Sociology Test 1

The ____ perspective emphasizes the social contexts in which people live
sociological
a group of people who share a culture and a territory is known as a…
society
The corners in life that people occupy because of their place in society…
social location
Auguste comte is credited as being the founder of…
sociology
Using ______, comte applied the scientific method to the social world
positivism
Who coined “survival of the fittest”?
Herbert spencer
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Karl Marx believed that the engine of human history is…
class conflict
The ______, according to Marx, were the exploited workers who did not own the means of production
proletariats
Durkheim’s concept of ______ refers to the degree to which people are tied to their social groups
Social integration
The _____ examined by sociologists are recurring characteristics or events
patterns of behavior
According to Max Weber, the central force in social change is…
religion
Why do women not figure more prominently among early sociologists?
– sex roles were rigid
– Women were assigned roles of wife and mother
– 4 C’s (cooking, church, children, clothes)
– They risked serious disapproval
Jane Addams
– Early sociologist and social reformer
– co-founded the hull-house
– co-winner of the noble prize for peace
– strove to bridge the gap btw the powerless and the powerful
– co-founded the American civil liberties union
Talcott Parsons was influential in…
social theory (models of society)
with basic sociology, the goal of analyzing some aspect of society is that of…
gaining knowledge
________ harnesses the sociological perspective for the benefit of the public
public sociology
in _____, symbols are the key to understanding how we look at the world and communicate with one another
symbolic interactionism
One of the sociologists who developed symbolic interactionism
George Herbert Mead
In the eyes of ______, society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
Robert Merton
Robert Merton used the term ______ for the harmful consequences of people’s actions.
Dysfunctions
Who was the founder of the conflict theory?
Karl Marx
In the research model, specifying what it is that you want to learn about a topic is the stage of…
defining the problem
A ______ predicts a relationship between or among variables
hypothesis
Sharon had spent months carrying out sociological experiments. She collected a ton of data. What’s Sharon’s next step?
Analyzing the results
The 8th and final step of the research model
sharing the results
what you expect to find according to predictions from a theory is known as a…
hypothesis
A ________ is a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (change) from one case to another
Variable
___________ is a precise way to measure a variable
operational definition
__________ is the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
validity
reliability refers to
accuracy or consistency
A _____ is the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
survey
the _______ is made up of the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
sample
in a _______, everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
random sample
The _____ is drawn from selected subgroups of a target population
stratified random sample
If the questions that you ask the people taking part in your study are not ________, you will end up with biased answers
neutral
Li, a sociology undergraduate, was required to participate in a research study being conducted by a graduate student in his department. He didn’t know the topic until he got there, and the things the interviewer asked him were embarrassing. Li chose answers that weren’t quite true — in fact, they weren’t true at all — in order to save face himself and also to please the interviewer. This is an example of…
interviewer bias
_______ is a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
rapport
Questions followed by a list of possible answers that the respondent can select are called…
close-ended
Open-ended questions are questions that respondents…
answer in their own words
In secondary analysis, researchers analyze data collected by…
other researchers
Police reports, photographs, and videos are examples of _______ used by researchers
secondary analysis
The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable make up the…
experimental group
In the control group, subjects are…
not exposed to the independent variable
The independent variable causes a change in the…
other variable (dependent)
________ are used to study people who are unaware that they are being studied
unobtrusive measures
The best method of sociological research to use…
in sociological research, gender
– is influential
– can be an impediment
– can lead to interviewer bias
– issues can pop up unexpectedly
professional handling of confidential sociological field notes entails
protecting respondents
_________ is the breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade and travel
globalization
Capitalism becoming the world’s dominant economic system
globalization of capitalism