Social Studies 6.1, 6.2,6.3

The new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems was the…
-intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Enlightenment
The willingness of people to hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order in society was called the
social contract
The English philosopher who believed that all people are born free and equal, with the rights to life, liberty and property was
-he proposed that a gov. power comes from the consent of the citizens and that the citizens have the right to rebel againt unjust rulers “ALL MEN ARE CREATED FREE AND EQUAL”
john locke
the group of social critics in Enlightenment France were called
philosophes
Brilliant French satirist who frequently targeted the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government was
-promoted freedom of speech
“I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it”
Voltaire
An influential French writer who wrote that “Power should be a check to power” was
-French writer who proposed the ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in gov’t
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosophe Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that the best form of government would be a
direct democracy
Women’s contributions to the Enlightenment included all of the following except
running for office
Explain the differences between the geocentric theory of the universe and the heliocentric theory.
heliocentric- earth moved around sun
Geocentric-sun traveled around the earth
What are two factors that contributed to the rise of a Scientific Revolution in Europe in the mid-1500s?
-Exploration, Protestant reformation–encouraged more questions
-Printing Press–speeding of ideas
How did Galileo’s work come into conflict with the Church, and how was the conflict resolved?
he was challenging the legal authority of the church. They forced him to recant his theory and he then lived under house arrest for the rest of his life, til death
List three new scientific instruments that were invented as a result of the Scientific Revolution?
Printing press, telescope, microscope, barometer, thermometer
Geocentric theory
Aristotle’s earth-centered theory of the universe
Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Heliocentric theory
Copernicus’s sun-centered theory on the universe
Italian scientist whose findings in the field of astronomy supported Copernicus’s theory
-father of modern science
Galileo Galilei
A logical procedure for gathering and testing scientific ideas
scientific method
English scientist who explained the law of gravity “apple tree”
Isaac Newton
Russian empress who was considered and enlightened despot
Catherine the Great
Early proponent of women’s rights
Mary Wollstonecraft
Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the grand, ornate style in European art known as baroque gave way to a simple, elegant style that was based on classical Greek and Roman ideas and was called
Neoclassical
Thomas Hobbes called the agreement by which people create a government the
social contract
special section of the church to find heretics and put them on trial
Inquisition
heretics
people teaching ideas against official church teachings
jesuits
a group of priests, well-educated
“Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains”, social contract, philosophe
Jean-Jacques Roussea
What is another name for the Enlightenment? When did it occur?
“age of reason” mid 1600s-1700s
Enlightenment ideas inspired revolutions in what two countries?
France and America
What two men are considered fathers of the Enlightenment?
Rene Descartes and Voltaire
According to Locke, where do governments get their power.
The people =life liberty and property
Voltaire wanted to protest freedom of
speech
Montesquieu wanted to keep balence in gov’t by separating power into three branches
Legislative, Executive, Judicial
What did most philosophers want to keep separate from gov’t?
Religion
What do deists believe?
God doesn’t intervene with out life. He put us on this earth and left us alone to do our own thing
How did the Enlightenment influence life in America?
Our countries government is based on our philosophers ideas. People give up some freedom and power and in return, They get a written set of laws, security and services.