Social Stratification Exam 1

Hegemony
nation has sufficient power and influence to impose rules and goals globally in the economic, political and military diplomatic and even cultural realms
Social Reproduction
emphasis on structure/activity that transmits to social inequality from one generation to the next.
“Rich get richer and poor get more poor”
end up in the class parents are in
Habitas
Set of attitudes behavior and experiences maintained by the people sharing a distinct social world.
Serves as a connector with inner consciousness and imitations
Members may contain cultural standards of class
Views of Historian Tony Judt- Social Inequality
affluence of a country has LESS impact on citizens than social inequality
low affluence (wealth)= more stress
hardening prejudice of those lower on the ladder
American Ideology and the US society Social Strat System
emphasis of centrality of individual achievement equal opportunity and the importance of hard work, receives politicians business leaders and media spokespeople, ect. but the actual working producing social inequalities and social strat tend to remain unexplained
Forms of Capital:
Financial: monetary/wages/salary- purchasable items… computers books/tuition

Cultural: knowledgable skills and behaviors passed down generation

Human: Skills knowledge expertise (schooling, job training ) formal/ informal carpenter

Social: social networking, individual network groups assist participants in pursuing valued objects

Enterprise System (ES) & Walmart
core technologies uses sophisticated computer hardware/software to standardize and monitor the full production of tasks companies preform
Tag sensors smart chips to locate products through production and distribution
ex/ sent package to wrong place
big success- lots of productivity
Talcott Parsons ” The social movement”
leading voice stable society-functioning society
integrated structure of action elements brought together in a certain kind of ordered system
emphasized that the system he desired was stable in equilibrium
Structural Functional Theory
perspective suggesting that groups in interaction tend to adjust to one another in a fairly stable conflict free way
DAVIS MOORE thesis of social interaction
inevitable and necessary
some positions require special ability or training individuals qualified to do their jobs are in short supply
MELVIN TUMIN CRITIQUE of davis moore
individuals in well paid positions are compensated for talent and training
1. well paid people not always more valuable than less affluent
2. instead of job payment linked to an contribution ex/ athletes
3. overstated the sacrifice factors and other preparing for high status jobs (parents pay for school)
Conflict Theory
struggle for wealth and power and prestige-central concern for society
helps analyze topics-social inequality strat income ect.
Mode of Production
dominant influence on society structure
nations organized system for develop good service, feudalism, capital, socialism
Substructure
material condition of production such as gathering hunting agriculture or industrial development
determines superstrucutre
Superstructure
capital class interested in this
mode of production that is structured and activities
non economic: health, family, education
Marxist Capital Class System
means of production: factory farm business where goods and services developed

bourgeoisie: class with ownership of various means of production

proletariat: workers who do not own the means of production labor for wages because have no other source of income

Surplus value: difference between a product economic worth workers payment provides bourgeoisie with expanding profit and the proletariat with a steady decline of living

False Consciousness
due to bourgeoisie ideology-control

proletariat inability to perceive that the established economic and political forces inevitably make them exploited

Petite Bourgeoisie
small business class whose members never accumulate enough profit to expand their holding and to challenge bourgeoisie supremacy
Lumpenproletariat
portion of working class of societies dregs/swindlers/brother keepers beggars re disengaged from revolutionary struggles
Conspicuous Consumption
Lavish expenditure of high priced items goods service in order to flaunt wealth
waste of time essentially
Webers Theory(class, status, party)
class-set of individuals with similar chances for getting wealth.income in business world

CLASS- production goods
STATUS- distinctive live style

status: estimation of persons honor or prestige

party-live in a house of power, represent interest of class or power but often both not only political groups but consumer business foundations

Webers Types of Authority
bureaucratic- administers tasks controlling (China, Japan, India)-laws, rules hierarchy, written record

Traditional: patriarchal , dominant individual : husband, father, master, Lord, maintaining legitimacy based on belief
son-king

Charismatic- pursues a mission driven by power sense of divine purpose and draws followers who are committed to that mission

Erik Wrights Perspectives on Class
agreed means of production should be a factor in determining class placement but said other traits

control over ownership-expansion/invest/profit

control production process-development strategy production- increase or decrease production

control over employees- range of supervision

skill level-abilities through training contribution to origin of skill level

C Wright Mills and Power Elite
power elite: high status people control the process to determine society
political leadership: since ww2
military: defense spending strong supports
corporate elite: 1950s leaders working with prominent military off who dominate politics
Immanuel Wallersteins Modern World System
capitalist global economy which contains multiple states and a single domain international division of labor

CORE: successful industrial nation both political and economical high standard of living ( west euro, japan, Australia, new zealand, us

SEMI PERIPHERAL- independent state moderate level of industrial asia south korea, hong kong, Malaysia

PERIPHERAL- poorest/ least powerful least industrial (Africa, asia, latin america)

Multinationals
large corporation which both produces and sells goods or service in various countries attained
massive wealth and power
Areas of Expansion as the World Systems Developed
agriculture, industry, commerce, finance
formation of ideology
growth of military
5 Class form Core Nations
capitalist- control nations multinational disproportionate share of wealth

professional management- well educated, advance degree, well paid

lower middle class: small business owner, clerk sales people ,sufficient school, modest savings

working class-skilled unskilled limited education, carpenter ect

Poor- least school, few jobs unemployment

Agricultural Disruption and the Irish Potato Famine
blight cause of potato famine-1845-52
drove over a million irish citizens to migrate to US
exported products particularly livestock continued to be shipped to England under guard during famine
multinationals invest agriculture in less developed areas to maximize profits-
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Impact on nationals social inequality
additional conditions influencing a given nation social inequality include- technology education, sectional shift

technology-growth advanced skills
education-increased to provide better acess to higher skilled better pay positions
sectional share employment- shift in work impact many peoples income.. industrial goes up … income goes up
governmental concern for public- ability to provide welfare

International Case Study-semi peripheral CHINA, LATIN A, INDIA
CHINA: world trade markets grown,
big in walmart
work closely provide droms where factory workers live. long hours low pay because dependent on factory … hegemonic deposition

LATIN A: formation of upper class more powerful than other places
enriched economically politically sharp racial difference to establish class distinctions
failed many states to address citizens needs
produce low cost clothing-work more than 30 days need to register for medical… however many people were unqualified because were not trained

INDIA: diverse working condition overall pwoer… 1/2 are farm owners and laborers

Discipline of Workers Rebok Swetshop INDIA
subminimum wages
mistake: punishments: beatings painful confinement in sun

ex: pregnant woman suffered latter punishment

union was created imposed to be less fearful

illegally closed down 2000 out of work

Negative Conditions in Sweatshops
1. unstable employment
2. Exposure to difficult dangerous conditions
3. Sexism/Racism
4. Captive, Child Labor
5. Ineffective Monitoring-cheap prices
Conditions leading to Squatter Community
1. growing inequality
2. Surplus population-unemployment jobs/poor pay exploited
3. Retirement of the welfare state-less support for poor people
4. Stigmatization- promotion of isolation and diminished to break out
Squatters
settle on land that doesn’t belong to them
205 billion n plant
tend to be poor, but not always
vary income work aspirations and class
Social Inequality and Access to Wealth income jobs and education
individuals families and members of places like neighborhoods differ in resources wealth, income, education health jobs
sometimes inequality can change ex/ working class pay boosts
Social Stratification
hierarchy providing different groups varied rewards resources and privileges and establishing structures and relationships that determine and legitimate outcomes
G Wiliam Dormhoff Interlocking directories
formal connection between two major corporations which develops when an officer from one company serves on the board of directors of another
shared invest-benefit these companies
Thomas Dye “multiple of the institutional elite”
core of the elite called innner circle are Dyes multiple interlockers

because of presence on at least two boards….. small percentage of the institutional elite has greater range of communication and a wider scope of influence than their peers on just one board

well placed to link corporate world with politicians foundations ect.. white males mainly

3 countries have single handily dominated world
Holland
Great Britain
US
Four Key Areas development of world systems
economic growth
ideology
strong military
restrict previous world system
Globalization/Global Economy
grown system to 1/2/3 world countries
more of a global village
with increase tech advancement and transportation
we have become stratified through globalization-force 3rd world countries to sell crops