Sociology 101 Ch 1

Sociology
The scientific study of human social relations, groups, and societies
Social embeddedness
The idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior are fundamentally shaped by social relations.
Sociological imagination
The ability to grasp the relationship between our individual lives and the larger social forces that help to shape them.
Agency
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make changes on a small or large scale
Structure
Patterned social arrangements that have an effect on agency
Critical thinking
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence
Norms
accepted social behaviors and beliefs
Anomie
A social condition of normlessness; a state of normative uncertainty that occurs when people lose touch with the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives
Social statics
The way society is held together
Social dynamics
The laws that govern social change
Positivist
Science that is based on facts alone
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
A French social theorist. (Founder of modern sociology) associating it with the scientific study of social relationships
Objective
Unbias
C. Wright Mills
Idea that the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them
Harriet Martineau
Had to work under a male pseudonym. Used social observation to record and analyze American society. (focus on gender discrimination and slavery)
Max Weber
Argued for subjective understanding. Understanding things from other points of view. “Tradition- is not always reasonable”
Karl Marx
“The greatest social scientist” Studied capitalism, class conflict (over resources) and alienation
Emile Durkheim
“Greatest sociologist” Analyzed social order, social solidarity, division of labor and social integration.
W.E.B. Du Bios
Used community studies as the basis for sociological work. African Americans experience double-consciousness.
Social Facts
Qualities of groups that are external to individual members yet constrain their thinking and behavior
Social solidarity
the bonds that unite the members of a social group
Collective conscience
Encompasses the common beliefs and values that bind a society together.
Class conflict
The product of competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth and power in society
Proletariat
The working class; wage workers
Bourgeoisie
The capitalist (property- owning) class
Means of production
The sites and technology that produce the goods we need and use
Formal rationality
A characteristic of modern societies which means that people’s pursuit of goals is shaped by rules, regulations and larger social structures.
Bureaucracies
Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency.
Double Consciousness
An awareness of oneself both as American and as Black, never free of racial stigma.
Jane Addams
Social reformer. Worked to address social problems. “Don’t just write about it, do something!” worked with the Homeless Holl House
Macro-level paradigm
Theories of the social world that are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions
Micro-level paradigm
Models or images of the world that are concerned with social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations
Structural functionalism
A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the roles preformed by different social structures and institutions.
Manifest functions
Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are obvious and intended
Latent functions
Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are not recognized or expected
Social conflict Paradigm
A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the conflict that is built into social relations.
Symbolic interactionism
Both the individual self and society as a whole are the result of social interactions based on language and other symbols
Power
The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others
Globalization
The process by which people all around the planet become increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.