Sociology Quiz 4

Social Stratification
A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige.
Karl Marx on Stratification
-believed social class depends on people’s relationship to the means of production
-two classes: bourgeoisie (capitalist), who own the mean of production, and proletariat (workers), those who work for the owners
Max Weber on Stratification
-believed social class has three components: property, power, and prestige
False Class Consciousness
workers mistakenly thinking of themselves as capitalists
Social Mobility
movement up or down the class ladder
-based on money or material possessions
-not rigid
-in place at birth
individuals can change their social class by what they achieve or fail to achieve in life
-fluid boundaries
-allows social mobility
Split Labor Market
the division of workers along racial-ethnic and gender lines
Culture of Poverty
the poor assume that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other Americans, and that these factors are largely responsible for the continues long-term poverty
Consequences of social class
-physical health
-mental health
-family life
-crime and criminal justice
Horatio Alger myth
-the belief that anyone can get ahead if only he or she tries hard enough
-encourages people to strive to get ahead
-deflects blame failure from society to the individual
-a low level of stratification
-based on three factors: debt, crime, or war
-usually not based on race
-not always lifelong
-not born into
Systems of Stratification
-birth determines status
-achieved status cannot change an individual’s place in this system
-boundaries between castes remain firm
Mean of production
the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
Factors to maintain stratification
Controlling people’s ideas, information, criticism, and technology
Stereotypes of the poor
-Most are lazy and don’t want to work
-Most are trapped in a cycle of poverty that few escape
-There is more poverty in rural that in urban areas
-Most African-Americans are poor
-Most are single mothers and their children
-Most live on welfare
Inter-generational mobility
children end up on a different rung of the social
Structural mobility
changes in society that allow large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder
Exchange mobility
large numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, but the proportions of the social classes remain about the same