Sociology CH. 5-8

When Hershel Walker set out to understand the distance between individuals in society, he found that we need to go through an average of __________ individuals before accessing a previously unacquainted target.
six
2) Our social networks include:
Private institutions, small groups, global organizations
3) Through our social networks, we are linked to:
a) Religious organizations
b) Political subcultures
c) The United Nations
4) _______________ govern social contexts to let us know what is the right and proper behavior in social interaction.
a) Norms
5) ___________________ is interaction using facial expressions, the head, eye contact, body posture, gestures, touch, walk, status symbols, and personal space.
a) Nonverbal communication
6) Andrew meets his girlfriend in a busy airport terminal after being apart for the past three months. They will most likely communicate within:
Intimate distance
7) Nicole addresses an introductory sociology course as a guest lecturer. She is most likely to address the class while standing at a:
a) Social distance
8) Renee just transferred to Harding University from her old community college. When she changed schools, she changed her major from psychology to sociology and is trying hard to make friends in her sociology class. One day, Jack, a fellow sociology major, says, “Psychology is only for people interested in studying rats.” Cindy laughs, even though she disagrees with him and did not think the joke was funny. According to dramaturgists, Cindy is performing ___________ behavior.
d) front-stage
9) Maria interviews Eric for an entry-level position at the firm where she works. According to Edward Hall, the two will most likely sit at a __________ from one another.
b) social distance
10) Reciprocity, or a mutual offering of favors, is a motivator for interaction according to:
b) Rational choice theory
11) Which of the following theories would be most likely to argue that people take the underlying rules of interaction for granted?
a) Ethnomethodology
12) After experiencing combat, many veterans experience internal disorder, conflict, and a sense of normlessness. Émile Durkheim would say that they are feeling:
a) Anomie
13) Although Isabella is a good student; she attends sociology class, does well in her other studies, and would never break a campus rule. Unfortunately, her brother Craig is addicted to drugs, steals from their mother, and lives on the streets. One day, Craig calls Isabella and asks her to let him stay in her dorm. Isabella knows that visitors are not allowed in the dormitory, but wants to help her brother. According to role theorists, Isabella is feeling:
b) Role strain
14) Most of the time, we engage in _________________ behavior, the behavior safest with casual acquaintances because it is scripted.
b) front stage
15) __________ refer to our social positions and _________ refer to the expectations associated with a social position.
d) Statuses, roles
16) Which of the following is an ascribed status?
b) Daughter
17) Which of the following is an achieved status?
Parent
18) Lee promised his brother Kirby that he would watch the Cincinnati Bengals’s football game with him at home. However, Lee’s friend Sue won tickets on a local radio station and she wants Lee to come to the game with her. Because Lee is torn between his role as Sue’s friend and Kirby’s brother, Lee is experiencing:
a) Role conflict
19) Carolina’s daughter wants to go to a local concert that will keep her out past curfew. Although Carolina feels that as a good mom she should be her daughter’s friend and consider her daughter’s wishes, she also believes that a good mother should provide structure by maintaining rules. Carolina is experiencing:
c) Role strain
20) Which of the following is a characteristic of a group?
d) Members engaging in structured interaction patterns
21) According to the text, the belief that minorities (sexual, racial, religious, etc.) are detrimental to workplace efficiency is false because:
c) Diversity increases productivity and problem solving.
22) Durkheim’s concept of anomie refers to a:
a) State of normlessness
23) According to Durkheim’s taxonomy, anomic suicide refers to:
a) Suicide caused by an individual experiencing disorder and turmoil and who lacks clear norms and guidelines for social behavior
24) According to Durkheim, the key finding of his study on suicide is that suicide can be predicted by the:
b) Degree to which an individual was integrated into the group
25) Krista’s group of college friends is considered a(n) __________ group because they have a strong sense of loyalty to one another, they care deeply about each other, and they receive intrinsic value from belonging.
c) primary
26) Roman’s book club is considered a(n) __________ group because they are a large, task-oriented group who focus on achieving a specific goal.
secondary
27) All of the following are problematic by-products of bureaucracies except:
d) Increased efficiency
28) Which of the following traits is not characteristic of in-groups?
a) A desire to incorporate members of an out-group
29) The main purpose of a bureaucracy is to:
c) Maximize efficiency
30) All of the following are characteristics of ideal type bureaucracy except:
a) An emphasis on democratic decision making
31) After working at a local fast food restaurant for two years, Chris becomes uninvolved and unconnected to his job. He finds his job boring and feels he will not be promoted to a better position. Chris is most likely experiencing:
Alienation
32) The iron law of oligarchy states:
d) Power becomes concentrated in the hands of a small group of leaders in organizations.
33) __________ refer to new approaches that have developed to deal with some of the dysfunctions of bureaucracy.
d) Informal structures
34) Which of the following is an example of individuals and macro-level organizations interacting?
c) Women around the globe receiving training and education from the United Nations
35) To correct some of the dysfunctions caused by bureaucracy, Company Sociology makes all decisions as groups, emphasizes cooperation, and uses personal appeals to ensure that everyone participates in problem solving. Company Sociology is a(n) __________ organization.
c) democratic-collective
36) Global organizations such as the United Nations are linked to individuals through social networks.
true
37) Because norms govern social behavior, social interaction is rarely misinterpreted.
false
38) Using the turn signal to let the drivers around you know that you are turning left is an example of social interaction.
false
39) Researchers find that words make up less than 35% of the emotional content of a message.
true
40) In the context of foreign language acquisition, nonverbal messages are the easiest part to master.
false
41) The amount of personal space an individual needs to feel comfortable varies by cultural setting.
true
42) Personal distance is used for first-time business relations, such as a job interview.
false
43) Touching, embracing, and kissing are indicators of personal distance.
false
44) Social distance is the distance most public figures use for addressing others, especially in formal settings.
false
45) Because personal space is decided culturally, men and women in the same culture have similar personal-space norms.
false
46) Ethnomethodology and dramaturgy draw from symbolic interaction theory.
true
47) According to rational choice theory, every interaction involves expectations of reciprocity.
true
48) The A-OK sign is an insult in Japan.
false
49) According to dramaturgy, we only perform a small portion of our interactions in front of audiences.
false
50) At home or with close friends with whom we are more intimate, we engage in front- stage behavior.
false
51) The “real you” is most evident when you engage in backstage behavior.
true
52) Father is a social status.
true
53) Gender and ethnicity are examples of achieved statuses.
false
54) Being a guitarist in a band is an achieved status.
true
55) Others assign a master status, so it is unlikely to affect an individual’s self-concept.
false
56) Michael enjoys being the most popular boy in his high school. All of his popular friends are on the soccer team, but Michael doesn’t like soccer because he doesn’t like running. Despite his dislike for soccer, he tries out for the school team. Dramaturgists would categorize his behavior as impression management.
true
57) Within a group, individuals may hold both formal and informal statuses.
true
58) Role strain is the tension between roles within one status.
true
59) Grandma Elly feels role conflict because she wants to be a good grandma and give her grandson, Jackson, a cookie but knows that a good grandma wouldn’t ruin her grandson’s appetite with sweets. Grandma Elly is experiencing role conflict.
false
60) Role conflict differs from role strain in that conflict is between the roles within one status.
false
61) In the United States, status is stable and does not change over time.
false
62) Durkheim found that personal despair always motivates suicide.
false
63) Accomplishing a goal or a task often motivates secondary groups.
true
64) Ben has a new job and admires his new boss, Ray, because he is intelligent, aggressive, honest, and (most importantly) successful. Ray is, most likely, part of Ben’s reference group.
true
65) The feelings we often have for members of out-groups can result in prejudice and ethnocentrism.
true
66) Individuals require organizations for human interaction and to meet their needs.
true
67) Weber used the term ideal type bureaucracy to describe a bureaucracy that would not experience the typical dysfunctions associated with bureaucracy.
false
68) It is easy for individuals to maintain morals and values when working in an extremely large organization.
false
69) Because of the success of affirmative action policies, minorities are equally promoted within bureaucratic organizations.
false
70) Goal displacement is a common problem in bureaucracies.
true
71) The violation of social norms is called:
deviance
72) The forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by society are:
crimes
73) Smoking marijuana is a:
conflict crime
74) Which of the following is an example of a consensus crime?
murder
75) According to social control theory, which of the following actions might influence a person to conform?
dissapproving nods, laws, an internal voice that explains right from wrong
76) Smiles, frowns, and hugs are all examples of:
informal external controls
77) The statement, “People learn to conform or deviate from the individuals they spend time with” With which theory does this statement best fit?
differential association
78) The statement, “Members of society create deviance by defining certain behaviors as deviant” most closely reflects:
labeling theory
79) Yesterday, for the first time ever, Carson smoked marijuana. According to labeling theory, Carson committed:
primary deviance
80) A belief that becomes a reality constitutes:
self fullfilling prophesy
81) The self-fulfilling prophesy is associated with:
labeling theory
82) Elizabeth (a fictional person) works at the dean’s office. She is one of 20 students on a work study program and does not especially like her job. She works harder than her supervisor (who is paid more) and enjoys coffee breaks when she and her coworkers share stories about how little they are paid and how they deserve more. One day, Liz steals 15 ink cartridges to use in her home printer. Liz has committed a(n):
occupational crime
83) Juan Carlos originally hoped to purchase a home. However, because he could not earn enough money to ever afford one, he decided that a home was no longer important. Instead, he found happiness through quitting his job, moving into a shack in the woods, and enjoying the solitude. Merton would classify Juan Carlos’s adaptation to strain as:
retreatism
84) Casey could not believe that her friends were continuing on to college after high school. She found it much more important to try to overthrow the current government, and planned to chain herself to the capital building and stage a hunger strike until her demands were met. Merton would argue that Casey was coping with strain through:
rebellion
85) Elizabeth argued that one reason women are abused by their husbands is because their unpaid labor is undervalued in society. Which perspective is Elizabeth most likely using?
feminist
86) Which of the following sources of information is based on police reports?
uniform crime reports
87) Which of the following do the authors of the text argue is the best way to measure crime?
triangulation of multiple data sources
88) Crimes against the company are more likely to occur when:
employees are mentally stimulated by their jobs
89) Companies that fail to install adequate safety equipment because they feel pressured not to cut into their profits commit a crime against their employees. This behavior can best be explained by what theory?
differential association
90) An act that attempts to break down an inmate’s sense of self in order to re-socialize them is known as:
de-socialization
91) Recidivism is:
c) Returning to prison after already serving a prior term
92) Members of groups and societies define socially constructed concepts.
true
93) Social control theory is a macro-level theory of deviance.
false
94) According to labeling theory, if social controls weaken, people are more likely to become deviant.
false
95) According to differential association theory, if one does not spend a great deal of time with deviant friends, the individual may not become deviant.
true
96) The frustration and anger that can result from being unable to meet common societal goals is known as strain.
true
97) Miriam wanted to be able to own a fancy car, so she attended college and became a physician. She could then afford to purchase her luxury automobile. Merton would argue that Miriam was using conformity to adapt to strain.
true
98) According to Merton, ritualism involves the use of illicit means to reach approved goals.
false
99) Conflict theorists argue that the greater the inequality in society, the more conflict will exist.
true
100) Americans are most worried about predatory crimes.
true
101) According to the text, some forms of white-collar crime are considered victimless.
true
102) Murder is typically a conflict crime.
false
103) Pilfering is considered an occupational crime.
true
104) A grocery store that intentionally sells expired meat is committing a crime against employees.
false
105) Smuggling women from one area of the world to another in order to use them as sex slaves is best described as a global crime.
true
106) The Internet is easy to police because all legal authorities have clearly delineated jurisdiction over it.
false
107) Prisons are total institutions.
true
108) Rates of incarceration in the United States are decreasing.
false
109) The United States is one of a few Western developed countries that utilizes the death penalty.
true
110) ______________ is a group identified by a society because of certain “biologically inherited” physical characteristics.
race
111) Race is ______________________ and maintained by social structures. Racial classifications are usually based on appearance and blood or gene type.
socially constructed
112) One of the historically four (now defunct) main groupings of race is:
australoid
113) These four groupings of race were later subdivided into ______ sub-categories.
33
114) The scientific bases for race doctrines are:
none- there is no scientific basis for race
115) How many different sub-species of humans have scientist identified during the last 820 years?
none- there is one race of humans
116) Under the __________________________________ analysis of race, the social reality of race is that people are defined or define themselves as belonging to a group passed in part on
a) Symbolic Interaction, physical appearance
117) Sociologists believe that ________________ is a meaningful category because people make it meaningful.
race
118) _________________ groups exist where membership is based on shared cultural heritage and is often connected with a national or geographic identity.
ethnic
119) The federal government plays a large role in creating ethnic groups in the US by naming and providing ___________ to the groups, which forces members to become part of the group to receive services.
funds
120) _______________________ are attitudes that judge a group, usually negatively and not based on facts. They can refer to positive attitudes and exaggerations, but they can also refer to negative attitudes.
prejudices
121) _________________________ refers to differential treatment and harmful actions against minorities that occurs when prejudiced attitudes are manifested into actions.
discrimination
122) __________________ is the categorization of large numbers of people by prejudiced individuals. They are often distorted, oversimplified, or exaggerated ideas passed down over generations and are applied to all members of a group.
stereotyping
123) A ___________________________ is the incorporation of stereotyped behavior into an individual’s view of themselves.
self fulfilling prophesy
124) ________________________________________ states that acts of prejudice and discrimination are motivated by anger and frustration individuals feel when they cannot achieve their work or goals. People displace this anger on minority groups who lack social power to negate the negative actions.
frustration aggression theory
125) _________________________ is a form of aggression motivated by frustration against minority groups because a person can’t or won’t vent frustration toward the real target or cause. It is usually easier than accepting personal blame or projecting institutional blame for personal problems.
scapegoating
126) _________________ is any attitude, belief, or institutional arrangement that favors one racial group over another.
racism
127) __________________ racism is the belief that humans are divided into innately different groups, some of which are biologically inferior.
ideological
128) ______________ racism is the insistence that one is not prejudice or racist—that they are colorblind and committed to equality—but at the same time, they oppose social policies that would eliminate racism and make true equality of opportunity possible. This kind of racism views ideological racism as ignorance, but does not recognize the importance of their beliefs to institutional discrimination.
symbolic
129) __________________ racism is discrimination that is hidden within the system which remains in place because of symbolic racism.
institutional
130) Discrimination is any action (usually negative) taken against members of a minority group.
true
131) ______________________ discrimination is action taken against minority group members, which can take the form of exclusion, avoidance, or violence.
individual
132) _________________ is the systematic effort of a dominant group to destroy a minority group.
genocide
133) ____________________ is the subordination of one group to another that holds power and authority.
subjugation
134) ______________________ is a form of subjugation where one individual is the property of another individual.
slavery
135) __________________ is another form of subjugation, where minority groups are kept powerless by formally separating them from the dominant group and depriving them of access to the dominant institutions.
segregation
136) _________________________________ is the exploitation of minority groups within a country.
domestic colonialism
137) __________________ is the often-forced removal of a minority group from a region or country.
population transfer
138) ______________________ is when people move across borders and fully participate in and have loyalty to two nations and cultures and often hold dual citizenship.
transnationalism
139) _______________________ refers to the structural and cultural merging of minority and majority groups which can cause minority members to lose their original identity.
assimilation
140) ________________________________ is when a minority group is forced to suppress its identity. This type of assimilation is more likely to occur when the minority group is culturally similar to the dominant group.
forced assimilation
141) ____________________ is when each ethnic or racial group in a country maintains its own culture and separate set of institutions. Legal protection is often necessary in order to have pluralism.
pluralism
142) ____________________________ theorists argue that a “lesser” group protests the dominant group’s advantages. The privileged continue prejudice and discrimination against the minority to keep privileges and resources.
conflict
143) Prejudice, racism, and discrimination are __________________________ for society in many ways: They result in a loss of human resources; they cost society due to poverty and crime they maintain hostilities between groups; and they fuel disrespect for those in power.
dysfunctional
144) Separation is attempting to “pass” or assimilate as members of the dominant group so as to avoid bigotry and discrimination.
false
145) Passing is pretending to be a member of the privileged group when one is not fully a part of that community.
true
146) _________________________ is learning to live with their minority status with little overt challenge to the system.
acceptance
147) ___________________ is shunning all contact with the dominant group
avoidance
148) _________________ is retaliation or violence resulting from anger and resentment over minority status and subjugation
aggression
149) Although widely ruled unconstitutional, _________________ are policies that require employers to hire a certain percentage of minorities.
quota systems
150) ________________________ are based on the belief that sometime people must be treated differently in order to treat them fairly and to create equality.
preference policies