Sociology practice exam 1

There is a high correlation between the number of Americans who pay income tax in the month of April and the number of swimsuits sold. Which of the following statements is the best description of this relationship?
spurious relationship
Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ________.
Protestant ethic
Sue is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily interactions. In view of this, how would Sue’s expertise be defined?
expert in nonverbal interaction.
Using Facebook to study the race-ethnicity of friendships among college students would be an example of which research method?
the experiment
Michael is going to survey members of the gay and lesbian student union and gather data on their personal lives, interests, and demographics to develop a profile of their membership. To be most successful and receive the most valid responses, what should Michael do?
begin the questionnaire by asking neutral questions.
What is the major problem with using participant observation as a research tool?
It often leads to findings that lack generalizability.
What distinction did sociologist Frances Perkins hold in American history?
first woman to hold a presidential cabinet position.
College provides a haven for several million potential workers who are classified as “students” rather than “unemployed,” which helps stabilize the job market. This situation represents what Merton would describe as a ________.
latent function
People all over the world, including college students, are breaking down national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel. This is referred to as ________.
Why did a number of sociologists think Laud Humphreys’ research on tearooms was unethical?
He did not identify himself as a researcher.
Cindy is interested in how the movement of Maytag production plants and other industries from the Midwest to Mexico has changed the lives of thousands of unemployed workers and their communities. Cindy is conducting a ________ analysis.
A researcher is asking questions of a serious nature, and a respondent gives only “socially acceptable” answers. This is an example of ________.
interviewer bias
Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demonstrated in her work as co-founder of Hull-House, ________ was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Jane Addams
What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?
the scientific method
The three conditions necessary for causation between variables are ________, ________, and ________.
correlation; temporal priority; lack of spurious correlation
Which groups of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?
conflict theorists and structural functionalists
Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whiskey bottles in trashcans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using a method of research referred to as ________.
Unobtrusive measures
In research, to generalize one’s findings to a total population, what is the most important quality that the sample must possess?
It must be representative of the total population.
While conducting research on domestic abuse, Tanya asked workers at a battered women’s shelter, “What do you think causes some men to abuse their wives?” She then permitted the workers to elaborate on their answers. What is the term used to describe such a question, one that leads to this type of answering option?
This is an example of an open-ended question.
In addition to choosing the appropriate research method, sociologists must follow research _______ to achieve truth, honesty, and openness.
Which two research methods did Laud Humphreys utilize in his classic “tearoom” study?
participant observation and surveys
Dr. Zak is trying to determine what traits, if any, high-achieving students have that students who do poorly on his exams do not possess. To assess personal information from both groups of students, what research method should Dr. Zak probably use?
a survey
If a researcher is reading diaries to collect information about the attitudes of rape victims, he or she is using ________ to collect the data.
During his career, Anthony has worked as a juvenile police officer, corrections counselor in a state prison, and executive director of an urban redevelopment program. In view of this, which description best describes Anthony’s career path?
applied sociologist
Which of the following research errors is less likely to be classified as fraud and more likely to be considered as simply sloppy work?
analyzing the data incorrectly
A small group of seven students evaluated Professor Zanylo’s lectures. On a scale of 1 to 10, the scores the students registered were 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 9, 10. Professor Zanylo’s mode score was ________ and his median score was ________.
Walker is conducting research on scholarship recipients at Faber College. In his sample of 250 students, he is ensuring he has a proportionate number of students based on class standing, race, sex, and major course of study. Walker’s sample is an example of a ________.
stratified random sample
Matthew is completing his master’s thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with a gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang member’s perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?
Participant observation
In the statement, “Poverty causes crime,” the words “poverty” and “crime” are best described as ________ because they are subject to change.
The two sociologists who referred to society as being a kind of living organism were _______ and ________.
Auguste Comte; Herbert Spencer
Dr. Zahn’s academic interest is analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(n) ________ sociologist.
basic or pure
In experimental research, the variable that is the cause of change (the independent variable) must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable). This condition is called ________.
temporal priority
The contemporary conflict sociologist who pointed out that conflict is most likely to develop among people in close relationships was ________.
Lewis Coser
When a researcher focuses on a single event, situation, or individual, the resulting research is known as ________.
a case study
In the research model, the step in which the researcher specifies what he or she wants to learn about a specific topic of study is called ________.
defining the problem
Juanita is conducting survey research for the Colgate-Palmolive Company. The company recently sent several cases of personal-sized toothpaste to Dr. Yankum as a part of a promotion. Juanita is surveying patients as they leave Dr. Yankum’s office to ask if the dentist gave them any hygiene items to continue quality dental care. Juanita has discovered that practically every patient received Colgate and has concluded in her report that dentists prefer Colgate toothpaste over other brands. What flaw exists in Juanita’s research?
she is using a biased sample to collect her data
Which of the following would not be considered unobtrusive measures?
Cameras that follow you through the store recording your every move.
When sociologists Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla (1984, 2014) interviewed convicted rapists in prison they were concerned that the prisoners might shift their answers depending on which researcher was interviewing them because one was male and one was female. They were concerned that gender might lead to…
interviewer bias
Which of the following examination formats is most likely to incorporate closed-ended questions?
a multiple-choice exam
The methodical and exacting process by which a researcher measures a variable is known as ________.
operational definition
The term “________” refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.
Sam is conducting interviews to assess students’ opinions on how President Bush handled the second Gulf War. Because this is a controversial topic at Sam’s conservative campus, what is the best way for him to develop a sense of rapport with the sample?
he should tell the students he interviews their identities will be kept secret
Max has developed the hypothesis that the stress felt by unemployed men increases the probability of spousal abuse. In this case, stress would be considered the ________ variable and spousal abuse would be considered the ________ variable.
independent; dependent
The American sociologist who focused on social analysis, developing abstract models showing how parts of society harmoniously work together, was ________.
Talcott Parsons
Which of the following statements is the best example of a hypothesis?
“Unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men.”
The Wall Street Journal has declared that the three greatest modern thinkers were ________, ________, and ________.
Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein
Why did Mario Brajuha refuse to turn over his research notes to the authorities, even when subpoenaed?
He wanted to protect his respondents
Dr. Zimbardo is examining the effect that pornographic movies have on the ways in which single men respond to the needs of women. He has one group of men watch pornographic films and another watch Three Stooges episodes. He then tests their reactions to women in need by showing them short film clips and following up with a series of questions. What research method is Dr. Zimbardo using?
the experiment
An attractive African American woman is conducting random interviews on campus to gather data on students’ opinions on the reverse discrimination suit filed by white students at the University of Michigan School of Law. Four out of five of the white respondents and virtually all of the African American respondents favor the court’s ruling and supports “bonus points” being given to applicants of color. Based on this information, what is probably affecting the data collection process?
interviewer bias
When reading a table, a comment located just below the title that gives more detailed information on how the data was collected or how the data are presented is called a ________.
Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, falafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ________.
Cultural diffusion
All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?
Chicago Cubs fans
While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina was playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristina’s experience?
Kristina experienced culture shock.
Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the “human potential” movement that focuses on “self help, relating, and personal development” is ________.
In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their “quality of life” and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological concepts?
cultural relativism
In America, why is Spanish, rather than English, continuously spoken from generation to generation, with greater commitment than any other non-English speaking language?
There is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.
Every December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the “festival of lights,” during which special foods are served, rituals are practiced, and traditional activities take place that are unique to this faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith would represent which concept?
The refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is a form of ________, while the sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is a form of ________.
ethnocentrism; cultural relativism
Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, “The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water.” What does this imply about culture?
culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it
McDonald’s sells Quarter Pounders in Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Berlin, and practically every other major city in the world. Mickey Mouse and Fred Flintstone are among the most popular cartoon figures in Mexico. These are examples of ________.
cultural leveling
Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family of professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?
They are all members of subcultures.
Three of the following terms are interchangeable. Which one does NOT belong with the other three?
social learning
Pigs, spiders, elephants, and other animals that rely solely on instinct act as they do because they lack a ________.
cerebral cortex
All of the following statements are accurate in describing gestures, EXCEPT for which one?
Social scientists have identified many common gestures and agree that gestures are universal.
Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. Harvey, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Horace considers earning an “A” in a course far superior than a “C” or even a “B.” What do Harry, Harvey, and Horace have in common?
They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams?
achievement and success
From a sociological perspective, which statement best classifies 19th century Mormons and 21st century physicians?
the Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians as a subculture
The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds of groups around the world to compare their customs, and then concluded that specific customs differed from one group to another, was ________.
George Murdock
The concept of natural selection, which proposed that genes of a species are not distributed evenly among the offspring, thus enabling certain members of the species to survive while others die out, was developed by ________.
Charles Darwin
Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.
At the Back to Nature Nudist Colony, Ernie and Morello take a walk every morning along the beach, totally nude. Within the colony, which statement best describes the behavior of Ernie and Morello?
They are conforming to the folkways of their subculture.
The author’s experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of ________.
culture shock
If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse, she would be violating a ________. But if Alice came to class not wearing a blouse (or any other garment), she would be violating a ________.
folkway; more
People from all walks of life, races, religions, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In view of this, which term best describes American society?
America is a pluralistic society
Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what condition we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of ________.
cultural lag
The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world were ________.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
Although computers are supplied by the university, many professors never quite learn how to use them. Others feel they might break them so they avoid trying anything new. Others save data to their hard drive but also make a paper copy to keep. Such behavior is an example of ________.
cultural lag
Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these emerging values?
leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern
Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the “Girls Gone Wild” video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and Cindy?
Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to “let their hair down
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement best describes Lamont?
Lamont is engaged in value contradiction
The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called ________.
new technology
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, “They’re primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast.” Harry’s reply best qualifies as an example of ________.
All of the following statements are accurate regarding language, EXCEPT for which one?
Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds