchange of a good or service
industrial societies
when the emphasis shifts from the production of food to the productions of manufactured goods
urbanization
the concentration of the population in cities
postindustrial societies
when much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
mechanical solidarity
when people share the same values and perform the same tasks, the become united in a common whole
organic solidarity
the impersonal social relationships that arise with increases job specialization
gemeinschaft
community
gesellschaft
society
aggregate
when people gather at the same place at the same time but lack organization
social category
a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status
dyad
a group with two members
triad
3 person group
small group
few enough members that everyone is able to interact on a face to face basis
formal group
the structures, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
informal group
no official structure or established rules of conduct
primary group
small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis
secondary group
a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
reference group
any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt
in group
the group that a person belongs to and identifies with
out group
any group that a person does not belong to or identify with
e-community
people interact with one another regularly on the internet
social network
the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total od a persons interactions with other people
leaders
people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
instrumental leaders
task-oriented
expressive leaders
emotion oriented
formal organization
a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
bureaucracy
ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
rationality
involves subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
voluntary association
a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest
iron law of oligarchy
tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people