Sociology (Social Networks)

social networks
sets of individual persons linked together by one or more social relationships
social network theory
suggests the attributes of individuals are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors within the network
dyad
smallest possible group, you and someone else, most intense and intimate, more unstable
triad
fundamentally different than a dyad, interaction between nodes decreases, intimacy declines, strength and stability increases
iron law of oligarchy
Organizations come to be dominated by a self perpetuating elite, power circulates among a few
homophily
the extent to which actors form ties with similar versus dissimilar others
reciprocity
the extent to which two actors reciprocate each other’s friendship or other interaction
network closure
a measure of the completeness of relational triads
bridge
an individual whose weak ties fill a structural hole (lack of connection), providing the only link between two individuals or clusters
centrality
centrality refers to a group of metrics that aim to quantify the importance or influence (in a variety of senses) of a particular node (or group) within a network
density
the proportion of direct ties in a network relative to the total number possible
distance
the minimum number of ties required to connect two particular actors
structural holes
When two separate clusters possess non-redundant information, there is said to be a structural hole between them
tie strength
defined by the linear combination of time, emotional intensity, intimacy, and reciprocity. Strong ties are associated with homophily while weak ties are associated with bridges
Social Capital
It is the ability of actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures
bridgers or brokers
• Networks are often rich in structural holes, and comprise a form of social capital in that they offer information benefits
• The main player in a network that bridges structural holes is able to access information from diverse sources and clusters
why is networking not as helpful as you think
networking consists of going out and making a whole bunch of new connections, and then hoping that something good will come of them, more productive to think about your position within the network
closure argument
social capital is created by a network of strongly interconnected elements, Closed networks enhance communication and sanctions, Better communication, managing risk
structural hole argument
social capital is created by network in which people can broker connections between otherwise disconnected segments, Advantage comes from information access, Opposite of closure argument, Emphasize disconnected elements
coleman
social capital consists of closed networks, • Ties among, parents, teachers and other adults ensure child does homework…succeeds in life
closed network
to be isolated from their environment
open network
“system in exchange of matter with its environment, presenting import and export, building-up and breaking-down of its material components
coleman burt dispute
coleman – social capital consists of closed networks
burt: social capital consists of open networks