Sociology Book Notes 7

Peter Moskos wrote what book?
Cop in the Hood
What is the point of “Cop in the Hood”?
Moskos describes his beat as seen through the eyes of a sociologist doing an ethnographic study. Looking beyond the stereotypes he found a diverse and vibrant community.
What has Naomi Wolf known for?
Terming the beauty myth to refer to an an exaggerated idea of beauty, beyond the reach of all but a few females.
Is deviance set in stone?
No, it is subject to social definition within a particular society and at a particular time.
What interactionist termed “stigma” and what does it imply?
Erving Goffman coined the term stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups.
Who termed “spoiled identity”? and what does it mean?
Erving Goffman describes how when people do not conform to the beauty myth they acheive that title.
Where can socially tolerated forms of deviance be found?
high technology
Give an example of a socially tolerated form of deviance on the internet.
Downloading music or movies illegally.
What is the main challenge to effective social control?
people often receive competing messages about how to behave.
What theorist type believes, “people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive?”
Functionalist
What theorist type believes, “successful functioning of a society will consistently benefit the powerful and work to the disadvantage of other groups?”
Conflict theorists
What were Stanley Milgram’s two levels of social control?
Conformity and obedience
What is the difference between conformity and obedience?
Conformity is informal and obedience is more formal.
How do conflict theorists reflect on the Milgram experiment?
Our obedience to comply is related to the value we put on the person giving orders and the one that is receiving the pain or pleasure.
How did Gary Schulman reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
He recreated the experiment and found that Whites were more likely to shock Blacks than whites.
How do interactionists reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
They emphasize the effect of incrementally administering additional dosages of volts. The experiment negotiated with the teacher and convinced the teacher to continue inflicting higher levels of punishment.
How did Jerry Burger reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
He recreated it in 2009 and found the rate of shocking another had only dropped a little bit.
How do sociologists see the creation of laws?
They see it as a response to a perceived need for social control.
Travis Hiraschi and other control theorists believe what?
They believed that our bonds to family members and others induce us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.
How do functionalists see deviance in law and society?
they see it as a common part of human existence, with postive as well as negative consequences for social stability.
Functionalist Durkheim’s view on punishments was what?
Punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to society.
What did Kai Erikson believe in regard to punishments?
The illustrated the boundry maintenance function of deviance.
Merton believed that the one important cultural goal in US is what?
success measured by money
What are the 4 types of deviant behavior according to Merton?
retreatist, innovator, ritualist, and rebel.
What does the retreatist believe?
withdrawn from society (off the grid)
What does the innovator believe?
accepts the goals of society but persues them in a way that is regarded as improper.
What does the ritualist believe?
They have abandoned the goal of material success and have compulsively committed to the institutional means.
What does the rebel believe?
feels alienated and tries to create a new social structure .
What was Merton’s key contribution to the sociological understanding of deviance?
innovators and ritualists share a great deal with conforming people
What did Susan A Phillips discover?
she discovered that the writers learned fro one another.
What did Edwin Sutherland believe?
that the same basic socialization process in learning conformity and deviant acts.
How did labeling theorists believe in regards to deviancy?
they emphasized hwo a person comes to be labeled as deviant or to accept that label.
What does the labeling theory believe about the agents of social control?
Some individuals or groups have the pweor to define labels and apply the to others.
Conflict theorists Richard Quinney believed what about crime?
He beleived that criminal justice serves the interest of the powerful. Crime is a definition of conduct created by authorized agents of social cotnrol in a politcally organized way.
What did Feminists Adler and Chesney-Lind believe about crime?
They suggested that many of the existing approaches to deviance and crime were developed with only men in mind.
Wht did interactionists Shaw and McKaw believe about deviance?
emphasized communal relationships
What did interactionist Becker and Chambliss beleive in regard to deviance?
They empahized society response to the acts.
What two ways do sociologists categorize crime?
in terms of hwo they are commiteed and how society views the offences
What did Sutherland offer in regards to crime?
he ebelived that professional thieves make a business of stealing.
What did sociologist Bell contribute to organized crime?
when used the term of ethnic succession.
What two terms did Sutherland coin in regards to crime?
white-collar crime and corporate crime
What are the 8 types of index crimes?
Murder, Robbery, Burglary, Rape, Assault, Vehicle theft, Arson, Larceny (Mr. Braval)
What did sociologist Elliot Currie suggest tah our society places greater emphasis on?
our society places reater empahsis on individual economic achievement.