Sociology 110 Mid-Term

Imagine filling in a survey questionnaire that asks you to report your achieved status(es). What would be an appropriate answer?
Your occupation
A group that consists of two people is known as a?
Dyad
A secondary group is an impersonal collection of individuals that is established to?
Perform a specific task
An unintended, unrecognized consequence of an activity that helps some part of the social system is a?
Latent function
These are the rights, privileges, and obligations associated with a particular position.
A Role
A population whose members live in a specific geographical location, share common culture and identity, and are subject to the same political authority is referred to as a?
Society
T/F: When we have little personal knowledge about someone, communication is only possible by following general rules or guidelines.
True
The unemployment rate in several mill and factory towns in this country is around 37%. Which explanation for high unemployment does the sociological imagination direct us to focus on?
Changes in the economic structure of society
In American society, the high value placed on _________ makes it more difficult for us to see social influences on our behavior.
Individualism
When looking at religion as an influence, sociologists find that the highest rates of suicide occur:
Where there is very high and low integration.
According to the “sociological perspective,”
Our social environment strongly influences our behavior
Durkheim concluded that different suicide rates are related to variations in social…
Ties
Which of the following events can be seen as products of society-wide forces, rather than individual problems?
Divorce, Unemployment, and Homelessness
In 1999, Japan saw its unemployment rate rise to record levels. In the same year, suicides among men in their 20s increased ____________% percent.
40%
When the stock market crashed in 1929, some businessmen reacted to this event by leaping from their office windows to their deaths. This is an example of:
anomic suicide
The My Lai massacre was considered a(n):
Crime of Obedience
What defines the “quality of mind” that Mills refers to as the “sociological imagination”?
The ability to understand the relationship between the individual, history, and society.
All of the following information is included in the U.S. census except:
religion
What we know to be true and real is most often always a product of:
1. The culture in which we exist
2. The historical period in which we exist
3. Our values and norms
People’s belief that a drug or treatment will improve their condition often actually causes their condition to improve. This phenomenon is called the _______ effect.
Placebo
By acting on the basis of our definitions of reality, we often create the very conditions we believe exist. This is known as:
self-fulfilling prophecy
Sociologists who study how we know what is real and what is not, believe that reality:
Is influenced by culture and social institutions
T/F: Phenomena are difficult to count.
True
A researcher studies how media representations of Arabs have changed since 9/11. What research technique is she using?
Content Analysis
Research that uses nonnumeric information such as phrases, symbols, and observations to describe people, actions, or events in social life is ________ research.
Qualitative
A measurable event, characteristic, or behavior commonly thought to reflect a particular concept is known as a(n):
Indicator
Sociological Theories:
focus on how things are, and not on how they ought to be.
These constrain how we act on elevators (e.g., we don’t look at each other; we avoid touching each other).
Folkways
These are punishments that follow from violating norms.
Sanctions
______________ are individuals in whom sexual differentiation is either incomplete or ambiguous.
Intersexuals
Which of the following persons did not believe in racial equality between blacks and whites?
Abraham Lincoln, Charles Darwin, and George Washignton
Which of the following is a type of material culture?
Literature
This is a distinguishable group within a culture.
Subculture
The law that prohibits smoking in public buildings is an example of this.
Mores
When would you LEAST expect to see a person follow emotional display norms?
When she is grading papers in her office
Examples of these include getting a ticket when you run a red light and getting an F in a course for cheating.
Sanctions
The United States is the most _________ of all countries in the world.
Multicultural
It is through ______ that we learn the values and orientations of the statuses we will likely enter in the future.
Anticipatory Socialization
Linda is a physician married to Bob, an attorney. They raise their daughter Lauren to be self-directed and think independently. Marge and Harold are factory workers. They raise their son Arnold to obey orders, show up on time, and respect authority. These are two examples of:
Anticipatory Socialization
The psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness are known as:
Gender
Identity is made up of?
1. membership to social groups
2. the traits we display
3. the traits others ascribe to us
The consequences of violating gender norms are:
Harsher for boys than for girls
This occurs when we see ourselves through the actions of others toward us.
The looking-glass self
Perceiving, evaluating, motivating, and even talking to one’s self is called:
reflexive behavior
Which data collection method was not utilized by Jones in her study?
Examination of respondents’ medical records
This refers to the perspective of society and its constituent values and attitudes that is internalized by the individual.
The generalized other
According to the text, about _________% of American adults attend religious services regularly.
45%
According to the textbook, what is embarrassment?
The feeling that is experienced when one’s preferred identity is discredited in front of others
A recent graduate on a job interview tells the interviewer, “Did I mention that I was the president of the Chess Club?” This is an example of:
impression management
Research shows that most people believe physically attractive people are:
sensitive and kind
During therapy sessions, a psychiatrist appears extremely interested in everything the patients are saying and shows considerable sympathy for their problems. According to Goffman, this occurs because the psychiatrist is:
on the front stage
According to the textbook, what is impression management?
Presenting a favorable image of one’s self so that others will form positive judgments
Areas with high concentrations of low-income and minority residents often do not have large national chain grocery stores that carry a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. What they have instead are local markets, conveience stores, and fast food outlets, which tend to offer less nutritious choices and charge higher prices for the few healthy items they carry. These areas are often referred to as ______.
“food deserts”
Middle-class blacks who attempt to blur distinctions between themselves and whites by emphasizing shared experiences and areas of consensus are engaging in:
inclusionary boundary work
Which of the following is NOT one of Goffman’s three types of stigma?
Being labeled as deviant
In Niger and Nigeria, overweight women are considered to be:
beautiful and healthy
According to the dramaturgical perspective, it is important for individual performers and performance teams to be able to go back stage. Which of the following statements about back stage is untrue?
It is a place where audience members should feel welcome.
Nonmaterial culture
Knowledge, beliefs, customs, values, morals, and symbols that are shared by members if a society and that distinguish the society from others.
Mores
Highly codified, formal, systematized norms that bring severe punishment when violated.
Material Culture
Artifacts of a society that represent adaptations to the social and physical environment.
Folkway
Informal norm that is mildly punished when violated.
Counterculture
Group that actively opposes the values and behavior patterns of the dominant culture
Unobtrusive research
research technique in which the researcher, without direct contact with the subjects, examines the evidence of social behavior that people create or leave behind.
Social Construction of reality
Process through which the members of a society discover, make known, reaffirm, and alter a collective version of facts, knowledge, and “truth”.
quantitative research
Sociological research based on the collection of numeric data that uses precise statistical analysis
qualitative research
sociological research based on nonnumeric information (text, written words, phrases, symbols, observations) that describes peoples actions, or events in social life.
field research
type of social research in which the researcher observes events as they actually occurred.
experiment
research method designed to elicit some sort of behavior, typically conducted under closely controlled laboratory circumstances.
Symbolic interactionism
theoretical perspective that explains society and social structure through a examination of the micro level, personal, day-to-day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups.
Structural-functionalism
Theoretical perspective that posits that social institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society
status
any named social position that people can occupy
role
set of expectations-rights, obligations, behaviors, and duties associated with a particular status
sociology
systematic study of human societies
The sociological imagination
ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives
fatalistic suicide
type of suicide that occurs when people see no possible way to improve their oppressive circumstances
anomic suicide
type of suicide that occurs when the structure of society is weakened or disrupted and people feel hopeless and disillusioned.
altruistic suicide
type of suicide that occurs where ties to the group or community are considered more important than individual identity
egoistic suicide
type of suicide that occurs in settings where the individual is emphasized over group or community connections.
social institution
stable set of roles, statuses, groups, and organizations-such as the institutions of educations, family, politics, religion, health care, or the economy-that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life.
stigma
deeply discrediting characteristic that is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior.
sanction
social response that punishes or otherwise discourages violations of a social norm.
subculture
values, behaviors, and artifacts of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
anticipatory socialization
process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future.
resocialization
process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one.
total institution
place where individuals are cut off from the wide society for an appreciable period where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life.
account
statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrassing, or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred.
back stage
area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior.
front stage
area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions.
disclaimer
assertion designed to forestall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur.
impression management
act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgments.
Communication norms
Norms that apply to how we communicate
ex: do you use big vocabulary
Conflict theory
Sees things as a competition. Life is a competition, your success leads to despair for others
3 main sociological functions
1. structural-functionalism
2. conflict theory
3. symbolic interactionism
Gender socialization
how society determines our gender
ex: girls wear pink boys wear blue
4 Types of Suicide
Fatalistic
Altruistic
Anomic
Egoistic
The family, politics and law, religion, and health care are all examples of this.
Institution
Examples of this are teacher, mayor, and spouse. Male and senior citizen are not.
Achieved Status
A standard of judgment by which people in a given society decide on desirable goals is:
a value
What is an example of an achieved status?
actress
This contains both “social statics” and “social dynamics.”
Society
The Williams Family is an example of a?
Primary Group
The lifestyles of people in different societies are becoming more similar over time because of:
globalization
A researcher designs an experiment in which a scientist in a lab coat will tell subjects that they must perform a series of uncomfortable and tiring tasks. Based on your knowledge of Milgram’s shock experiments, what outcome would you predict?
Most subjects will comply
Situations in which people lack the necessary resources to fulfill the demands of a particular role provide examples of:
role strain
A variable that is caused by or influenced by another variable is called a(n):
dependent variable
Sociological research is _________ because it is able to claim only that, under certain conditions, X is likely to cause Y in most people.
Probablistic
Research samples that are not representative of the population are problematic in that:
1. They can lead to inaccurate and misleading conclusions
2. They will not capture the variation that exists in the population.
3. Findings cannot be generalized to the larger population.
__________ research, sociologists observe events as they actually occur.
Field
Social control theory, which predicts that delinquent acts occur when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken, was developed by:
Travis Hirschi
In this mode, researchers may participate in groups with the people they are observing.
Field
In 1983, 50 companies controlled over half of all U.S. media outlets. By 2000, over half of the media outlets in the United States were controlled by __________ companies.
6
Which of the following is a euphemism?
A badly behaved child is “challenging”
A researcher studies wills and estate property lists from the American colonies to assess the extent of gun ownership. What research technique is she using?
Historical Analysis
In _____, the society’s well-being is gauged not only by economic indicators, but also by the happiness of its people.
Bhutan
In France, doctors are more likely to prescribe ______________ to bolster the body than antibiotics to fight germs.
Vitamins
What is the sociological point of Miner’s article?
Bathing and excretory acts take place in the privacy of the household shrine.
In American society, picking one’s own nose is a _________ violation, but punching someone else’s nose is a ________ violation.
Folkway; mores
Sound sociological research helps us:
Understand different points of view
A Chinese immigrant in New York murdered his wife after she admitted to having an affair with another man. He was convicted of a lesser charge, instead of murder. In Chinese culture, a wife’s adultery reflects poorly on the husband, his ancestors, and future generations of his family. The judge in this case based his decision on:
The Values of Chinese Culture
In the United States, about __________% of sexually ambiguous newborns who are “assigned” a sex and undergo surgery become female.
90%
Which of the following is a type of norm that is usually regulated and negatively sanctioned by society if broken?
Mores
In contemporary industrial societies, the most powerful institutional agent of socialization, after the family, is:
education
In which sort of institution are previous identities shed and new, uniform identities acquired?
Total institution
While working on a sociology paper, Joan typed this note to herself: “Joan, you’re wasting time. This paper is due tomorrow! Get back to work!” This is an example of:
Reflexive behavior
The gender socialization process begins:
The moment a child is born
All of the following outcomes resulted from Mr. & Mrs. Smith’s decision to pay Teresa’s school tuition except:
Teresa could take French
Which of the following is an example of paternalism?
Mr. and Mrs. Smith paying for Teresa’s tuition instead of paying Carmen’s salary
The ___________ step in the acquisition of self is learning to distinguish our own faces and bodies from the rest of the physical environment.
first
Of the 1,600 religions and denominations in the United States today, _________ were founded after 1965.
half
What is the usual cause of a “spoiled identity”?
An attempt at impression management failed
Which of the following is an example of “collective” impression management?
The royal family of England appears at a state funeral.
According to Ubel’s study of “elevator talk” among hospital staff, a comment such as “I can’t wait to get out of here and into private practice” would be an example of:
Unprofessional remarks and motivations
Language, mannerisms, and clothing are examples of:
cultural capital
After waiting on a rude customer, Dina complains to another server in the dining room. The manager overhears this, and warns Dina not to do it again. What was Dina’s offense?
Back stage behavior on the front stage
A person whose body weight is greater than that acceptable according to cultural standards will most likely be:
evaluated negatively by others
According to the textbook, what is a disclaimer?
A statement designed to explain embarrassing or unacceptable behavior before the behavior has occurred
According to Ubel’s study of “elevator talk” among hospital staff, a comment such as “I just don’t think Doctor Blue is very qualified” would be an example of:
comments raising questions about quality of patient care
According to Goffman, everyday life is a series of social interactions in which people are motivated to:
“sell” a preferred identity to others
At home, a psychiatrist complains to his family that listening to his patients talking about their problems is boring. According to Goffman, this occurs because the psychiatrist is:
backstage
latent
unintended functions
manifest
intended functions
Macrolevel
A society influences its members
Microlevel
Each individual has a role in forming a society
self
the unique set of traits, behaviors, and attributes that distinguishes one person from another
passive
how others see you
active
how you behave and act

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