SOCIOLOGY FINAL QUESTIONS

Interpretive sociology is sociology that…
focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior
Which theory developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?
Behaviorism
Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization?
Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways
A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it..
ignores how structural factors such as class affect a person’s experiences
What approach is based on the philosophical doctrine of Materialism?
Social Conflict
In Freud’s model of personality, what ego represents the presence of culture within the individual?
Superego
Which of the following theoretical approaches paints society in broad strokes at a macro-level?
structural functional and social conflict
What is the term for a basic image of society that guides thinking and research?
Theoretical approach
Looking at childhood in a global perspective, we find that…
rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
Gerhad Lenski focused on which of the following factors as having great power to shape a society?
Technology
The term “sociology” was coined in 1838 by
August Comte
Compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society was based on
an information based economy
What would a sociologist be most likely to say about why an individual chooses a particular person to marry?
Society guides human behavior more than we realize.
The text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways…
invention, discovery, and diffusion
Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols the…
preoperational stage
The theoretical approach in sociology that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the…
structural functional approach
Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of the structural functional approach?
it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict
What discipline is defined as “the systematic study of human society?”
Sociology
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population are referred to as
popular culture
Which early sociologist claimed that his goal was not to simply understand society but to change it?
Karl Marx
As part of human culture, religion would be an example of
Non-material culture
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called
Latent Functions
Which theoretical approach highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much a the meaning they attach to their behavior?
Symbolic Interaction Approach
High-income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize…
Self-expression
Cultural transmission refers to the process of…
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another
Thomas Hobbe’s idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates the thinking common to Comte’s…
Metaphysical state of societal development
Critics of the Saphir-Whorf thesis point out that
language does not determine reality
Which of the following can correctly be called the “framework for building theory that sees society as an area of inequality that generates conflict and change?”
Social Conflict Approach
Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?
Socialization
What distinguishes between right and wrong?
Mores
What distinguishes between polite and rude?
Folkways
Sam had unpleasant and even frightening experiences when he was encountering a strange way of life while visiting another country over spring break. His experiences can be called…
culture shock
What is a way of understanding the world based on science?
Positivism
Which of the following concepts refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people’s way of life?
Culture
When people model themsevlves after the members of their peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in…
Anticipatory socialization
What typically has the greatest influence on the socialization process, especially in the early years of life?
Family
Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relation to others?
Status
Which of the following concepts refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily take on later in life?
Ascribed Status
Which of the following concepts refers to a status that has very great importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life?
Master Status
Being an honors student is a good example of…
Achieved Status
Sociologists use what concept to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
Role
A role set refers to a number of roles…
attached to a single status
Joan is an excellent artist and she enjoys her work, but feel she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing…
Role Conflict
Assume a plant supervisor wishes to be a good friend and hang out with the workers, but the supervisor must keep a personal distance to remain objective in order to assess the worker’s performance. This example involves…
Role Strain
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify with and interact with one another?
Social Group
What is the most important primary group?
Family
What leadership refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?
Expressive Leadership
Adrian is a leader who tends to downplay her position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on it’s own. Which type of leader is she?
Laissez-Faire
The process of groupthink involves several dimensions. Which of the following statements does NOT correctly describe groupthink?
groups larger than three members rarely are able to reach consensus.
Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. The team’s rival is the Tigers. Members of the Bulldogs put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent…
An Out-group
Which statement correctly reflects Simmel’s understanding of a dyad?
Dyads are less stable than groups with more members
From the point of view of parents, what type of formal organization is a school’s Parent-Teacher Association? (PTA)?
A normative organization
To Weber, the rise of bureaucratic organization is an expression of…
Rationality
The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filming out extensive paperwork is a classic example of
Bureaucratic Ritualism
Which of the following is NOT a way in which today’s business organizations in the US differ from those a century ago?
Today’s organizations have a steeper pyramid shape
The development of breasts in females and deeper voices in males are examples of…
Secondary Sex characteristics
Which of the following concepts refers to humans who have some combination of female and male genitalia?
Intersexual people
In terms of his sexuality, Mark has always felt that he is “trapped in the wrong body.” The feeling suggest that Mark is in which of the following categories of people?
Transsexual
Sociologists point to several functions of the incest taboo. Which of the following is NOT one of those functions?
The incest taboo limits a family’s contact with larger society
Sexual attractions to people of both sexes is called…
Bisexuality
Historically, once a society develops effective birth control technology,
social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive
THe changing importance of virginity over the last century in our society is a topic correctly linked with
the Symbolic Interaction approach
Queer Theory is growing body of knowledge asserting that…
there is bias against homosexuality in the US
Which of the following statements is a criticism of the social-conflict approach’s view of sexuality?
Sexuality is not a power issue for everyone
Which of the following sociological terms refers to the recognized violation of cultural norms?
Deviance
Every society regulates the thoughts and behaviors of individuals. This process of regulation is called…
Social Control
The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because…
Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities
Emilie Durkheim’s basic insight if that deviance is…
a normal element of social organization
The basic idea behind labeling theory is…
deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
When friends began to criticize Juan as a “boozer”, pushing him out of their social circle, he became bitter and began to drink even more. Juan ended joining a new group of friends, all whom were heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates
The onset of secondary deviance
Based on scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is cause by…
Frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged
Gender refers too…
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male and female
Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of
Complementarity
Looking back over US history, we see a general trend by which women…
have gained both power and economic opportunities
What does modernization theory focus on?
the production of wealth
What does dependency theory focus on?
the distribution of wealth
Because of social stratification in the US…
some people have more privileges and opportunities than others do
The concept of “absolute poverty” refers to…
a lack of resources that is life threatening
Which theoretical approach is linked to dependency theory?
Social Conflict Approach
Dependency theory claims that poor nations…
were underdeveloped by the colonial practices of rich nations
In general, societies that have a caste system have an economy based on…
Agriculture
A college professor who has advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power can be described as having
Low Status consistency
Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of US society, but seeks to expand the rights and opportunities of women?
Liberal Feminism
In the US, most people…
identify with one or more ethnic category
The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that…
women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
Which of the following concepts refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
“Glass Ceiling”
Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
Patriarchy
The Davis Moore Thesis states that…
Society must attach enough rewards to important jobs to attract the talent needed to perform these jobs well.
While being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of________, being in the lower-upper class is more often a matter of_____.
Birth; Achievement
In theory, which of the following involves the greatest amount of social mobility?
Meritocracy
WHich of the following situations is NOT an example of institutional discrimination?
A mother wants her child to stay away from schoolmates of a different race
Modernization theory claims that..
the main causes of poverty include traditional culture and lack of advanced technology
Compared to poverty in the US, poverty in low-income nations is…
more widespread and severe
Which factor accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working men and women in the US?
difference in the type of work men and women do
Read the following four statements. Which statement is NOT correct?
A family’s social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation
Critic claim that modernization theory…
ignores how rich nations can block the economic development of poor nations
In the US schools, courses in sociology typically enroll….
more women then men
Race refers to _______ considered important by a society; and ethnicity refers to ______.
Biological traits; cultural traits
If you wanted to recruit people to join a feminist organization, you would expect to have the most positive response from…
African Americans
Which of the following statements about gender and housework is CORRECT?
Among employed people, married or not, with or without children, women do most of the housework
The concept “race” refers to…
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
In general, the people in the ______ tend to be less tolerant of controversial behavior such as homosexuality.
Working Class
Read the following statements about minorities. Which of the following is NOT correct?
All people in a minority category as socially disadvantaged
Read the following statements about minorities. Which is NOT correct?
“Arab” and “Muslim” mean the same thing
Most low-income nations are found in..
Asia and Africa
While prejudice is a matter of ______. Discrimination is a matter of _______.
Attitudes; Action
In the US, the costs of sexism for men include…
engaging in many high-risks behaviors
Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
Radical feminism
Polygamy
Marriage that unites a person with 2 or more partners
Monogamy
Marriage that unites 2 partners
Nuclear Family
a family composed of one or two parents and their children
Extended Family
a family composed of parents, children and their kin
How families in US have changed
divorce rates gone up, homosexuals can get married in some states
Structural Functional Approach to the Family
identifies major family functions like socialization of young, regulation of sex activity, social placement, providing material and emotional support
Social Exchange approach to the family
highlight the variety of family as experienced by various family members
Reasons for Rising Divorce Rates
Family Violence
Sacred
set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
Profane
included as an ordinary element of everyday life
Structural Functional approach to Religion
Religion gives life meaning and purpose
Symbolic Interaction approach to Religion
People often turn to sacred symbols for comfort when facing danger and uncertainty
Social Conflict approach to Religion
Religion turns problems of this world to a “better world to come”
Church
a religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
Sect
a religious organization that starts apart from the larger society
Cult
a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions
Secularization
historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and sacred
Religious Fundamentalism
a conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, other worldly religion
Latent and Manifest functions of school
child care, job opportunities, networking
Smoking
greatest preventable cause of death in the US