sociology midterm (multiple choice)

The shift from agrarian technology to machine-based, manufacturing technology is called:
Industrial Revolution
As societies industrialize, dominant-minority relations move from:
Paternalistic to competitive forms
Which of the following are NOT true of paternalistic systems?
They tend to have a simple division of labor determined by the group
In agrarian society work was
Labor intensive
The period of Reconstruction that followed the Civil War was a time of
Opportunity for black southerners
which of the following is True about the period of Reconstruction?
African american in south could vote, held political office, owned property, schools were open in south for african americans and they found many small business.
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By 1910, black labor in the United States was most characterized by
Agricultural and Domestic work
which of the following is an example of modern institutional discrimination?
companies moving from inner city areas to suburbs to reduce their expenses
During Reconstruction, the South was characterized by
A rigid caste system under the policy known as Jim Crow
This replaced slavery in the south
Subtle Racism
As de jure segregation formed and solidified in the south
levels of prejudice and racism increased
in what case in 1896, the supreme court established the separate but equal doctrine
Plessy v Ferguson
At the height of the Jim crow era, the system had evolved to the point that
some courtrooms maintained separate bible for African Americans
When European immigrants moved out of the northern slum areas, who was most likely to move in after them
African americans moving from the south
Which of the following laws did not restrict African American in the south from voting
Poll taxes
The plantation owners solved their labor problem after the end of slavery by developing the
sharecropping system
Under the Jim Crow system, as under slavery, the subordination of the African American community was reinforced and supplemented by and elaborate system of
Racial etiquette
compare to white women at the turn of the twentieth century, African American women were
More likely to work outside the home
Deindustrialization, the shift from manufacturing to service and information jobs has resulted
loss of millions of high paying jobs, industrial jobs moving to other nation, automation/robotics increasing in factories, new jobs that are low pay low skills with few benefits or security
This is sometimes called the competitive market, includes low paying , low skilled, insecure jobs
Secondary labor market
The two groups protected to increase dramatically in the united state over the next half century are
Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic Americans
The population of the United States is currently
long standing un resolved minority issues, rising immigrant rate, increase in diversity, increase in multilingual
Which of the following is not one the defining characteristics of a minority group?
small group size
The largest minority group in the united states is
Hispanics
which of the following would be classified as primarily an ethnic minority group
Jewish Americans
people classified as Asian and Pacific Islander
represent many different nation and linguistic background, never be mistaken for unchanging or natural division between people, vary many ways such as class, religion, ….
in the next 50 years the total percentage of minority group Americans is projected to increase to
50 %
The social or physical characteristics that mark the boundaries between groups are usually
high visible
which of the following is not an example of a cultural trait that may be associated with minority status
Religion
Skin color is an important marker of group membership in our society because
it was selected during a complex and lengthy historical process and became important because we attributed significant to it
which of the following characteristics is not typical of ascribed status?
it can be altered through hard work and motivation
Laws on miscegenation referred to laws that prevented
members of different race from intermarrying
Stratification is another term form
the unequal distribution of valued resources
societies are divided into horizontal layers (or strata) often called
NONE
Marxism is a theory of history and social change in which __ is a central concept
inequality
The most important source of inequality arises from a persons relationship to the means of production. This statement might be heard from a
Marxist
Marx believed that conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat was inevitable and that the ultimate result of this class struggle would be
a classless society
which of the following people best illustrate the difference between prestige and class
Mary Ann O’ Brien the fourth generation Irish Catholic
In examining inequality, Weber might argue that a famous and wealthy rapper might rank
high on class, low on prestige
Max weber though that Marx’s ideas about inequality were too
complex
in opposition to marx, weber argued that there are ______ dimensions of inequality
three
According to Weber, a person who became rich by cleaning septic tanks would be higher on ______ but lower on _______
class, prestige
Gerhard Lenkst is important because he linked the nature of inequality to the _____ of a society
levels of development
The United States is often referred to as a(n)
Postindustrial society
According to Weber, a princess who was rich but fell on hard times and lost all of her wealth would be
high on prestige, low on class
According to Lenski’s theory, inequality in a postindustrial society would center on control of
Educational opportunities and technologies
Stratification is an important concept in the study of minority groups because
minority groups are often created by struggles over control of valued goods and services.
In western Europe, scientific and philosophical interest in the concept of race began
during the age of European conquest and colonization of non whites
variations in human skin color
are inversely related to the concentration of melanin: the greater the melanin, the lighter the skin
the most viable marker of minority group membership is skin color, and it is
superficial and relatively important, regarded as a matter of great significance, and a creation of historical and social processes
women can be viewed as a minority group because
they are physically identifiable as different from men and they have less property, prestige, and power in our society.
As the individual level, the thinking/feeling dimensions of minority group mistreatment is called
ideological racism
history generally has been written from the standpoint of the winer this statement can be reflected in which of the following
all above #33
the feeling aspect of prejudice is called the _______ dimension
affective
a person sees a Mexican American male and assumes he is an illegal immigrant. This is an example of
prejudice leading to institutionalized discrimination
When entire groups are treated unfairly and unequally in the inceptions of the larger society, this is called
institutional discrimination
The unequal treatment of a group or individual based on his or her group membership is
discrimination
you work at the local bank as a loan processor. Although, you believe that white and African American should be treated equally, your boss demands that you turn down any loans by blacks. According to the text you are
unprejudiced discriminator
minority group status affects access to different life chance including
better health care, access to wealth/income, decent housing, higher education
A social situation in which prejudice is strongly approved and supported might
evoke discrimination in otherwise unprejudiced individuals
The distinction between prejudice and discrimination is
prejudice is the attitude, discrimination is a behavior
institutional discrimination is often difficult to identify and measure because
the individual who implement it may be non prejudice and unaware of what they are doing
according to your book, which of the following could not be considered minorities
whites
which of the following would Lawrence hill (developing a racial identity) disagree with based on his own experiences growing up in Canada
mixed race people often experience limbo because others don’t know what to make of their racial identity
which of the following is false regarding gender
sociologists consider gender and race to be similar social construct in that there is little debate about the role of biology in either case
societies that have a tradition of male dominance where men have centric over the economy and leadership positions in religion politics and other institutions are
patriarchal
researchers taking a future perspective argue that women and men are different because
girls and boys are taught to act in different ways
Michelle is a poor african american women. her race, class, gender may combine to produce a unique kind of inequality. The concept that describe this phenomenon is known as
Matrix of domination
the primary goal of samaritans on the border is to
reduce the number of migrant deaths
the degree of income inequality between African Americans and european americans has lessened during the past 30 year (true or false)
true
prejudice is to discrimination as
thinking is to doing
which of the following is not an example of the affective dimension of prejudice
stereotyping and overgeneralization
___________ are exaggerated generalizations about groups of people and tend to be overly simplistic and difficult to prove
stereotypes
many years ago, a european american storeowner in a racist town succumbed to pressure from other and agreed to ban blacks though he was not prejudiced at all.This is an example of
Fair weather liberal
selective perception
is a tendency to see beyond ones own observation
which of the following represent the two types of stereotypes
black as being lazy, stupid, and irresponsible and Chinese people are too sly, too ambitious
Harley(1946) demonstrated there can be a generalized tendency to reject minority groups of all sorts and stereotypes can exist apart from any need to rationalize or justify dominant group advantages when he found that
some people will express prejudice against people who do not exist
which of the following is an example of selective perception
All #8 CH3
Which concept below best describes someone who is prejudiced and does discrimate
an all weather bigot
stereotypes vary by
class, race, gender
a study of Princeton university undergraduate provided the following
all of the above #11 ch3
In Sherifs Robbers Cave experiment
None #13 CH3
one problem with the scapegoat hypothesis is that it
deemphasizes the economic, political , and social forces that shape behavior
according to marxism, the capitalist class in the early twentieth century controlled the racially mixed working class by
a strategy of divide and conquer
a small town experiences a wave of anti minority group violence in the weeks following that announcement of massive layoffs at the local factory. These incidents would be consistence with predications of
the scapegoat hypothesis
which of the following is though to be an important cause of authoritarian personalities
childhood experiences in excessively strict home situtaitons
according to your text, what factor play a role in the origins of prejudice
socialization and competition
a criticism of the authoritarian personality theory of prejudice is that
does not consider the social settings in which an individual is acting
explanations of the persistence of prejudice through time stress
culture and socialization
emory bogardus specified a total of seven degrees of social distance. which of the following is not one of them
culture
the concept of social distance best reflects
the degree of intimacy we are willing to permit
your book details american social distance score from 1926 to 2001. which if the following was not found in that research
racial minorities such as african americans ranked above groups with origins in northern and western europe
in the american dilemma, dr gunnar myrdal suggest that there is a basic conflict or dissonance between
basically egalitarian values and the discriminatory behaviors simultaneously
the robber cave experiment supports the idea that prejudice can be caused by
conflict situation between groups
the elite segments of american society are using prejudice and racism to manipulate the thoughts and ideas of minority groups and to brainwash them into accepting their position in society, this statement is most consistent with
marxist analysis
in split labor maket theory there are 3 actors in the economic sector of an industrial society these actors are
elites , higher priced labor, and cheaper labor
you her someone say that all women are bad drivers all jews are greedy and all nations drive low riders. these are example of
stereotypes
when power differentials in a society are not very extreme, which of the following stereotypes is most likely to emerge about a minority group
too smart
when minority groups in a society are exploited and held in a powerless status by the dominant group which of the following stereotype sis most likely to emerge about that minority group
lazy
Germany lost world war 1 and experience severe problems withe economic recession, unemployment, and horrific inflation during the 1920s. which theory/ theories best explains the rise of the Nazi party in Germany in the 1930s
scapegoat theories
which of the following best explains irrational forms of prejudice
personality centered theories
some research suggests prejudice is declining in the united states, which suggests it might not be declining
modern racism and hate crimes
the idea that racism is changing form to a more subtle way of expressing negative feelings is called
modern racism
which of the following ate the key factors, according to split labor market theories
higher priced labor, lower priced labor
a major point in gunnar myriad’s an american dilemma was that
americans learn norms fairness and justice along with norms that condone
most reported hate crimes are
racially motivated with blacks as the target
what are two general stereotypes of minority groups
extreme inferiority and power and status differences
marxism also explains group competition and prejudice by suggesting
elittes control the means of production and also the ideas and intellectual activity in a society
herber bluer says prejudice
is activated when groups feel that they are threatened by groups they see as beneath them
one of the variances that researchers suggest is a cause of the decline in prejudice is
education
the contact theory of prejudice argues that four conditions need to be present to reduce prejudice
equal status, common goals, intense interaction, and have active endorsement of authority
according to the sociologists eduardo bonilla silva the new form of prejudice is expressed
in neutral language or objective terms
one of the major criticisms of modern racism is it seems to
confound prejudice with political conservatism
prejudice has at least two dimensions and affective or emotional dimensions and a cognitive or thinking dimensions (true or false)
true
discrimination ia the tendency to think and feel negatively about the members off other groups (true or false)
false
stereotypes are central to the affective dimensions of prejudice (true or false)
false
personality based theories of prejudice include the spilt labor market theory (T OR F)
FALSE
It is possible for an individual to be prejudice and not discriminate, but not for a person to discriminate without being prejudice (T OR F)
True