Sociology Unit 7 Deviance, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System

Deviance
Deviance: traits or behaviors that violate expected rules or norms
Usually has a negative connotation in everyday society
Social Stigma
Deviance can be a trait, belief, or behavior
Accompanied by social stigma: a negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity
Varies across and within societies
Deviance varies
Varies across situations
Can be formal or informal—against the law or merely inappropriate
Perceptions change over time—What was deviant in the past is not longer, while other actions are now considered deviant.
Situations: What is deviant in church may not be at a ballgame.
What are some examples of behaviors or conditions that were considered deviant in the past but no longer are?
Premarital sex, unmarried single mothers, divorce, gay, lesbian, etc., women wearing pants, women working
What are some example of behaviors or conditions that were not considered deviant in the past but are now?
Positive deviance
overconforms.
Negative deviance
falls below social expectations.
Characteristics of Deviance
It can be a condition, belief, or behavior.
It is accompanied by social stigmas.
It varies across and within societies.
It can be formal or informal.
Perceptions change over time.
WHAT IS CRIME?
Crime is a violation of societal norms and rules written into public laws that is subject to punishment.
Sources of Crime Statistics
Official Data—Uniform Crime Reports
Victim Surveys—National Crime Victimization Survey
Prevalence of Crime
All crime statistics are estimates.
There are more arrests for property crimes and drug abuse violations than for violent crimes.
Victimless crimes are least likely to be reported.
Victims and Offenders
Most crime victims are men, African Americans, people under age 25, poor, and live in urban areas.
Offenders are likely to be under age 30, male, white, and live in poor, inner-city areas.
CONTROLLING DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Social control—techniques and strategies that regulate behavior
Social control can be informal or formal.
It includes positive (rewards) and negative (punishments) sanctions.
Is it formal or informal, negative or positive?
Capital punishment: formal
A smile: positive
Employee of the month designation: informal
Mother spanking a child: negative
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVES ON DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Crime and deviance can be both functional and dysfunctional.
Dysfunctions
Dysfunctions of crime and deviance:
Create tension and insecurity
Erode trust in relationships
Damage confidence in institutions
Are costly
Functions
Functions of crime and deviance:
Affirm cultural norms and values
Provide temporary safety values
Create social unity
Improve the economy
Trigger social change
Anomie Theory
Anomie theory suggests that people become deviant when they are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms.
Periods of rapid social change produce anomie.
Strain Theory
Strain theory suggests that people engage in deviance when there is a conflict between goals and means.
Merton’s strain theory of deviance
Accept: conformity and innovation
Reject: Ritualism and retreatism
New goals, new means: rebellion
5 Modes of Adaptation to strain
Conformity—accept goals and means
Innovation—accept goals but reject means
Ritualism—reject goals but accept means
Retreatism—reject goals and means
Rebellion—replace goals and means
What form of adaptation is it?
A man uses employer’s equipment and supplies when starting his own business. – rebellion – replace goals and means?
A woman becomes an alcoholic trying to forget an abusive childhood. – retreatism (reject goals and means)
A student continues to go class after giving up on career plans. ritualism (reject goals but accept means)
CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES ON DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Why are some acts defined as criminal while others are not?
Powerful groups control the law and its application.
Behaviors that injure the economic interests or challenge the political power of the dominant class are punished.
Types of Crime
White collar crime—illegal activities committed by high-status people in the course of their occupation
Occupational crimes—illegal activities committed by individuals in the course of their work
Corporate crimes—illegal acts committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies
Cybercrime—illegal activities conducted online
Organized crime—activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit
What kind of crime is it?
Amanda overcharges customers and keeps the extra money: occupational crime
Ken obtains and uses others’ credit card numbers.: cybercrime
A manufacturing firm knowingly installs dangerous equipment in order to save money.: corporate crimes
FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Women and girls are commonly the victims of sexual assault, rape, intimate partner violence, and other crimes that degrade women.
Feminist Theories
Explanations for women’s victimization:
Men have historically dominated the government, judiciary, and the law.
Women have been socialized to be weaker.
Men vs Women and arrest rates
Men are still more likely to be offenders, but female arrest rates are rising.
SYMBOLIC INTERACTION PERSPECTIVES ON DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Differential association theory suggests that people learn deviance through interaction.
People are most likely to engage in crime if they are exposed to deviant values early in life, frequently, over a long period of time, and from important people.
Labeling
Labeling theory holds that deviance depends on how others react.
Primary deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law.
Secondary
deviance occurs
when individuals
have been
labeled deviant.
The criminal justice system
The criminal justice system refers to government agencies that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgment, and correcting behavior.
It includes police, courts, and prisons.
Crime Control Model
The crime control model emphasizes protecting society and a get tough attitude.
Approximately 70 percent of Americans support the death penalty.
There is no evidence that executions deter crime.
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation is a view that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law-abiding citizens.
Rehabilitation programs are particularly successful when they provide employment after release.
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource “offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide.” They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. The NCJRS homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, reports on improving responses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Comparative criminology
Comparative criminology is a branch of sociology in which cross-national analysis has increasingly become a major focus. At the Global Criminology Website, Crime and Society: A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World, sociology professors and students can research subjects in global criminology by accessing Interpol and United Nations datasets, as well as text information for all countries of the world. Published papers, works-in-progress, and articles pertaining to global criminology are all available on the site.
Crime
Crime: a violation of societal norms and rules written into public laws that is subject to punishment
Criminologists
Criminologists: researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior
Crime statistics
Crime Statistics
Official Data—Uniform Crime Report
Includes crimes reported to the police and arrests
Does not include federal offenses or unreported crimes
Victim surveys
Victim Surveys—National Crime Victimization Surveys
Based on interviewing people about their experiences
Does include some unreported crimes
Crime facts
All crime statistics are estimates.
88% of crimes are property crimes.
Victimless crimes: illicit drug use, prostitution, drunkenness, illegal gambling
Victimless crimes are the least likely to be reported.
Serious crime in the US by volume and rate, 2010
Violent crimes, 1.3m, 404 per 100,000 inhabitants
Murder: 14,748, 5 per 100,000
Rape: 84,767, 28 per 100,000
Robbery: 367,832 per 119
Aggravated assault: 778,901 per 252
Property crime: 10.3m per 3,514
Burglary: 2.1m per 730
Larceny, theft: 6.9m per 2,362
Motor vehicle theft: 1.2 million per 422
Victims and offenders
Most victims are men, African American, people under age 25, and poor.
Offenders are likely to be aged 15-29, male, white, with low levels of education.
Social control
Social control: techniques and strategies that regulate behavior
Can be formal or informal
Includes positive (rewards) and negative (punishments) sanctions.
Is the sanction formal or informal, negative or positive?
A suspension from school: formal, negative
Serving time in jail: formal, negative
A smile: positive
Employee of the month designation: postive
A slap in the face : negative
Functionalism
Deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure.
Crime and deviance can be both functional and dysfunctional.
Dysfunctions of Crime and Deviance
Dysfunctions of Crime and Deviance
Create tension and insecurity
Erode trust in relationships
Damage confidence in institutions
Are costly
Functions of Crime and Deviance
Functions of Crime and Deviance
Affirm cultural norms and values
Provide temporary safety valves
Create social unity
Improve the economy
Trigger social change
Anomie
Anomie: the condition in which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms
Merton’s Social Strain Theory
American society has culturally approved goals and institutionalized means
Strain theory suggests that people engage in deviance when there is a strain or conflict between goals and means.
Modes of adaptation to strain
Modes of Adaptation to Strain:
Conformity (not deviant)—accept goals and means
Innovation—accept goals but reject means
Ritualism—reject goals but accept means
Retreatism—reject goals and means
Rebellion—replace goals and means
conflict theories
Conflict theorists focus on why some acts are defined as deviant while others are not.
Powerful groups control the law and its application.
Behaviors that injure the economic interests or challenge the political power of the dominant class are punished.
White collar / corporate crime
White collar crime: illegal activities committed by high-status people in the course of their occupation
Corporate crime: illegal acts committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies
cyber / organized crime
Cybercrime: illegal activities conducted online
Organized crime: activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit
patriarchy
Patriarchy: hierarchical system in a society in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
Women and girls
Women and girls are commonly the victims of sexual assault, rape, intimate partner violence, and other crimes that degrade women.
Men historically dominated the government, judiciary, and the law.
Women have been socialized to be weaker.
male/female arrests
Men are still more likely to be offenders but female arrest rates are rising.
Female arrest rates have risen for robbery, burglary, larceny, and drunk driving.
Explanations vary from mistreatment in childhood to limited economic opportunities.
Differential associations theory
Differential associations theory suggests that people learn deviance through interaction.
People are most likely to engage in crime if they are exposed to deviant values early in life, frequently, over a long period of time, and from important people.
labeling theory
Labeling theory holds that deviance depends on how others react.
Primary deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law.
Secondary deviance occurs when individuals have been labeled deviant.
criminal justice
The criminal justice system refers to government agencies that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgment, and correcting behavior.
Includes police, courts, and prisons
Relies on prevention and intervention, punishment, and rehabilitation
prevention
Social service agencies and community outreach programs try to prevent crime.
Treatment for drug and alcohol abuse seems to have a positive effect.
Surveillance by police or technology reduces crime rates.
crime control model
The crime control model emphasizes protecting society and a get tough attitude.
The U.S. leads the world in inmates per capita.
In 2008, one in every 100 Americans was in prison.
death penalty
Approximately 61% of Americans support the death penalty.
There is little evidence that executions or harsh penalties deter crime.
rehab
Rehabilitation is a view that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law-abiding citizens.
Rehabilitation programs are particularly successful when they provide employment after release.
How does crime differ from deviance?
a. Crime violates rules about behavior that is seen as sinful or immoral.
b. Crime is always more serious than deviance.
c. Crime involves a larger share of the population.
d. Crimes violates written laws.
e. Crime is always less serious than deviance.
d. Crimes violates written laws.
The country with the highest rate of incarceration per capita is __________.
a. Lithuania
b. Russia
c. Vietnam
d. United States
e. China
d. United States
For __________ theorists, those with more power control the law and define what is deviant and who will be punished.
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. conflict
d. strain
c. conflict
Rape is considered a crime almost everywhere in the world.
a. True
b. False
False
Deviance, as the term is used by sociologists, is defined as
a. behavior that violates social institutions.
b. the breaking of laws.
c. behavior that violates expected rules or norms.
d. behavior that conforms to social rules and norms.
e. behavior that has a negative social impact.
c. behavior that violates expected rules or norms.

Deviance is defined by sociologists as behavior that violates expected rules or norms.

Which of these is not a valid statement about deviance from a sociological perspective?
a. Social stigma is generally attached to acts of deviance.
b. Definitions of deviance do not change over time in any society.
c. Behaviors considered deviant may be formal or informal.
d. Deviance can be a condition or belief rather than a behavior.
e. Deviance varies across and within societies.
b. Definitions of deviance do not change over time in any society.
The term __________ refers to a negative label that devalues a person and changes his or her self-concept or social identity.
a. innovator
b. retreatist
c. status inconsistency
d. stigma
e. deviant
stigma
The violation of social norms or rules for which the punishment is defined by public law is termed __________.
a. stigma
b. mores
c. legal deviance
d. deviance
e. crime
crime
How does crime differ from deviance?
a. Crime involves a larger share of the population.
b. Crimes violates written laws.
c. Crime violates rules about behavior that is seen as sinful or immoral.
d. Crime is always more serious than deviance.
e. Crime is always less serious than deviance.
b. Crimes violates written laws.
Which of these statements does not contribute to the explanation for why measuring crime is difficult?
a. People are unlikely to report their own illegal behavior if they fear incrimination.
b. Some types of crime are more likely to be reported than others.
c. Victims have poor memories when it comes to their victimization.
d. Women tend to feel more guilt and over-report their own criminal behavior.
e. Crime victims are often unwilling to answer surveys about their experience.
Crime is difficult to measure primarily because underreporting is likely for a variety of reasons.
b. Some types of crime are more likely to be reported than others.
Victimless crimes are also referred to as __________.
a. deviant crimes
b. criminal-less crimes
c. status offenses
d. property crimes
e. public order crimes
e. public order crimes
Which of these statements about the likelihood of being a crime victim is correct?
a. Young people are more likely to be victimized than older people.
b. Higher income people are more likely to be victimized than lower-income people.
c. Whites are more likely to be victimized than African Americans.
d. Across all types of crime, women are more likely to be victimized than men.
d. Across all types of crime, women are more likely to be victimized than men.
In which of these age groups is a person must likely to be arrested?
a. ages 22 to 29
b. ages 30 to 45
c. ages 50 and over
d. ages 12-15
d. ages 12-15
Which of following racial groups has the largest number of persons arrested annually?
a. American Indians
b. Asian Americans
c. Latinos
d. whites
e. African Americans
d. whites
Most of us adhere to social norms and limit our deviance because of the __________ we learn and internalize during childhood.
a. positive sanction fears
b. informal social controls
c. laws
d. fear of the law
e. formal social controls
Most people conform because of the informal social controls they internalize during childhood socialization.
b. informal social controls
A teacher smiles at a student who is participating in class. This is an example of a __________.
a. informal positive sanction
b. informal negative sanction
c. nonsanction gesture
d. formal positive sanction
a. informal positive sanction
__________ believe that deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure.
a. Feminist theorists
b. Symbolic interactionists
c. Criminologists
d. Functionalists
e. Conflict theorists
d. Functionalists
__________ refers to a situation in which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms.
a. Social control
b. Deviance
c. Strain
d. Sanction
e. Anomie
e. Anomie
__________ elaborated on Durkheim’s concept of Anomie to explain how social structure can create deviance.
a. Merton
b. Becker
c. Lembert
d. Sutherland
e. Bogel
a. Merton
According to __________, people turn to deviant behavior (such as cheating) when they experience a conflict between goals (like good grades) and limited means of success (time conflicts or limited study time).
a. anomic theory
b. symbolic interactionists
c. functionalist theory
d. conflict theory
e. strain theory
e. strain theory
Within Merton’s types of deviance explained by strain theory, __________ refers to those who “go along to get along.”
a. retreatism
b. rebellion
c. conformity
d. innovation
c.conformity
For __________ theorists, those with more power control the law and define what is deviant and who will be punished.
a. conflict
b. strain
c. structuralist
d. functionalist
e. symbolic interactionist
a. conflict
Which of these is not one of the reasons that white-collar crime thrives in the U.S.?
a. Law enforcement has limited resources for fighting white collar crime.
b. White collar crime has a negligible or limited cost to society.
c. There are few penalties for white collar crime.
d. White-collar criminals are seldom criminalized.
e. White collar criminals tend to come from backgrounds of privilege.
a. Law enforcement has limited resources for fighting white collar crime.
Nearly 47 percent of state prisoners have a parent or close relative who has been incarcerated. Such data provide support the __________ of deviance and crime.
a. differential association theory
b. labeling theory
c. feminist theory
d. functionalist theory
e. conflict theory
a. differential association theory
If one has been labeled stupid and dishonest, they are more likely to cheat on an exam. The cheating would be considered an act of __________.
a. secondary deviance
b. tertiary deviance
c. reflective deviance
d. primary deviance
a. secondary deviance
Which of these is not one of the strategies that the criminal justice system uses to control crime?
a. intervention
b. punishment
c. rehabilitation
d. tolerance
e. prevention
d. tolerance
hich of these statements about capital punishment is true?
a. All states in the U.S. have legalized capital punishment.
b. Capital punishment has been a proven deterrent to recidivism.
c. Globally, electrocution is the only legal form of capital punishment.
d. The highest rates of capital punishment are found in the Northeast.
e. American support of capital punishment has been stable over the last 50 years.
e. American support of capital punishment has been stable over the last 50 years.
Policing efforts concentrated in particular areas of high criminal activity
a. have an even broader impact on reducing crime.
b. has no impact on crime rates.
c. actually lead to increased crime activity.
d. reduce crime only temporarily.
e. reduce crime in the long term
d. reduce crime only temporarily.
From a sociological perspective, deviance is not a derogatory term.
a. True
b. False
True
Deviance is not universal; it is only common in complex societies.
a. True
b. False
False
Deviance may be a trait or belief as well as behavior.
a. True
b. False
true
What is deviant in one time and place may not be considered deviant in another time or place.
a. True
b. False
true
Most of the time it is very easy to study the extent, cause and control of crime.
a. True
b. False
false
The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is a complete accounting of the number of crimes committed in the U.S.
a. True
b. False
false
Most criminal offenders are not caught or brought to trial.
a. True
b. False
true
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is a more accurate about many types of crime than the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports.
a. True
b. False
true
The incidence of violent crime in the U.S. has been steadily increasing since 1990.
a. True
b. False
false
The older Americans get the less likely they are to commit a crime.
a. True
b. False
true
All sociological perspectives view deviance as a normal and desirable part of the social structure.
a. True
b. False
false
Deviance may be functional for society.
a. True
b. False
true
A consistent criticism of functionalist theories of deviance is that they focus on deviance among the higher-income elite.
a. True
b. False
false
Rape is considered a crime almost everywhere in the world.
a. True
b. False
false
Crime prevention is less costly than punishing crime.
a. True
b. False
true
anomie
the condition in which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms.
corporate crimes
illegal acts committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies.
crime
a violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by law.
crime control model
an approach that believes that crime rates increase when offenders don’t fear apprehension or punishment.
criminal justice system
government agencies—including the police, courts, and prisons—that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgment on offenders, and changing criminal behavior.
criminologists
researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
cybercrime
(also called computer crime) illegal activities that are conducted online.
deviance
traits or behavior or trait that violates expected rules or norms.
differential association theory
a perspective that asserts that people learn deviance through interaction, especially with significant others.
labeling theory
a perspective that holds that society’s reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant.
organized crime
activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit.
patriarchy
a hierarchical system in a society in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men
primary deviance
the initial act of breaking a rule.
rehabilitation
a social control approach that holds that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law-abiding citizens.
sanctions
rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.
secondary deviance
rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others.
social control
the techniques and strategies that regulate people’s behavior in society.
stigma
a negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity.
strain theory
the idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals.
victimization survey
interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims.
victimless crimes
acts that violate laws but involve individuals who don’t consider themselves victims.
white-collar crime
illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation.
Deviance and sanctions reaffirm what is acceptable in a society.
Deviance of outsiders enhances in-group solidarity.
Deviance is often a source of innovation.
Deviance occurs when people find legitimate pathways to success are
Functionalist
Powerful groups determine deviant behavior based on their own norms in order to maintain power.

People with power are able to avoid punishment more often than the poor and working class.

conflict
Deviance is a learned behavior.

Deviance is socially constructed. Powerful groups label subordinate group activities as not conforming to dominant norms.

symbolic interactionalist
Women may engage in deviant behavior, such as exotic dancing, in order to earn money or independence within a society that subordinates them.
feminist
Gangs establish norms and decrease the members’ sense of anomie.

The poor often experience subpar educational systems, and then have few legitimate opportunities for jobs, which push them toward deviance in gangs

functionalist
The stereotypical gang’s illegal actions are not socially acceptable.

By comparison, a stereotypical college fraternity may also break the law, but it is often overlooked as part of college life. This shows social preference based on class and prestige

conflict
Young people join gangs because of their association with other gang members.

Police typically monitor suspected gang activity, and thus gangs’ illegal behavior is more likely to be discovered.

symbolic interactionalist
Female roles in gangs mirror their subordinate status in outside society.

Female gangs are a rational response to violence from men toward women.

feminist