Sociology Ch. 10 (Exam 3)

In the United States, a person moving from one job to a comparable job, they are engaged in what sociologists call ______________.
horizontal mobility
Taking a sociological survey f inequality around the world, ___________________.
social stratification is found everywhere, but exactly what is unequal and the degree of inequality differ from society to society.
Which of the following statements is correct?
All human societies have been socially stratified although in variable ways.
Which of the following types of societies typically has the least amount of social stratification?
a hunting and gathering society
A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy is called ______________.
social stratification
From birth, a caste system determines the direction of a person’s life, including work. In these mostly agrarian societies, however, one occupation is open to almost everyone. Which one is it?
farming
In the aristocratic society of Europe from the Middle Ages, until the more recent past, the three “Estates” consisted of _______________.
the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners
A caste system is _______________.
less open than a class system
Which of the following would most likely be characteristic of a society with a more open system of social stratification?
greater emphasis on meritocracy
In what important way does the “caste” part of Britain’s social structure remain evident in the country’s life today?
the queen, a traditional monarch, is the head of state
Lookig historically, what is the most important reason that social hierarchies endure for so long?
by using ideology to define social inequality as “fair” and “just”
Why was Spencer’s application of Darwin’s theory to the operations of society incorrect?
Society does not operate according to biological principles.
What ancient Greek philosopher pointer out that every culture considers some type of inequality as just?
Plato
History shows that it is ____________ to change systems of social stratification.
difficult
In basic terms, ideology refers to any statement that ___________.
defines inequality as fair
According to Davis and Moore, what benefits come from social stratification?
Linking rewards to the functional importance of positions promotes a society’s productivity and effciency
How would the Davis-Moore thesis explain the fact that physicians earn far more oney than do bus drivers?
The occupation of physicians is more highly valued than that of bus drivers and rrequired much more ability and sacrifice in terms of education and training. Providing physicians with greater rewards draws talent to that position and ensures that some people will be willing to make the sacrifices need to become physicians.
Karl Marx believed that a ______________ system would replace _____________ and provide for the needs of all people rather than just the needs of an elite few.
socialist; capitalism
According to Karl Marx, what are the two basic relationships that people have to the means of production?
They either own productive property or labor for others
Which of the following statements most accurately reflectes the symbolic-interaction approach to social stratification?
Social position is a matter of meanings, which in our society often reflects the quantity and quality of products that we consume
Based on an understanding of the Kuznets curve, we can conclude that ______________.
agrarian societies typically display the greatest intensity of social inequality.
At which level of technological development do societies display the least amount of social stratification?
hunting and gathering societies
Among the high-incomenations notes below, ____________ generally stands out as having greater income inequality.
a. Great Britain
b. Japan
c. Sweeden
d. the United States
d
As presented in the text, the Kuznets curve analysis uses the model of sociocultural evolution developed by ____________.
Gerhard Lenski
Which of the follwoing is the most important reason that Canada has less income inequality than the nations of Colombia, Chile, and Zambia?
Canada is a high-income nation; high-income nations typically have less income inequality than lower-income countries.
Social stratifiation, a system in which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy, is _____________.
supported by widely-held values and beliefs about what is fair
Which type of stratification is typically found in agrarian societies?
a caste system
The system of social stratification involving Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shundra castes is associated with traditional village life in which of the following countries?
India
Although history continues to show that it is difficult to change social stratification, ________________.
challenges to the status quo always arise
A system of social inequality by which people are ranked entirely according to their personal abilities and performance would be what?
a meritocracy
According to the Davis and Moore thesis, more highly rewarded jobs tend to be those that ___________.
demand the scarce talents and also extensive and expensivve training
What key argument did Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore present to support their claim that social inequality has beneficial consequences for the operation of society?
Some form of social stratification has been found in every known society.
According to Karl Marx, the defining trait of the bourgeoisie is which of the following?
ownership of productive property
Which of the following statements challenges Karl Marx’s claims that workers will inevitably overthrow a capitalish economic system?
No advanced capitalish society has ever experienced a class revolution by the workers.
According to Max Weber’s analysis of social stratification, the single, most important dimension of social inequality in industrial societies is _______________.
class or economic inequality
Which os the following statements most accurately reflects the symbolic-interaction approach to social stratification?
Social position is a matter of meanings, which in our society largely reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume.
Looking at the model of the Kuznets Curve, which of the following types of societies has the least social inequality?
hunting and gathering societies
A rigid caste system based on race emerged during the last century in which of the following countries?
South Africa
In which type of social stratification is social standing based on both birth and individual achievement?
class system
Marcine is highly educated, holds an important job, makes a lot of money and enjoys the respect of almost everyone who knows her. Sociologists would describe her social position as ____________.
having high status consistency