sociology exam II

People create reality through their social interaction.
T
Social structure, including status and role, provides a guide for everyday living.
T
Sociologists use “status” to mean someone’s importance.
F
A status set refers to the roles people have over the course of their lifetimes.
F
A person’s racial or ethnic identity is an ascribed status.
T
People sometimes use jokes to “put down” others, which is a basic form of social
conflict.
T
Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds?
status
At any given time you occupy a number of statuses. These statuses make up your
status sets
Being a professional baseball player is mostly an achieved status.
T
The term “master status” refers to being the best in one’s occupational field.
F
A “role set” refers to all the roles a person has over the course of a lifetime
F
People riding together on a subway are called a social group.
F
Generally, people in secondary relationships think of others as being a means to some
end.
T
The leadership style that allows group members the most autonomy is “laissez-faire.”
T
The success story of the McDonald’s organization explains
that the organizational principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our
social life.
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
social group
What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as
“college students”?
a category
A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a
crowd
Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group?
the family
Expressive leaders are more likely than instrumental leaders to enjoy more personal
affection from group members.
T
Expressive leadership emphasizes the completion of tasks
F
The sociologist who explored the primary group was Charles Horton Cooley
T
There are few areas of life in which sexuality does not play some part
T
U.S. culture discouraged open discussion of sexuality, so researchers did not begin to
study sexuality until the middle of the twentieth century.
T
Sociobiologists point out that, in every society throughout the world, people are attracted
to youthfulness.
T
Primary sex characteristics refer to reproductive organs.
T
A reason to study sexuality using the sociological perspective is
sexuality is both important and controversial.
Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?
sex
Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females and males?
primary sex characteristics
Which concept refers to humans who have some combination of female and male sexual
characteristics?
intersexual
Sociologists point out that human sexual behavior is very similar across all cultures
F
People in all cultures respond to intersexual people with confusion or even disgust.
F
Although there is a human “sex drive,” our biology does not dictate any specific ways of
being sexual.
T
Every state in the United States permits lawful marriage between a woman and a man
who are first cousins.
F
Crime is only one category of deviance
T
Biological factors, including genetics, explain most criminal behavior
F
Emile Durkheim’s analysis suggests it would be impossible for a society to completely
eliminate deviance
T
“Due process” means handling alleged offenders within the bounds of the law.
T
“The recognized violation of cultural norms” refers to the concept of
deviance.
“Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime
refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called
social control
The formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and
prison officials is called
the criminal justice system
What is considered deviant is mostly the same behavior all around the world
F
A poor person who has little chance to go to college and who sells illegal drugs to make
money is one example of a deviant “innovator.”
T
“Primary deviance” refers to the most serious offenses.
F