Sociology 20

Collective behavior
Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of ppl and typically violates dominant-group norms and values
Social change
The alternation, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time
Collectivity
A number of people who act together and may mutually transcend, bypass, or subvert est. institutional patterns and structures
Major factors that contribute to the likelihood that collective behavior will occur?
Structural factors that increase the chances of ppl responding in a certain way
Timing
A breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness
Crowd
A relatively large number of ppl who are in one another’s immediate vicinity
Mass
A number of ppl who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who aren’t in one another’s immediate vicinity
Mob
A highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target-a person, a category of people, or physical property
Riot
Violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deepseated emotions but is not directed at one specific target
Panic
A form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior
Protest crowds
Engage in activities intended to achieve specific political goals
Civil disobedience
Nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it
Contagion theory
Focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior
Attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others
Convergence Theory
Focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many ppl may bring to crowd behavior
Emergent norm theory
Emphasizes the importance of soical norms in shaping crowd behavior
Mass behavior
collective behavior that takes place when ppl respond to the same event in much the same way
Rumor
Unsubstantiated report on an issue or subject
Gossip
Rumors about the personal lives of others
Mass hysteria
A form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of ppl react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat
Fad
Temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people
Fashion
Defined as a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance
Public opinion
The attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
Propaganda
Info provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one
Social movement
An organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action
What are the different types of social movements?
Reform
Revolutionary
Religious
Alternative
Resistance
Reform movements
Seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure
usu. work within the existing system to attempt to change existing public policy
Revolutionary movements
Seeking to bring about a total change in society
Aim to remake the system by replacing existing institutions with new ones
Religious movements
Concerned with renovating or renewing ppl through ‘inner change’
Millenarian
Forecast that ‘the end is near’ and assert that an immediate change in behavior is imperative
Alternative movements
Movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people’s behavior
Resistance movements
Seek to prevent change or to undo change that has alread yoccured
Stages of social movements
Preliminary stage
Coalescence stage
Institutionalization
Preliminary stage
Widespread unrest is present as ppl become aware of the problem
Coalescence stage
People begin to organize and to publicize the problem
Institutionalization stage
Organizational structure develops and a paid staff begins to lead the group
Relative deprivation theory
Ppl who are discontent when they compare their achievements with those of others consider themselves relatively deprived and join social movements in order to get what they view as their ‘fair share’, esp. when there is an upswing in the economy followed by a decline
According to the value-added theory, what 6 conditions are necessary to produce social movements?
Structural conduciveness (ppl must become aware of a certain problem and have the opportunity to engage in collective action)
Structural strain (when a society is unable to meet expectations that something should be done about a problem, strain occurs)
Spread of a generalized belief
Precipitating factors (inciting incident or dramatic event must occur)
Mobilization for action
Social control factors
Resource mobilization theory
A variety of resources are necessary for a social movement
Ppl participate only when they feel the movement has access to these resources
Social constructionist theory
Based on the assumption that social movements are an interactive, symbolically defined, and negotiated process involving participants, opponents, and bystanders, frame analysis is used to determine how ppl assign meaning to activities and processes in social movements
Political opportunity theory
Ppl will choose the options for collective action that are most readily available to them and those options that will produce the most favorable outcome for their cause
New social movement theory
The focus is on sources of social movements, including politics, ideology, and culture
Race, class, gender, sexuality, and other sources of identity are also factors in movements such as ecofeminism and environmental justice
Environmental racism
The belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by ppl of color
What are the social movement theories?
Relative deprivation theory
Value-added theory
Resource mobilization theory
Social constructionist theory
Political opportunity theory
New Social movement theory
Collective behavior
Extraordinary activities carried out by groups of ppl
Lynchings, rumors, panics, urban legends, fads and fashions
Collective mind
The tendency of ppl in a crowd to feel, think, and act in extraordinary ways
The acting crowd
An excited group that moves toward a goal ranging from lynching to food fights
(Blumer)
What are the characteristics of the acting crowd?
Tension or unrest
Exciting event
Milling
Common object of attention
Common impulses
Expressive crowds
Provide for expression of strong emotion
Acting crowds
Intensely focused on a specific purpose or object and may erupt into violent or destructive behavior such as mobs, riots, or panics
Casual crowds
Large groups of ppl that happen to be in the same place at the same time and interact only briefly if at all
Conventional crowd
A group of ppl who come together for a scheduled event with a common focus
What are the theories of crowd behavior?
Contagion theory
Social unrest/circular reaction
Convergence theory
Emergent norm theory
Public opinions
Attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
urban legends
Rumors that recount ironic and/or grisly events that happened to some anonymous person or group
What are the types of fads?
Object fads (hula hoops, Rubiks cubes, Pokemon cards)
Idea fads (astrology, feng shui, UFO)
Activity fads (body piercing, bungee jumping, tattoo, disco)
Personality fads (Elvis, Princess Di, Michael Jordan, Britney Spears)
Social movements and examples
Reform–MADD, Green
Revolutionary–Terrorists, separatists
Religious-Great Awakening
Alternative-Vegetarianism
Resistance-pro-life, anti-tax
What are the stages and transformations of social movements?
Agitation-overcome obstacles
Legitimization (revolution vs. reform)–ideological interpretations of history & respectability and cooperation
Bureaucratization–routinization of charisma & goal displacement
Reemergence of the movement
Propaganda
Partisan info in a campaign to persuade ppl to a point of view
Used by commercial interests, politics, religious groups, etc
usu. 1-sided, emo. & aimed at a certain goal
Get ppl’s attention
Clarity through repitition
Cultural lag
A gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions
Discovery
The process of learning about something previously unknown or undiscovered