Social Psychology Exam 1 (Ch 5)

Self-Concept
The content of the self; that is , our knowledge about who we are
Self-Awareness
The act of thinking about ourselves
Independent View of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
Interdependent View of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one’s relationship to other people; recognizing that one’s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
Introspection
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
Self-Aweareness Theory
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
Causal Theoris
Theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (absence makes the heart grow fonder)
Reasons-Generated Attitude Change
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reason s that are plausible and easy to verbalize
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
Intrinsic Motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
Extrinsic Motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task for find it interesting
Overjustification Effect
The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons.
Task-Contingent Rewards
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Performance-Contingent Rewards
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it.
Misattribution of Arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
Appraisal Theories of Emotion
Theories holding that emotions result from people’s interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
Fixed Mindset
The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change
Growth Mindset
The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
Social Comparison Theory
The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
Downward Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
Upward Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
Social Tuning
The process whereby people adopt another person’s attitudes
Impression Management
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
Ingratiation
The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likeable to another person, often of higher status
Self-Handicapping
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
Self-Knowledge
How do we define who we are? There are a number of cultural and social influences on self-knowledge
Cultural Differences in Defining the Self
People who grow up in Western cultures tend to have an indemendent view of the self, whereas people who grow up in Asian cultures tend to have an interdependent view of the self
Gender Differences in Defining the Self
Women tend to have relational interdependence, focusing more on the close relationships, whereas men tend to have collective interdependence, focusing on their membership in larger groups
Knowing Ourselves Through Introspection
According to self-awareness theory, when people focus on themselves, they evaluate and compare their current behavior to their internal standards and values. According to research on “telling more than we know.” when people introspect about why they feel the way they do, they often use causal theories, many of which are learned from one’s culture. When people think about the reasons for their attitudes they assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize, leading to reasons-generated attitude and change.
Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior
Another way that people gain self-knowledge is by observing their own behavior. Self-perception theory argues that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our own behavior and the situation in which it occurs. An overjustification effect occurs when peole focus on extrinsic reasons for their behavior and underestimate their intrinsic reasons. According to the two-factor theory of emotion, emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it. Sometimes people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to be aroused. Appraisal theories argue that emotions result from people’s interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of a physiological arousal
Mindsets: Understanding Our Own Abilities
Some people have a fixed mindset about their abilities, which is the idea that they have a set amount of the ability that cannot change. Others have a growth mindset, which is the idea that their abilities are malleable qualities that they can cultivate and grow. People with a fixed mindset are more likely to give up after setbacks and are less likely to work on and go and hone their skills, whereas people with a growth mindset view setbacks as an opportunity to improve through hard work.
Using Other People to Know Ourselves
Our self-concepts are shaped by the people around us. According to social comparison theory, we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people. In addition, people tend to automatically adopt the attitudes of those they like and want to interact with
Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self
Self-control requires energy, and spending this energy on one task limits the amount that can be spent on another task. Recent research suggests that the level of glucose in the bloodstream is the mental “fuel” we spend on self-control
Impression Management: All the World’s a Stage
People try to get others to see them as they want to be seen
Culture, Impression Management, and Self Enhancement
The desire to manage the image we present to others is strong in all cultures, although the kinds of images we want to present depend o the culture in which we live

Your Deadline is Too Short?  Let Professional Writer Help You

Get Help From Writers