Social Psychology: Group processes

group cohesiveness
the extent to which forces push group members close together, such as through feelings of intimacy, unity and commitment to group goals.
social facilitation
the process in which the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
mere presence theory
the proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation.
evaluation apprehension theory
a theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
distraction-conflict theory
a theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
social loafing
a group-produced reduction in individual output on tasks where contributions are pooled.
collective effort model
the theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
the loss of a person’s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behaviour.
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE)
a model group behaviour that explains deindividuation effects as the result of a shift from personal identity to social identity.
process loss
the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
process gain
the increase of group performance so that the group outperforms the individuals who comprise the group.
group polarization
the exaggeration of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members through group discussion.
group decision making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
escalation effect
the condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
biased sampling
the tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information than unshared information.
group support systems
specialized interactive computer programs that are used to guide group meetings, collaborative work, and decision making processes.
social dilemma
a situation in which a self=interested choice by everyone will create the worst outcome for everyone.
prisoner’s dilemma
one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one’s self-interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than if they had both cooperated.
resource dilemmas
social dilemmas involving how two or more people will share a limited resource
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)
a strategy for unilateral persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties
integrative agreement
a negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of contested resources.