Sociology chapter 5 (personality, socialization)

personality
the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristics of an individual
heredity
the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to their children
instinct
unchanging, biological, inherited behavior pattern
sociobiology
the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior
aptitudes
capacity to learn a particular skill of acquire a particular body of knowledge
feral children
children left in almost complete isolation; Genie, Anna, Isabella
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socialization
the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs and behavior patterns of a society
self
your conscience awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other members of society
John Locke
believed each newly born human is a “clean slate” or “tabula rasa”
Charles Horton Cooley
developed theory of looking glass self
Looking glass self
refers to interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we appear to others
George Herbert Mead
developed theory of role taking
role taking
taking on or pretending to take on the role of others. we learn to see ourselves through the eyes of others.
significant others
parents, siblings, relatives, and others with direct influence on our socialization
generalized others
the internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society
I
unsocialized spontaneous component of personality and self identity
Me
the part of ourselves that is aware of the expectations and attitude of society; the socialized self
agents of socialization
they describe the specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place
peer group
a primary group composed of individuals of roughly the same age and similar social characteristics
mass media
instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending information and those receiving it
total institution
a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are subject to tight control
re-socialization
involves a break with past experiences and the learning of new values and norms
family
most important agent in socialization
school
where socialization is mostly deliberate; school functions help prepare students for life in larger society
biological drives
humans have certain needs like the hunger drive that makes you want to eat. this drive does not tell you how to eat, what to eat, or when to eat; you learn these things from the environment around you
birth order
our personalities are influenced by whether we have brothers or sisters
parental characteristics
personalities are influenced by the characteristics of a child’s parents; a parent’s age, job, education, religion…etc.
the cultural environment
each culture gives rise to a series of personality traits-model personalities- that are typical of members of that society
Anna
found when she was 6 years old, she was unable to walk or talk
Isabelle
found when she was 6 and a half; she had been kept in a dark room with her, deaf, mute mother
Genie
found at 13-she had been kept in a room naked, she will never learn to fully speak
nurture
the suggestion that the social environment contact with other people determines personality