sociology chapter 18 vocab

cyclical theory of social change
Historical view of social change in which societies are seen as rising and the falling or as continuously moving back and forth between stages of development
ideational culture
type of culture in Pitrim Sorokin’s cyclical theory of social change in which truth and knowledge are sought faith and religion
sensate culture
type of culture in Pitrim Sorokin’s cyclical theory of social change in which people seek knowledge through science
idealistic culture
type of culture in Pitrim’s cyclical theory of social change that combines both ideational and sensate characteristics
principle of immanent change
according to Pitrim Sorokin’s cyclical theory of social change, the natural tendency of a society’s structure to swing back and forth between an ideational and a sensate culture
evolutionary theory of social change
view social change in which change is seen as a process that moves in one direction – toward increasing complexity
equilibrium theory of social change
Talcott Parson’s view of social change in which society is likened to a living organism; change in one part of the social system produces change in all other parts, as the system attempts to regain balance
conflict theory of social change
most social change is the result of conflicts between groups with opposing interests
modernization
process by which a society’s social institutions become increasingly complex as the society moves toward industrialization
modernization theory
theory that argues that the more developed nations of the world were the first to modernize because they were the first to industrialize
world-system theory
theory of modernization, by Immanuel Wallerstein, in which the spread of capitalism is seen as producing an international division of labor between more developed and less developed nations; according to this view, the more developed nations control the factors of production and the less developed nations serve as sources of cheap labor and raw materials
core societies
according to the world system theory of modernization, those more developed nations that are at the center of the world economy and upon which less developed nations are economically dependent
peripheral societies
according to the world-system theory of modernization, those less developed societies that are economically dependent on the core, or more developed, societies
ecology
science that studies the relationship between living organisms and their environment