Sociology Terms

August Comte
Father of Sociology. Developed the difference between social statics and social dynamics.
Harriet Martineau
Believed that the lack of economic power kept women dependent and inferior to men.
Herbert Spencer
Introduced Social Darwinism,
Survival of the fittest,
poor and rich deserve their status,
Interference through welfare or taxes is bad.
Karl Marx
Capitalism will lead to rebellion and produce a classless, communist society.
Emile Durkheim
Believed that society must have mechanical solidarity to survive.
What is the difference between social dynamics and social statics?
Social dynamics is the study of change and social statics is the study of social stability and order.
Max Weber
Suffered from a mental breakdown. Came up with Verstehen (the understanding of social behavior be putting yourself in their shoes)
What is the difference between mechanical and organic solidarity?
Mechanical solidarity is an agreement on values, belief, strong pressure to conform, and dependence on family and tradition. Organic Solidarity is the idea that we are dependent on each other for goods and services.
Functionalism
Emphasizes the contributions of each part of society.
What is the difference between Latent and manifest function?
Latent is unintended and unrecognized and Manifest is intended and recognized.
Symbolic Interactionism
Focuses on the interactions of people based on mutually and understood symbols.
Conflict Perspective
Emphasizes conflict, competition, change, and constraint in society.
Survey
Most wisely used research method for sociologist
Population
Everyone with the characteristics a researcher wants to study.
Sample
Limited number of cases drawn from a larger population, must be representative
Participant Observation
Researches involve themselves in a group they are studying with or without the groups knowledge.
Case Study
Single study that should fit the findings of other groups.
Quantitative Variables
Variables that can be measured and given a numerical value
Qualitative
Identified membership in a group or category
What is the difference between negative and positive correlation
In positive both variables move in the same direction, in negative the variables move in opposite directions.
Sociology
The study of social structure.
Sociological Perspective
Sociologists study the group or society as a whole.
Questionnaire
a written set of questions that survey participants answer by themselves.
What is the difference between open and closed ended questions
Opened- ended questions you answer in your own words, closed- ended questions are limited, predetermined set of responses.
symbol
Something chosen to represent something else.
Social Dynamics
The study of change.
Jane Addams
American social reformer and pacifist who founded Hull House (1889), a care and education center for the poor of Chicago, and worked for peace and many social reforms. She shared the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.
What is the difference between psychological and sociological persepective
Sociologist study the group or society as a whole, Psychologists study from the individual perspective.