sociology chapter 5 and 8

socialization
is the process that teaches the norms, values, and other aspects of a culture to new group members
primary socialization
is socialization that occurs during childhood
secondary socialization
is the dynamic whereby socialization continues throughout our lives
nature theory
states that the genes we get from our parents at conception are the primary causes of human behaviors
nurture theory
states that our environment influences the way we think, feel and behave
feral
means wild
looking-glass self
is the theory that the self develops through a process of reflection, like a mirror
“I” self
is the subjective part of the self
“Me” self
is the objective part of the self
imitation stage
is mead’s first stage of development, which is the period from birth to about age 2, and is the stage at which children merely copy the behaviors of those around them
play stage
is meads second stage of development, which occurs around the age of 2-4 years, during which children play roles and begin to take on the characteristics of important people in their world
game stage
is meads third stage of development that never truly ends, and is the stage in which we begin to understand that others have expectations and demands placed upon them
the generalized other
is our sense of others
psychosocial crisis
is a crisis occurring during each of Erikson’s stages that will be resolved either positively or negatively, and each outcome will have an effect on our ability to deal with the next one
cognitive development
is a person’s ability to think and reason
sensorimotor stage
is the stage (birth to 2) at which infants learn to experience and think about the world through their senses and motor skills
preoperational stage
is the stage (2-7) at which the ability to speak grows rapidly
concrete operational stage
(7-12) at which children can think about objects in the world in more than one way and start to understand causal connections in their surroundings
formal operational stage
is the stage (12 and above) at which people become able to comprehend abstract thought
Preconventional level
is the first stage of moral development that lasts through the elementary school years; at this level, children make their moral judgements within a framework of hedonistic principles
henodnism
is the seeking pleasure over pain
conventional level
is the second stage of moral development that refers to a morality based on abstract principles
morality of justice
is morality based on the rule of law
morality of care
is morality decided by a standard of how best to help those who are in need
agents of socialization
are the people and groups who shape our self concept, beliefs and behavior
authoritative style
is a parenting style in which parents listen to their children’s input while consistently enforcing the present rules
permissive style
is a parenting style in which parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules
authoritarian style
is a parenting style with which children experience high levels of social control but low levels of emotional support
resocialization
is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors, and abandoning old ones.
total institution
are places in which the most effective forms of resocialization can occur because they isolate people from outside influences so they can be reformed and controlled
hidden curriculum
refers to the lessons taught in school that are unrelated to academic learning
gender socialization
teaches members of society how to express their masculinity or feminity
gender
is the expectations of behavior and attitude that a society considers proper for males and females
mass media
include any print or electronic resource that is used to communicate to a wide audience
social policies
are deliberate strategies designed to correct recognized social problems
title IX
is a 1972 educational amendment that prohibits the exclusion of any person from participation in an education program on the basis of gender
education
is the formal system in which society passes its information an values from one generation to the next
teacher expectancy effect
is the impact of a teacher expectations on a students performance
grade inflation
is the trend of assigning higher grades than previously assigned to students for completing the same work
human capital
is a persons combination of skills, knowledge, traits, and personal attributions
credentials
is an emphasis on educational degrees in assessing skills and knowledge
religion
is a unified system of beliefs and practices, relative to sacred things, that is to say, sets apart and forbidden- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a church, all those who adhere to them
theism
is the belief in a god or gods
monotheism
one god
polytheism
belief in multiple gods and demigods
philosophies of life
are ways of life that focus on set of ethical, moral or philosophical principles
totemism
is the practice of honoring a totem or a sacred object
simple supernaturalism
is the belief in a variety of supernatural forces that affect and influence people’s lives
animsim
is the belief that recognizes that animate spirits live in natural objects and operate in the world
cults
are new religious movements led by charismatic leaders with few followers
sects
are religious groups that have enough members to sustain themselves and go against society’s norms
church
is a large, highly organized group of beliefs
theocracy
is a state religion that is formed when government and religion work together to shape society
sacred
means connected to god or dedicated to a religious purpose
profane
means related to or devoted to that which is not sacred or biblical
rituals
are established patterns of behavior closely associated with experience of the sacred
secularization
is the overall decline in the importance and power of religion in people’s lives
civil religion
is a binding force that holds society together through political and social issues
intermarriage
is marriage between people of different religions
post denominationalism
is a recent trend that stretches religious boundaries
system of beliefs
relates sacred objects to religious rituals and defines and protects the sacred from the profane
organization of believers
is a group that ensures the prosperity and effectiveness of the religious experience