sociology ch.16 – social change: modern and postmodern societies

social change
the transformation of culture and social institutions over time
how culture directs social change
inventions create new objects
discovery takes place when people notice new elements in the world
diffusion creates change as people and information spread
all these lead to social change
how conflict directs social change
social conflict arise from class, race and gender inequality and result in social change
how ideas direct social change
Max Weber claimed that industrial capitalism developed first in countries in Europe where Protestant work ethic was strong, he said this shows how the power of ideas can lead to change
how population patterns direct social change
changes in traditional family units and also migration promotes social change
collective behavior
activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and can bring about change
crowd
a temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another
mob
a highly emotional crowd that peruses a violent or destructive goal
riot
a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undircted
rumor
unconfirmed information that people spread informally
fashion
social patterns followed by a large number of people
fad
an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically
social movement
an organized activity in which people set out to encourage or discourage social change
alternative social movement
seeks limited change in specific individuals
redemptive social movement
seeks radical change in specific individuals
reformative social movement
seeks limited change in a whole society
revolutionary social movement
seeks radical change in the whole society
claims making
the process of trying to convince the public of the importance of joining a social movement
relative deprivation
a perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison
disaster
an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm and damage to people and property
modernity
changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution
modernization
the process of social change caused by industrialization
division of labor
specialized economic activity
Durkheim’s term “anomie”
a condition where society provides little moral guidance for people
Structural-Functionalism: mass society
a society in which prosperity and expanding bureaucracy have weakened traditional social ties
“problem of identity”
social character
personality patterns common of members of a particular society
tradition directedness
rigid conformity to time honored ways of living
other directedness
openness to changes in trends and fashion
Social-Conflict: class society
a capitalist society with pronounced social stratification
“problem of powerlessness”
postmodernity
transformations caused by the information revolution and the post industrial economy
modernization theory
links global poverty to power of tradition
dependency theory
links global poverty as the product of the world economic system
A number of sociologists contributed to a mass-society theory of modernity. Which of the following sociologists is NOT one of them?
Answers:
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Ferdinand Tönnies
Max Weber
Karl Marx
Alcoholics Anonymous, an organization that seeks to help alcoholics achieve a sober life, is one example of which type of social movement?
Answers:
Alternative social movements
Redemptive social movements
Reformative social movements
Revolutionary social movements
Redemptive social movements
Demographic change in the United States over the course of the last century includes a trend towards ________
Answers:
smaller household size.
a larger share of elderly people.
living in cities.
All of these responses are correct.
All of these responses are correct.
Durkheim’s concept of organic solidarity is roughly the same as Tönnies’s concept of ________
Answers:
Gemeinschaft.
Gesellschaft.
blasé urbanite.
specialization.
Gesellschaft.
Fashion differs from a fad in that fashion ________
Answers:
is shorter lived.
is less conventional.
reflects established cultural values.
All of these responses are correct.
reflects established cultural values.
In what way do “new social movements” differ from those in the past?
Answers:
They are more likely to be international.
They are likely to focus on social rather than economic issues.
They are likely to attract support from middle- and upper-middle-class people.
All of these responses are correct.
All of these responses are correct.
Karl Marx highlighted which of the following in the process of social change?
Answers:
Invention
Ideas
Class conflict
Cultural diffusion
Class conflict
Mass-society theory predicts that social movements will involve people who ________
Answers:
are socially isolated.
have sufficient resources to launch and sustain them.
feel they lack enough income, power, or human dignity.
mobilize around cultural symbols.
are socially isolated.
Max Weber’s thesis on the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism highlighted the importance of which of the following in the process of social change?
Answers:
Invention
Ideas
Social conflict
Cultural diffusion
Ideas
One stage in the life of a social movement is called “coalescence.” This stage refers to which of the following?
Answers:
The emergence of the movement
The movement defining itself and “going public”
Developing a capable staff to keep the movement operating
The decline of the movement
The movement defining itself and “going public”
Read the four statements below about postmodernism. Which one of them is NOT correct?
Answers:
The future probably will not be as good as the present.
Science does not hold all the answers.
Cultural debates are intensifying.
The family and other social institutions are not changing.
The family and other social institutions are not changing.
The assumption that the people who participate in the “Occupy Wall Street” demonstration feel that they lack sufficient income and job prospects offers support for which of the following theories explaining social movements?
Answers:
culture theory
new social movements theory
mass-society theory
deprivation theory
deprivation theory
The class-society theory of modernity is based on the ideas of which of the following sociologists?
Answers:
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Max Weber
Ferdinand Tönnies
Karl Marx
The enormous oil spill by the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 is an example of which of the following types of disasters?
Answers:
Natural disaster
Technological disaster
Intentional disaster
Unpreventable disaster
Technological disaster
Following mass-society theory, the key problem of living in a modern society is ________
Answers:
finding any personal freedom.
dealing with persistent poverty.
gaining a sense of power.
building a confident personal identity in a quickly changing and morally relativistic world.
building a confident personal identity in a quickly changing and morally relativistic world.