Sociology Exam 2

socialization
the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society
sociobiology
the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior
id
Sigmund Freud’s term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification
ego
Sigmund Freud’s term for the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id
superego
Sigmund Freud’s term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of personality
self-concept
the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves
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looking-glass self
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others
role-taking
the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person’s or group’s point of view
significant others
those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are the most important in the development of the self
generalized other
George Herbert Mead’s term for the child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture
agents of socialization
the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society
peer group
a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age
mass media
organizations that use print, analog electronic, and digital electronic means to communicate with large numbers of people
gender socialization
the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society
racial socialization
the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status
anticipatory socialization
the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles
social devaluation
a situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other individuals or groups
ageism
prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older persons
resocialization
the process of learning a new and different set a attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience
total institution
Erving Goffman’s term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution
status
a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties
ascribed status
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender
achieved status
a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort
master status
the most important status that a person occupies
status symbol
a material sign that informs others of a person’s specific status
role
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status
role expectation
a group’s or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played
role performance
how a person actually plays a role
role conflict
a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time
role strain
a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies
role exit
a situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity
social group
a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence
primary group
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time
secondary group
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time
formal organization
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals
social institution
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs
hunting and gathering societies
societies that use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation
pastoral societies
societies based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food
horticultural societies
societies based on technology that supports the cultivation of plants to provide food
agrarian societies
societies that use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply
industrial societies
societies based on technology that mechanizes production
postindustrial societies
societies in which technology supports a service- and information-based economy
mechanical solidarity
Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
organic solidarity
Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion found in industrial (and perhaps postindustrial) societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
Gemeinschaft
a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
Gesellschaft
a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
social construction of reality
the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience
self-fulfilling prophecy
the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
ethnomethodology
the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves
dramaturgical analysis
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation
impression management (presentation of self)
Erving Goffman’s term for people’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image
nonverbal communication
the transfer of information between persons without the use of words
personal space
the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private
aggregate
a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common
category
a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic (education level, age, race, gender, etc.)
ingroup
a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity
outgroup
a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
reference group
a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member
network
a web of social relationships that links one person with other people, and, through them, with other people they know
small group
a collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously
dyad
a group composed of 2 members
triad
a group composed of 3 members
instrumental leadership
goal- or task-oriented leadership
expressive leadership
an approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members
authoritarian leaders
people who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members
democratic leaders
leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building
laissez-faire leaders
leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making and who encourage group member to make their own decisions
conformity
the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group
groupthink
the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
bureaucracy
an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters
rationality
the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures
ideal type
an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy)
informal side of a bureaucracy
those aspects of participants’ day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy
goal displacement
a process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals
bureaucratic personality
a psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly
iron law of oligarchy
according to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people
(Harry and Margaret) Harlow
psychologists who took infant rhesus monkeys from their mothers and isolated them in separate cases; showed the detrimental effects of isolation on nonhuman primates
Anna
child isolated in an attic-like room in her grandfather’s house, but when placed in a special school with necessary care slowly learned how to walk, talk, and care for herself; died at age 10
Genie
child isolated in a bedroom alternately strapped down to a child’s potty chair or straitjacketed into a sleeping bag since she was 20 months old; found at age 13 with physical and psychological problems
(Sigmund) Freud
basic assumption in this sociologist’s psychoanalytic approach is that human behavior and personality originate from unconscious forces within individuals
(Sigmund) Freud
believed people have 2 basic tendencies: the urge to survive and the urge to procreate
(Jean) Piaget
Swiss psychologist who was a pioneer in the field of cognitive development
(Jean) Piaget
believed that in each stage of development (from birth through adolescence), children’s activities are governed by their perception of the world around them
(Jean) Piaget
formed 4 stages of cognitive development organized around specific tasks that, when mastered, lead to the acquisition of new mental capacities, which then serve as the basis for the next level of development
(Lawrence) Kohlberg
elaborated on Piaget’s theories of cognitive reasoning by conducting a series of studies in which children, adolescents, and adults were presented with moral dilemmas that took the form of stories
(Carol) Gilligan
psychologist who criticized Kohlberg’s theory of moral development because it was developed solely on the basis of research with male respondents, and women and men often have divergent views on morality based on differences in socialization and life experiences
(Carol) Gilligan
believes that men become more concerned with law and order but women tend to analyze social relationships and the social consequences of behavior
(Charles Horton) Cooley
developed the concept of the looking-glass self
(George Herbert) Mead
extended Cooley’s insights of the looking-glass self by linking the idea of self-concept to role-taking
(George Herbert) Mead
divided the self into the “I” (subjective element) and the “me” (objective element)
(William A.) Corsaro
sociologist who developed the “orb web model” which states that children’s cultural knowledge reflects not only the beliefs of the adult world but also the unique interpretation of the children’s own peer culture
(William A.) Corsaro
sociologist who believes that the peer group is the most significant arena in which children and young people acquire cultural knowledge
(Melvin) Kohn
sociologist who suggested that social class (as measured by parental occupation) is one of the strongest influences on what and how parents teach their children; concluded that differences in the parents’ occupations are a better predictor of child-rearing practices than is social class itself
(Janice) Hale-Benson
sociologist who studied African American families and found that children typically are not taught to think of gender strictly in “male-female” terms
(Patricia) Hill
sociologist who suggested that “othermothers” (women other than a child’s biological mother) play an important part in the gender socialization and motivation of African American children, especially girls
(Patricia) Moore
industrial designer who disguised herself as an 85-year-old woman for 3 years to see how people responded to her appearance
(Emile) Durkheim
asked the question “how do societies manage to hold together?”
(Emile) Durkheim
categorized societies as having either mechanical or organic solidarity
(Ferdinand) Tonnies
sociologist who used the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in societies
(Erving) Goffman
sociologist who coined the term civil inattention for the ways in which an individual shows an awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention
(Carol Brooks) Gardner
sociologist who found that women frequently do not perceive street encounters to be “routine” rituals; they fear their personal safety and try to avoid commons and propositions that are sexual in nature
(Jacqueline) Wiseman
sociologist who studied “Pacific City’s” skid row; found that homeless persons living on skid row evaluated it very differently from the social workers who dealt with them there
(Harold) Garfinkel
sociologist who initiated the approach of ethnomethodology and coined the term
(Erving) Goffman
suggested that day-to-day interactions have much in common with being on stage or in a dramatic production
(William Graham) Sumner
coined the terms ingroup and outgroup
(Georg) Simmel
sociologist who suggested that small groups have distinctive interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups
(Solomon) Asch
conducted experiments and found that the pressure toward group conformity was so great that participants were willing to contradict their own best judgment if the rest of the group disagreed with them
(Stanley) Milgram
conducted experiments to find answers to questions about people’s obedience to authority; found that obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe
(Stanley) Milgram
conducted an experiment whose subjects were men who were assigned either a “teacher” role or a “learner” role; the teachers shocked the learners when they got things wrong
(Irving) Janis
social psychologist who examined group decision making among political experts and found that major blunders in US history can be attributed to pressure toward group conformity
(Max) Weber
sociologist who set forth ideal-type characteristics of bureaucratic organizations and defined rationality; relied on ideal-type analysis
(George) Ritzer
sociologist who used Max Weber’s theories to examine fast food restaurants; coined the term McDonaldization to describe the process of rationalization
(Robert) Michels
German political sociologist whose idea was that those who control bureaucracies not only wield power but also have an interest in retaining their power; found that the hierarchical structures of bureaucracies and oligarchies go hand in hand
socialization
process through which people learn expectations of society
(Harry) Harlow
studied the effects of social isolation on infant rhesus monkeys; 2 mother substitutes
(Winthrop) Kellog
the ape and the child (Donald and Gua) experimenter; Donald learned the barks and yelps of chimps and b/c he had no interaction with his own kind he was traumatized
(B.F.) Skinner
psychologist who studied behavioralism and wrote “Verbal Behavior”; language as a behavior; stimulus response
(Noam) Chromsky
reviewed Skinner’s “Verbal Behavior” and said he was wrong
(David) Blankenhorn
wrote “Fatherless America”
social interaction
the process by which people act toward or respond to other people
social structure
the complex of societal institutions and the social practices that make up society
hunting and gathering society
type of society that is nomadic; much leisure time
horticultural society
type of society that domesticates plants; status of women high
pastoralist society
type of society that domesticates animals; status of women low; transhumant/nomadic; often raiders
agricultural society
type of society that uses metallurgy; warlike; inequality
(Williard) Waller
wrote “The Principle of Least Interest”–person who controls the relationship is the person who is least interested in it
sociolinguistics
how language is used in different contexts; relationship between language and society; different languages in different social classes
proxemics
the study of spacial relationships
(Edward) Hall
wrote “The Silent Language”; looks at proxemics
ethology
study of animal behavior; flight/attack distance; distinct zones of private space in cultures
kinesics
the study of body language and gestures
normative organization
organization with a common interest or value
coercive organization
organization which one is forced to join
utilitarian organization
organization that provides material reward
(Robert) Michels
wrote “The Iron Law of Oligarchy”
(Frederick Winslow) (E.W.) Taylor
the father of “Scientific Management”