Social Psychology Chapter 1

Social Psychology
The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
Two major lessons of social psychology
Reality is subjective-perception is key

We vastly underestimate the impact of the situation on behavior-environment strongly affect behavior

What are 3 main questions social psych can answer for us?
How much of our social world is just in our heads?
Would you be cruel if ordered to?
Would you help another in need?
How do social psychology, sociology, personality psychology, and biology relate to each other?
social psychology looks at smaller groups from sociology, but ask the same questions
What are the two ways that values enter psychology
obvious and subtle
Obvious
Values enter the picture when social psychologists choose research topics

Enter the picture as the object of social psychological analysis

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Subtle (Not-so-ovbious)
Values enter our idea of how to best live

Psychological advice also reflects the advice givers personal values

Hidden values even seep into psychology’s research-based concepts

value judgements, then are often hidden within our social psychological language
exp.-bashful or holding back–cautious or observer

Hindsight bias
tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, ones ability to have foreseen how something turned out also known as the “I knew it all along phenomenon”
Why should we be vigilant for hindsight bias while studying social psych
any result of a psychological experiment can seem like common sense after you know the result
Are you more likely to help when your in a good mood
Yes
Hindsight bias examples
birds of a feather flock together
opposite attract
absence makes the heart grow fonder
out of sigh, out of mind
What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis
theory-integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events

hypothesis-a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events

Correlational Research
The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables
Advantages of correlational research
Use real world settings
Disadvantage of correlational research
ambiguous interpretation of cause and effect
What is the difference between correlation and causation
Correlation does not mean causation
Exp. of correlation and causation in class
social status leads to better health
-access to medical care
-better insurance
-higher status less stress/ education
Independent variable
Variable being manipulated
Dependent variable
Variable being measured
Experimental designs require
manipulation of IV
Random Assignment
Random Assignment
All persons have same chance of being in a condition

spreads baggage evenly between both groups

ELIMINATES ALL EXTRANEOUS FACTORS

Hayman et al (2010)
Correlational no random assignment
student divided into four grps based on how they were observed walking across quad
Alone, with another person, on cell phone, listening to music
study 1- time, collisions
study 2- noticed a unicycling clown
Study 1
took longer for the participants on the phone and walking with another to cross the quad compared to walking alone or with music
Study 2
participants on phone were least likely to report noticing anything unusual and least likely to report seeing the clown when asked
Is hyman et al correlational or experimental
correlational designs study naturally occurring groups
experimental designs require random assignment and the manipulation of an IV
Field Research
Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
Experimental Research
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others
Advantage-explores cause and effect by controlling variables and rand assign.
Disadvantage- some important variables can’t be studied with experiments
End et al
Divided attention in academic setting
what happens when a phone rings in lecture
Correlational experimental design bc no random assignment
What do we use to switch back and forth between tasks?
Cognitive resources
Mundane realism
degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
experimental realism
degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
Ethical principles for research
tell enough about experiment to enable consent
be truthful
protect from harm and discomfort
confidentiality
debrief
IRB
committee that review and approves reattach on human subjects
think about, influence, and relate to one another
Social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people:
reality is filtered by our values and beliefs
The best statement about objective reality is:
Hindsight bias
When asked who you think will win the next presidential election, you reply that you do not know and then are the results you claim it was obvious.. This is:
theory
A __________ is an integrated set of principles that can explain and predict observed events
field research
Research don in natural, real-life settings outside the lab is referred to as:
experimental research
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others describes what type of research?
provided ambiguous interpretations of cause and effect
Which is a disadvantage to correlational research
Random
A sample in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is __________ sample
minimize the differences between groups
The major purpose of random assignment in an experiment is to
experimental realism
The degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves it participants in real psychological processes refers to: