Refresher on Lecture 1
Student Name: _____________________
1. Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ______ in the _______. a. good; worst tragedies b. new; old c. specific; general d. general; particular
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2. According to Emile Durkheim, a category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has: a. more clinical depression. b. less money, power, and other resources. c. lower social integration. d. greater self-esteem.
3. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was: a. Robert K. Merton. b. Auguste Comte. . Emile Durkheim. d. Karl Marx.
4. C. Wright Mills claimed that the "sociological imagination" transformed: a. common sense into laws of society. b. people into supporters of the status quo. c. personal problems into public issues. d. scientific research into common sense.
5. _____ is a way of understanding the world based on science. a. Theology b. Positivism c. Metaphysics d. Free will
1. The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as: a. high culture. b. material culture. c. norms. d. nonmaterial culture. 2. The term _____ refers to a shared way of life, and the term ____ refers to a political entity. a. culture; society b. country; nation c. nation; culture d. culture; nation
3. Sociologists define a symbol as: a. anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture. b. any material cultural trait. c. any gesture that conveys insult to others. d. social patterns that cause culture shock.
4. __________ are rules about everyday, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance. a. Mores; folkways b. Folkways; mores c. Proscriptive norms; prescriptive norms d. Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
5. The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouses is an example of _____ culture, while the fact that most adults say they support the idea of sexual fidelity is an example of _____ culture. a. high; low b. low; high c. ideal; real d. real; ideal
Refresher on Lecture 3. Sociological Investigation Marks:
1. Sociologists use the term “empirical evidence” to refer to: a. information that is based on a society’s traditions. b. information that squares with common sense. c. information we can verify with our senses. d. information that most people agree is true.
2. Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as: a. a theory. b. a hypothesis. c. a variable. d. an axiom.
3. In the process of measurement, reliability refers to: a. whether you are really measuring what you want to measure. b. how dependable the researcher is. c. whether or not everyone agrees with the study’s results. d. whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results.
4. An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called: a. a spurious correlation. . an unproven correlation. c. an unreliable correlation. d. an invalid correlation.
5. The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher: a. must not care personally about the topic being studied. b. must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research. c. must study issues that have no value to society as a whole. d. must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change.
1. What concept refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture? a. socialization b. personality c. human nature d. ehaviorism
2. In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that: a. nature is far more important than nurture. b. nurture is far more important than nature. c. nature and nurture have equal importance. d. neither nature nor nurture creates the essence of our humanity.
3. Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of: a. superego. b. ego. c. id. d. generalized other.
4. According to G. H. Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as: a. role models. b. looking-glass models. c. ignificant others. d. the generalized other.
5. When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in: a. group conformity. b. future directedness. c. anticipatory socialization. d. group rejection.
Refresher: Lecture on social interactions in everyday life
1. At a given time you occupy a number of statuses. These statuses make up your: a. master status. b. role set. c. achieved statuses. d. status set.
2. What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life? a. passive role b. master status c. ascribed status . achieved status
3. Julie is a police officer who finds that, wherever she goes in her small town, people seem to think of her as a cop. Julie is experiencing the effects of which of the following? a. role exit b. master status c. ascribed status d. status conflict
4. Shawna is an excellent artist but, as a mother, finds she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing: a. role conflict. b. role strain. c. role ambiguity. d. role exit.
5. The Thomas theorem states that: a. a role is as a role does. b. people rise to their level of incompetence. c. situations defined as real are real in their consequences. . people know the world only through their language.
Refresher: Lecture on Deviance
1. “Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime: a. is always more serious. b. is usually less serious. c. refers to a violation of norms enacted into law. d. involves a larger share of the population.
2. Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ______. a. neighborhood watch b. self control c. social control d. the legal system
3. The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because: a. very few people experience an “unsuccessful socialization. ” b. here has been very little research of this kind. c. there is no way to distinguish “normal” from “abnormal” people. d. most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.
4. Using the terms of Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following terms would correctly describe a gangster like Al Capone who made a lot of money breaking the law? a. innovator b. ritualist c. retreatist d. rebel
5. Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory links deviance to: a. how others respond to the behavior in question. b. the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage conventional behavior. . how well a person can contain deviant impulses. d. how others respond to the race, ethnicity, gender, and class of the individual.
Refresher: Lecture on Groups and Social Organizations
1. the McDonald's organization explains: a. that “fast food” is really not served very efficiently. b. that the McDonald’s idea never caught on abroad. c. why so many small businesses do not succeed. d. that the guiding principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our social life.
2. Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as: a. an instrumental group. . an expressive group. c. a primary group. d. a secondary group.
3. A secondary group is a social group that: a. we experience late in life. b. is impersonal and engages in some specific activity. c. engages in many, very important activities. d. is generally much smaller than a primary group.
4. What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks? a. democratic leadership b. authoritarian leadership c. expressive leadership d. instrumental leadership
5. Which type of social group commands a member's esteem and loyalty? a. an in-group b. an out-group c. a reference group d. social network
Refresher: Lecture on Race and Ethnicity
1. Which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage? a. race b. minority c. ethnicity d. stereotype
2. Conflict theory states that prejudice is: a. used by powerful people to justify oppressing others. b. built in to culture itself. c. common among immigrants. d. common among certain people with rigid personalities.
3. In the United States, minorities typically have less: a. income. b. occupational prestige. c. schooling. d. All of the above are correct.
4. You would be expressing a "stereotype" if you: a. ade any generalization about people. b. stated an exaggerated description and applied it to everyone in some category. c. held an opinion about someone based on personal experience. d. treated everybody in an unkind way.
5. Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by: a. culture beliefs. b. high levels of immigration. c. frustration among disadvantaged people. d. people with rigid personalities.
Refresher: Lecture on Social Stratification
1. Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratification: a. gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others. . places everyone at birth on a level playing field. c. ensures that hard work will lead people to become wealthy. d. means that what people get out of life is pretty much what they put into it.
2. Read the four statements below. Which one of these statements about stratification is NOT true? a. Social stratification is a trait of society. b. Social stratification is universal and also variable. c. A family’s social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation. d. Social stratification is a matter of inequality and also beliefs about why people should be unequal.
3. What concept describes a person who moves from one occupation to another that provides about the same level of rewards? a. upward social mobility b. downward social mobility c. horizontal social mobility d. This is not social mobility at all.
4. A caste system is defined as: a. social stratification based on ascription or birth. b. social stratification based on personal achievement. c. a meritocracy. d. any social system in which categories of people are unequal.
5. The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification: a. with no social mobility. b. in which people “know their place. ” c. based entirely on personal merit.
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