Sociology exam

Human behavior and cultural beliefs
are based on instinct.

are based on natural selection.

vary widely from culture to culture.

are just about the same everywhere

When it comes to the relationship between nature and nurture in human behavior, sociologists believe that
nature and nurture interact to shape human behavior.

sociology is destiny.

biology is destiny

All of the above.

For humans to be socialized it is imperative that they have

educated parents who are familiar with child psychology theories.

educated parents who are familiar with child psychology theories.

educational toys, particularly books.

proper medical treatment.

social interaction with adults.

Socialization provides an individual with

the capacity for independent thought and free will.

behavioral guidelines.

all of the above

When children of upper and middle class parents experience more opportunities to visit museums, foreign countries, and so on than do the children of the working class, giving them a leg up in school as well as social interaction, sociologists call this:
cultural capital.

the looking glass self.



What factor accounts for racial disparities in wealth and income?

parents’ social class


all of the above

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The upper class in the United States
is accessible to all Americans with a college education.

is racially and ethnically diverse.

is made up of the wealthiest 20 percent of the population.

has a distinctive lifestyle and is politically

Social mobility refers to
the migration of people to town from the countryside.

the movement of individuals and groups between class positions.

the ability of people in a society to engage in protest movements.

the migration of people from the countryside to town.

In her classic study of gender roles in three New Guinea tribes, Margaret Mead found
the gender roles varied slightly, but none were essentially different from those in the United States.

they all had essentially the same gender roles as those in the United States.

the gender roles in all three were exactly reversed from those in the United States.

gender roles varied significantly from one tribe to the other.

As a sociological concept, race refers to
physical variations in human beings singled out by members of a community or society as socially significant.

the fact that nearly all long-distance runners belong to a single race

the four clearly defined groups into which humans are easily categorized.


a set of distinct physical characteristics that are the basis for a scientific classification of human beings.

Conflict theorists believe that groups in society have conflicting self-interests mainly due to:
self-fulfilling prophecies

scarce resources

manifest functions

social roles

Which early theorist saw class conflict as the main source of social change?
W. E. B. Du Bois

Émile Durkheim

Karl Marx

Max Weber

According to the Conflict perspective, the modern era is shaped primarily by
enemies of the state

division of labor.



What played the fundamental role in developing the capitalistic outlook, according to Max Weber?

symbolic interaction

religious values


How does the Conflict perspective differ from other theoretical traditions (such as functionalism and symbolic interactionism) in sociology?
it is currently the most influential of these three theories.

it is not concerned with political reform

it places greater emphasis on class conflict, power and ideology

all of the above

Social functions that are neither obvious nor openly stated, but nonetheless present, are referred to as
latent functions,


manifest functions


According to the “father” of Functionalism Émile Durkheim, society is
Question 17 options:

greater than the sum of its parts

equal to the sum of its parts.

less than the sum of its parts.

indivisible into individual parts

Which theoretical approach uses the analogy of the human body in assessing the role of each part of society in the continuation of society as a whole?



symbolic interactionism

Which theoretical perspective perceives consensus within society as imperative for social integration?
rational choice theory


symbolic interactionism


symbolic interactionist process in which people’s experience with reality is largely determined by the meanings they attach to that reality is known as:
organic solidarity

the social construction of reality

mechanical solidarity

objective reality

The idea that people behave on the basis of their understanding of what is real, not necessarily what actually is real, reflects which symbolic Interactionist principle:
social Darwinism

the functionalist perspective

the conflict perspective

the Thomas theorem

Who had the greatest influence on the theoretical approach known as symbolic interactionism?
Jean Baudrillard

Talcott Parsons

George Herbert Mead

Auguste Comte

What is involved in nearly all social interactions, according to symbolic interactionists?
feeling of despair or aimlessness

an exchange of functions

rational choice

an exchange of symbols

A variety of interpretations can be made of a scene at a restaurant where two men are having lunch together, laughing, being playful with each other. Who among the following would most likely interpret their behavior by watching for subtle signs of affection and eye contact?
a symbolic interactionist

a structural-functionalist

a Weberian

a Marxist