sociology exam 2, chapt 3/4

culture
the sum of all the social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors and practices. it is everything but nature.
Material culture
everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology.
nonmaterial culture
includes values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Low Culture
cultural scripts
modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural, but that may strongly shape beliefs or concepts held by a society.
Subcultures
a group united by sets of concepts, values, traits, and/or behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.
Counter cultures
a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society. EX:KKK, Terrorist organizations(go against society.
Values
moral beliefs
norms
how values tell us to act.
mores
norms that are strictly enforced
Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
Ethnocentrisms
Belief that ones group or culture is superior to all others.
Hegemony
refers to the impact of media on culture and how people and societies shape and are shaped by the dominant culture.
socialization
Process by which a person internalizes values, beliefs, and norms of society. How a person learns to function as a member of that society.
George Herbert Mead
– developed a theory about how the social self develops over the course of childhood.
-stressed the importance of imitation, play, and games in helping children recognize one another, distinguish between self and other, and grasp the idea that other people can have multiple roles.
Total Institutions
an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life. Ex: military, prison, insane asylum.
Different roles in society
Roles are the behaviors expected from a particular status.
-Gender roles:set of behavioral norms associated primarily with males or females in a given social group or system
status
a position in society that comes with a set of expectations.
ascribed status
status we are born with that is unlikely to change.
achieved status
status we have earned through individual effort or that is imposed by others.
Goffman and the dramaturgical theory
theory that views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.
George Simmel
argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the size of the group.
Dyad and triad.
Primary group
Family and close friends.
First point of socialization
secondary group
Groups we belong to because of certain interests.
Dyads
Most intimate form of a group. Group of two. most fragile group because if one leaves, the group no longer exists.
social networks
a set of relations — a set of dyads — held together by ties between individuals.
C. Wright Mills and the Power Elite
connect personal experiences to society at large.
Isomorphism
a constraining process that forces one unit in a population to resemble other units that face the same set of environmental conditions.