unstated standards of behavior or teachers expectations
what do sociologists mean when they refer to hidden curriculum of school?
economic, future preparation, and socialization functions
besides learning skills and knowledge, schools serve three other major purposes. what are they?
among the following , which plays a role in the sorting function of students into particular jobs?
knowledge how to dress, act, and present oneself at work, and being able to work well with other people are e examples of what skills?
research on contemporary college and university students in the US shows they study….. students the past.
no longer leads
The us …. the world in the amount of education its citizens receive?
by issuing the G.I. bill
After the end of WW2, how did the gov. choose to regulate the flow of workers into the labor market and avoid high unemployment among former soldiers?
sylvia is unmarried
which of the following life outcomes for sylvia is more likely than the others because she failed to complete high school?
human capital theory and allocation theory
sociologists offer two competing explanations as to why people with more education reap larger socioeconomic rewards. what are they?
that education transmits knowledge, skills, and vales that persist in adulthood and that employers believe increase productivity
what does human capital theory suggest about education?
people with more education are paid more because they are more productive
according to human capital theory….?
that education limits entry into some occupations and thus raises the rewards for people in them
what does allocation theory suggest about education?
that education limits entry into some occupations and thus raises the rewards for people in them
what do sociologists mean when they say that education serves a credentialing function?
limit entry into some occupations
social closure practices, which…. include licensing?
they are more likely to do manual labor
which of the following statements about less educated workers is true?
for lower-class white males, educational attainment is …… related to occupation and income.
for upper-class white males, social origin is …. to occupation and income.
the fact that people with comparable occupations and incomes participate more in the civiv and political life of their communities when they have more education is consistent with the…. view of education.
men and women, whether white or black
people with more education ten to live longer. this is true of….
…. refers to the practice of marrying individuals whose educational levels are similar to one’s own.
more likely to marry than less educated people
how has marriage changed in recent decades?
are likely to be quite different
the educational experiences of american children, regardless of social class differences…..
more important than race ???
over the last 50 years, family income has become….. in explaining the education achievement gap.
has persisted over 30 years
the disparity in educational achievement between whites and asian americans, who tend to fare better on average than african american, latino, and native american students…….
in a sociological context, SES is a an abbreviation for
62 percent more; 41 percent more than women
men with some high school education earn…. than their female counterparts, while men with master’s degrees earn….. with similar educations.
what percentage of US college students attends public nonprofit colleges and universities?
white school- aged children
who is more likely to be home- schooled?
less than 10 percent
in the united states how much funding for schools comes from the federal government?
assigning student to different ability or curriculum groups
in a large diverse school systems and in school serving primarily lower- class students
where is tracking a particularly widespread practice?
reading, math and science
differences in achievement test scores can be explained, in part, by differences in the courses that student take, especially in which three subjects?
privileged parents feel that tracking gives their children educational benefits
why does tracking persist, even though it clearly segregates students by social class and ethnicity?
two times as likely
prosperous and white children are….. as likely as poor or minority children to attend private schools.
kelly an her twin brother brent had very different experiences in school….
which of the following scenarios best illustrates the long-lasting effects of the hidden curriculum in schools?
hire mostly college graduates. they’ll have the needed skills and productively levels.
jeff wants to start his own business, he remembers his sociology professor talking about socialization theory, human capital, and allocation theory. whats his best strategy?
jane is more likely than Bob to earn her bachelor’s degree
given what u know about gender differences in educational attainment, which of the following scenarios is most likely?
instruction in creative problem solving and in critical thinking and analysis
which of the following methods is more likely than the others to improve overall student achievement?
offering students clearly explained specialized assistance for their differing abilities, while involving parents in the process of phasing out most of the existing specialized groups
a group of teachers and administrators are discussing. their goal is to provide and equitable learning and achievement environment for all students. which of the following proposals has the greatest chance of fulfilling their goal?
an increase in population
enrollment in public schools grew rapidly in the 1950’s and 1960’s asa result of….
teachers were more likely to help students on the brink of passing the standardized test
sociologists discovered which of the following was true among the urban elementary schools response to the Texas accountability system and student success initiative?
….. is the idea that competition for desirable and important positions should go to those with the best qualifications regardless of their family background
the moral act, passed in 1862 by the federal government, provided each state with resources to build…..
the great equalizer
in 1848, horace Mann called education…..
the value of degrees that previously secured a job are in decline such that students must overcome a variety of academic hurdles in order to be competitive fro a position; this is known as….
achievement and attainment
the gender gap in education favors girls over boys with respect to….
according to the us report card which subject are 8th graders less proficient in?
individual and group
deviance and control always constitute a paired relationship that consists of the …. and …
carl who is seven is told to go to bed but lays in bed texting his friend
according to the fried in civilization and its discontents, which of the following best exemplifies what he meant by basic needs and the ” futility of rebellion”?
our parents and the like
our earliest encounter with what is perceived to be normality is essentially that of …….
violating a rule that brings with it the disapproval of other
simply put to be a “deviant” entails…..
what key factor played into cesare beccaria’s formula for making people obey the law?
a man decides to sing loudly while he is shopping for groceries
which of the following is an example of statistical deviance?
willingness to behave according to what people expect
when a couple gets married and vows to remain faithful they are expressing an….
when it violates societal rules
when is a “deviant” behavior deviant according to most sociologists?
what sociologists eventually called norms
what did durkheim mean by the ” unstated terms of the social contract”?
basic rule of society
a norm can best be defined as ….
what looks like they are doing nothing is doing something according to their callings and culture
Why might a yogi in southern India or a Buddhist monk in Nepal violate a Westerner’s so-called “norm of engagement”?
both interested and disinterested rule-making
The debtor’s prisons of the nineteenth century are good examples of __________
a civil disobedience
The 1919 constitutional amendment that outlawed the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages in the United States failed because __________.
a treat an array of medical problems
The widespread use of morphine that followed the Civil War was for what reason?
middle-class white women
The heaviest users of morphine in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were __________.
the patterns of consumption changed both in the amounts and who drank alcoholic beverages
The great irony in American history is how the “demon rum” of the nineteenth century became a mark of good taste for the social drinker. What reason would best explain the cause?
the demographics of the user to that of working-class meals, increasingly of color
The transition of opiate use from an acceptable, if often abused, pain reliever to that of a pleasure-seeking drug also saw a change in __________.
The war on drugs to reduce abuse, protect children, make neighborhoods safer, and the like fell disproportionately on __________, rather than treating the broader spectrum of social ills and classes for which it was intended.
there is a general support for lifestyle freedom rather than organized resistance
Moral regulation, the effort to legislate morality, is being curbed by what phenomenon?
both are since this range is the typical grace allowed to motorists
Which of the following would best illustrate how sociologists see process as defining deviance?
Edwin Sutherland (1949) coined the term __________ to describe a form of crime that was once not considered a crime that put Americans at risk.
false profit reporting
What criminal activity ultimately brought Enron executives to justice?
making deceptive subprime loans to people who could not pay off their mortgages
What is the deviant behavior of those people complicit in the 2008 U.S. financial crisis?
white-collar crime is perceived as victimless that is not harming its victims in the personal way blue-collar crime harms its victims
Why is white-collar crime punished disproportionally compared to blue-collar crime?
banking laws, deviancy
When Congress and U.S. presidents altered the __________ that precipitated the S&L crisis and the subprime loan scandal, it was a prime example of how flexible __________ is for those who hold the power.
any entry, whether a state, group or indivual
An act of terrorism can be performed by ______
states typically observed rules of engagement on a battlefield
Why were guerrilla warfare and acts of terrorism rare in history?
terrorism that violates the same laws and conventions as stateless and state-sponsored terrorists
State terrorism is a form of ______
the us military blamed the sadistic tendencies of individuals soldiers, not the chain of command
Why were the reprehensible acts (humiliation, cultural disrespect, torture, etc.) at the Abu Ghraib prison not a clear case of institutional deviance?
it kills noncombatants such as innocent civilians
The deviance implicit in a drone strike is that _____
jail is intended for short periods of incarnation prisons for longer
What is the critical difference between jail and prison
punishment that permits and offender to live in the community rather than serve a prison sentence
Probation can best be described as ______
crime rates in the US are on average similar to those of other first world nations
Which of the following statements about the United States is indicative of reality?
the large number of african americans in the prison population suggest the “colored only” accommodations that were once common in the American South up until mid-twentieth century
As one scholar opines, racial makeup of the rising prison population reflects a “new Jim Crow.” What is meant by this?
a well respected city alderman , whose campaign was hugely supported by the local police force, was caught driving under the influence. when the police officer realized whom he had stopped he decided to let the alderman off with a warning rather than arrest him.
Which of the following scenarios best demonstrates the relationship that exists between deviance and power?
an increase in moral crusades against drugs and drug users and tougher political stances against crime and criminals
According to current ideology among social scientists, which of the following reasons best explains why the United States is experiencing mass incarceration and has a significantly higher incarceration rate than any other country?