Sociology 1010

Define Social Stratification
The hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources is referred to as
In a/n _____ stratification system, a person’s ability to change social positions is limited and often based on gender or race.
Closed
In open stratification systems, social classes are based on _____ statuses.
Achieved
In the U.S., the top one percent of U.S. households has _____ of all wealth and _____ of all income.
43%; 35%
While the U.S. economy has expanded since the late 1960s, income inequality has
Increased
Which social class the following description illustrates: Some individuals in this social class flaunt their money and spend it on lavish goods and services to enhance their prestige.
Lower-Upper Class
Compared to thirty-five years ago, the number of people living in poverty has
Increased
The Johnson family cannot afford to buy food for their children. The Johnson family is living in
Absolute Poverty
The _____ view contends that the poor are “deficient” –that they share some problems, values, attitudes, and beliefs about life which are different from those who are not poor.
Culture of Poverty
Define Social Mobility
A person’s movement up or down the class hierarchy.
Stratification is both necessary and inevitable. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?
Functionalism
Stratification is dysfunctional because it harms society and individuals. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?
Conflict Theory
Karl Marx argued that capitalism benefits the rich and that society would ultimately be reduced to just two classes: _____ and _____.
bourgeoisie; proletariat
According to _____, low-income societies are poor because of “traditional” attitudes about technology and institutions.
Modernization Theory
High-income countries have greater access to _____ than low-income countries.
education, safe water, income
, and health services
Biological characteristics (anatomy, hormones, etc) determine one’s
Sex
Define Gender
Learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize women and men.
What is Sexism?
Attitudes or behaviors that discriminates against one sex based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
If American women were free to choose, _____ would prefer to be employed rather than stay home to take care of their house and family.
50%
On average, women earn approximately _____ for every dollar men earn.
$0.77
Women’s jobs tend to be “feminine” and require
care-giving.
serving others.
working with people.
What reasons commonly used to explain the gender pay gap?
women choose fields with lower earnings
the glass ceiling
women are more likely to work part-time
Define Sexual Harassment
Any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work.
Define Sexual Orientation
The preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or of either sex
A division of gender roles helps society function smoothly. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?
Functionalist
Gender inequality is built into the social structure, in and out of the home. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?
Conflict
Sexuality is linked to gender inequality and the control of women’s sexual behavior by men. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?
Feminist
Social constructionist theories contend that
sexual behavior is largely the result of social pressure and culture.
Gender discrimination often goes unnoticed because
beliefs about male superiority are internalized.
Define Sexual Identity
our awareness of ourselves as male or female and the ways we express our sexual values, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs.
This chapter opens with a brief description of a study in which the researchers submitted 5,000 fake résumés to potential employers. The résumés with names that sounded white received _____ callbacks for interviews than those with names that sounded African American.
50% More
About _____ of the human body’s 35,000 genes determine the color of a person’s skin.
6
A/n _____ is any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power.
Dominant Group
For social scientists, race is a(n)
Social Construct
Define Race
a group of people who share physical characteristics that are passed on through reproduction.
Define Ethnicity
Language, geographic roots, traditions, and religion that factor into a person.
_____ refers to the advantages that people enjoy because of their race.
“White Privilege”
Define Minority Group
a group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics
Define Genocide
Systematic attempts to destroy members of particular minority group
_____ segregation, or legal segregation, has been declared unconstitutional, but _____ segregation has replaced this form of segregation in the United States.
De jure; de facto
_____ is/are a set of beliefs which claim that one’s own racial group is “naturally” superior to other groups.
Racism
_____ is a positive or negative attitude toward people because of their group membership.
Prejudice
_____ is an action that treats people unequally or unfairly because of their group membership.
Discrimination
While on vacation, Jose went to a local restaurant for lunch. Before he sat down, the owner came out from behind the counter and told Jose to leave the restaurant because his “kind aren’t welcome.” This is an example of
individual discrimination.
Natalie is a prejudiced person who actively discriminates against other groups. According to Merton, Natalie is a/n
Active Bigot
Racial hierarchies are supported and perpetuated through economic inequality. This statement represents the views of
Conflict Theorists
Prejudice and discrimination are learned, and can therefore be unlearned. This statement best illustrates which of the following theoretical perspectives?
Symbolic Interactionism
_____ are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States.
Latinos
True or False- African Americans are the only group to have been brought to the United States involuntarily.
True
In 2010, nearly _____ of all married couples were interracial couples.
8%