Social Problems

The poverty gap refers to the difference between the ___ and the offical poverty line.
Actual income of the typical poor household
Today, the age category at greatest risk of poverty is
Children
___ is an organized effort by government, private organizations, or individuals to assist those considered worthy of assistance
A social welfare program
The text points out that
The 1996 welfare law limits families to 2 consecutive years of benefits with a 5 year lifetime cap.
Which term refers to the trend by which women represent an increasing share of the poor
Feminization of poverty
Which of the following regions of the United States has the highest poverty rate
Central cities
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In approaching the problem of homelessness, conservatives point to
a personal problems, such as alcohol abuse and mental illness, amoung the homeless
In approaching the problem of homelessness, liberals point to
economic issues such as low-wage jobs and high rates of unemployment.
In the United States, social welfare programs benefit
Just about everyone
In 1932, President Franklin D. Roosevelt described “one-third” of a nation ill-clothed, ill-housed, and ill-fed, and proposed the “New Deal” which included
Social Security
Finding the cause of a social problem in the behavior of people who suffer from the problem is referred to as
blaming the victim
Regarding income distribution in the United States, the overall pattern reveals
that income inequality is currently greater than at any time during the last fifty years
Stratification produces categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities. These categories are termed
Social classes
In the United States, a progressive tax rate means that
rich people pay at a higher rat than lower-income people
The Williams family lives in an inner-city community that is poor, cut off from the larger society, and without good schools and good-paying jobs. This family is experiencing
hypersegregation
Today, 51 percent of poor familes contain
a woman head of the household with no man present.
Sociologist Herbert Gans pointed out that inequality benefits
rich people by ensuring there is a supply of poor people willing to do almost any job, no matter how unpleasant.
In general, most conservatives express compassion for people who are poor
due to disablilty or for some reason that is no fault of their own
Overall, the result of the 1996 federal welfare reform has been
a decrease in the number of people receiving welfare but little change in the number of poor people
Most people living below the poverty line are
white
According to which of the following political positions does the solution to poverty lie in government reforms, such as changes in the minimum wage and tax rates
liberal
In 1945, sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore maintained that inequality is useful for the operation of society. This thesis reflects which type of analysis
structual functional analysis
Former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell speaks as a conservative when he argues that the most effective way to prevent social problems like poverty is to
teach children personal responsibility and hard work
Poverty involves not only a lact of money; it also can mean a lack of skills, values, attitudes, and schooling that increase a person’s chances of success, which together are called
cultural capital
The typical “welfare family” today receives about how much assistance each month
$400
An organized effort to encourage or discourage social change is called a
Social movement
Which of the following statements correctly expresses the sociological view of social problems
Social problems result from the ways in which society operates
Because social problems result from the ways in which society operates
Solving them requires change to society itself
Adopting a global perspective shows us which of the following patterns
Poverty is more serious in much of the world than it is in United States
Which theoretical approach sees a society as a system of many interrelated parts
Structural functionalist approach
Major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, that are organized to meet a basic human need are referred to as
Social institutions
Which general approach now dominates the sociological study of social problems
The social conflict approach
Which theroy claims that people develop troublesome attitudes and behaviors from those areound them
Learning theory
Which method has researchers investigate cause-and-effect relationships under highly controlled conditions
The experiement
The continuum representing a range of political attitudes is called
The political spectrum
According to a Marxist approach, social problems such as poverty result from
the operation of a capitalist economy
Which theory is based on the idea that problems arise when rapid change overwhelms society’s institutions
social disorganiazation theory
A social problem is defined as a condition that
harms some or all members of society and is controversial
Which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of a social pattern that are intended and widely recongnized
manifest functions
Which of the following concepts refers to the negative consequences of social patterns
dysfunctions
Which of the following would have the support os social liberals
legal marriage for gay and lesbian people
Issues are fefined as social problems if
they are defined as undesirable and in need of change
A formal stategy that shapes some dimension of social life is called
social policy
Although the sociological perspective gives us power to change society, it
can also lead to the disturbing conclusion that people suffer through no fault of their own
Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to a statement of how and why specifics facts are related
theory
The statement that “reality is often less a matter of what people do than of how people define behavior” reflects which approach
symbolic interaction approach
Which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of social patterns that are unintended and less well known
latent functions
We tend to assume people are responsible for their own troubles because our way of life emphasizes
individualism
In evaluating any social policy, it is important to remeber that
the public generally does not care if programs work or not
Which of the following would have the support of social conservatives
the death penalty
Which of the following concepts refers to a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that society defines as important
Race
From a scientific standpoint, human physical variation is real. Sociologists point out that racial categories
do not fit reality very well
Which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage
ethnicity
The remarkable racila and ethnic diversity of the United States, is, most of all, a product of
Immigration
In 1994, California, the state with the largest immigrant population, passed Proposition 187 which
cut off social service benefits, including schooling and health care to illegal immigrants
In reference to total U.S. population, the share of minorities is
rising
Which of the following concepts refers to the physical and social seperation of categories of people
Segregation
The concept that refers to segregation that is supported by law is
de jure segregation
When minorities-especially new immigrants-enter a society, they change their styles of dress, language, cultural values, and even religion in a process called
assimilation
In the 1700’s the federal government used its superior military powers to force the Cherokee from their homelands in the southeastern United Sates and sent them to reservations farther west, causing thousands of deaths along the march that came to be know as the
Trail of Tears
What was the landmark 1954 decision of the United States Supreme Court that rejected the clain that black and white children could receive “separate but equal schooling
Brown V. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas)
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which
forcibly relocated all people of Japanese ancestry to military camps in remote inland areas
According to the government, which of the following is this country’s largest racial or ethnic minority
Hispanic Americans
Arab Americans are people who trace their ancestry to nations in
northern Africa or the Middle East
The assertion that people of one race are less worthy than others or even biologically inferior to others is what we correctly call
racism
Which of the following is a clear example of institutional racism
A patter of racial profiling by police
Which theory claims that prejudice develops amoung people who are frustrated over a lack of control in their lives
Scapegoat theory
A landlord refuses to rent an apartment to an African American, even though there are vacancies. This action is an example of
Discrimination
The 1978 United States Supreme Court case of University of California Regents v. Bakke ruled that t
affirmative action programs with rigid quotas are illegal
Eurocentrism refers to
using European (especially English) cultural standars to judge everyone.
Which of the following statements is correct
A cultural concern about beauty ends up encouraging women to allow men to control them
What concept refers to the biological distrinction between females and males
Sex
Gender sterotypes divide humanity by constructing femininity and masculinity in
opposing terms
Any society’s unequal distribution of weath, power, and privledge between men and women is called
gender stratification
Consider this statment: “Because men have more upper-body strength than women, the military should ban women barred from most military assignments”, This assertion reflects
sexism
According to Jessie Bernard, traditional marriage benefits men more than women because
it puts women under the control of men
Which of the followin steer(s) women and men toward different college majors
gender sterotyping
In television advertising in the United States, you would NOT expect to see women
who are talled than the men they are with
In 1972, Congress passed Title IX, an Amendment to the Civil Rights Act which
banned discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program receiving federal funding
Statements in support of the traditional dominance of men over women can be found in the prayers and sacred texts for which religions
Chrisianity, Judaism and Islam
In which of the following U>S> jobs are 98% of workers women
dental hygienist
The major reason that men earn more that women on average is that
men and women typically hold different types of jobs
Which concept refers to subtle discrimination that effectively blocks the movement of women in the highest positions in organizations
glass ceiling
Because women do most of it, sociologists sometimes refer to housework as women’s
second shift
Suppose that a college professor solicits sexual favors from a student an dthreatens a poor grade if the student refuses. This patterns is referred to as
quid pro quo sexual
A male employee cracks inappropriate sexually suggestive jokes that embarrass female employees and prevent them from doing their work. This is an example of
a hostile working environment
Women, even relatively privledged women, have less income, wealth, and power than men. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that women
are a minority
Which milestone in the feminist movement occured in 1920
Women gained the right to vote
Complete gender equality has become a reality
nowhere in the world
A dimension of gender stratification, which occurs more than 2 million times each year is
violence against women
Which of the following concepts refer to the socially constructed stages people pass through as they live out their lives
The life course
David is a sociologist who specializes in aging and the elderly. With such a specialty, he may also be referred to as a
gerontologist
In comparison with the word elder, as used in preindustrial societies, the modern term elderly
has a more negative meaning
The major aim of the Social Security Act of 1935 was to
provide a national pension plan for the elderly
According to the map showing life expectancy around the world, in the poorest nations of Africa, life expectancy is
less than 40 years
Of the levels of “old” which category is increasing the most rapidly in number
The “oldest old”
One of the following statement is correct, Which one is it
More elderly men than elderly women live alone.
In fact that the dealth of a spouse is very difficult helps explain the fact that
the surviving parter is at high risk of death, sometimes by suicide
The problem of social isolation and loneliness in old age is
greater for women than men
Some Americans now find it more financilly sound to give up work in steps, a process called
staged retirement
What term refers to informal and unpaid care provided to a dependent person by family members, other relatives, or freinds
caregiving
Most elders prefer to “age in place” meaning that they
stay in the homes where they lived while working and raising their children.
A policy that allows elderly people to borrow against the value of their homes is
the reverse mortgage
The govenment sponsered program that pays for hospital care and 80% of other medical care costs for people over the age of sixty-five is
Medicare
What is the term for doctors stopping the treatment of a terminally ill person by turning off the respirators and other life-support machines
passive euthanasia
What document allows people to state which medical treatments they do and do not want, should they be facing death and unable to speak for themselves?
a living will
What facility offers homelike care that provides physical and emotional comfort to dying people and their families?
hospice
Robert is 65 years old and works as an electrician. He is capable of continuing in this job, but has decided to retire. Which theory would characterize this choice as functional for society as a whole?
disengagement theory
Jennifer is a 68 year old university professor. After retirement from teaching, she continues conducting research and also expands her volunteer work as a source of personal satisfaction. This choice is an example of
activity theory
In a study of a declining neighborhood along the coast of Southern California, Barbara Myerhoff found that, above all, elderly residents wanted to
remain independent
How to dress properly, who is an acceptable sexual partner, and how to correctly footnote a college term paper are all examples of
Norms
People who violate which of the following face potential arrest and punishment?
criminal law
Rick has been charged with an offense that carries a 90-day jail sentence; he has been charged with a
misdemeanor
The crime data assembled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation are referred to as the
Uniform Crime Report
The statistics found in the Uniform Crime Report are based on
only violent crime.
According to official statistics describing murder,
offenders and victims are generally of the same race.
The first antistalking law in the United States was passed in
1990 in the state of California
Which serious crime is both a property crime and a violent crime?
Robbery
Which of the following is the most common of all serious crimes tracked by the FBI?
larceny-theft
For which of the following offenses do police arrest mostly women
Prostitution
In terms of absolute numbers, most crimes involve offenders who are
white
Which of the following concepts refers to the violation of the law by young people?
juvenile delinquency
Question 14. Question : Illegal actions by a business or others acting on its behalf is called
corporate crime
Which of the following would constitute a “hate crime?”
an assault on a person known by the offender to be gay motivated by anti-gay bias
Suppose that a police SWAT team kills the members of a terrorist group who are holding innocent citizens hostage. These actions illustrate which type of violence?
Institutional
The killing of thirteen people at Columbine High School in 1999 as an example of
mass murder
Whether we call a group a “club” or a “gang” has a lot to do with
the social class standing of the members
If you think guns are part of the solution to the problems of crime and violence rather than part of the problem, you are probably
conservative
Douglas Smith and Christy Visher noted six factors that guided police in deciding whether or not to make an arrest. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
Does the suspect want to be arrested?
What process involves a negotiation in which the state reduces a defendant’s charge in exchange for a guilty plea?
plea bargaining
There are four major justifications for punishment. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
guilt reduction
By teaching everyone a lesson about what happens to those who break the law, punishment accomplishes the goal of
general deterrence
Prison alternatives include correctional programs that take place in society at large rather than behind prison walls. Taken together, such programs are called
community based corrections
From the liberal view, crime and violence are caused by
a harmful environment such as poverty.
Until the early 1900s, which popular new “brain tonic” included cocaine as one of its ingredients?
Coca-Cola
In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcohol across the country.
Jorge has a beer or a glass of wine with dinner from time to time because these drinks make the food taste good and make him feel relaxed. His behavior illustrates which reason for using drugs?
Recreational
Which of the following concepts refers to a physical or psychological craving for a drug?
addiction
Jacob has adjusted to the regular use of pain killers and needs to continue using these drugs in order to feel comfortable. Jacob’s relationship with pain killers can best be described as
dependency
Which of the following substances is NOT a stimulant?
Alcohol
In the United States, which of the following is, by far, the single greatest preventable cause of death?
cigarette smokining
“Crank,” “speed,” “crystal,” “go,” “meth,” and “ice” are all street names for various types of
amphetamines
Shawna takes drugs to control her seizure disorder. This illustrates which reason for using drugs?
Therapeutic
Which type of depressants dull pain?
Analgesics
Drugs like Lithium and Haldol are
antipsychotics.
The full name for the class of drugs known as steroids is __________ steroids.
androgenic anabolic
Of all prescription drugs, the most often abused are
Pain killers
When family members try to earn extra money, help keep house, or directly provide drugs to an abuser in an effort to “keep the peace,” they are engaged in
codependency
Which country has seen a marked increase in violence related to drug dealing in the past several years?
Mexico
Which concept refers to efforts to stop drugs from moving across this country’s borders?
Interdiction
According to Federal Minimum Sentencing guidelines, possessing 500 grams of cocaine, but only how many grams of crack, leads to a five-year jail term?
5
Methadone is
a synthetic form of heroin used to treat heroin addicts.
What policy would remove the current criminal penalties that punish the manufacturing, sale, and personal use of drugs?
Decriminalization
Which theoretical approach focuses on the changing ways we define any particular drug over time?
symbolic interaction approach
One general measure of a society’s health is the share of babies who die in their first year of life for each thousand live births. What is this concept called
Infant mortality rate
Which of the following is NOT categorized as a chronic disease?
typhoid
Social epidemiology is the study of
how health and disease are distributed throughout a society’s population
Where in the world is the AIDS epidemic most serious?
Africa
Why has China escaped the AIDS epidemic that has ravaged other Asian nations to the South?
due to China’s traditional sexual norms
Societies with mostly capitalist economies distribute health care through
a market system
Canada has what type of health care system?
The government operates like a large insurance company, paying physicians and hospitals from tax revenues.
When it comes to the health of the overall population, in comparison with most other high-income nations, the United States ranks
lower
Which concept refers to a medical care system in which patients or their insurers pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals?
direct-fee
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the rapid rise in U.S. health care costs?
greater government involvement in health care
The fear of lawsuits may prompt doctors to order additional tests and procedures just to protect themselves—a strategy called
defensive medicine
Medicare
is part of the Social Security system
In the United States, African Americans are three times as likely to be poor as white people,
and die an average of five years earlier than whites.
Because people may look at someone and see only a disability rather than a person’s abilities, a disability can operate as a
master status
More people in the United States are ending up with a chronic and disabling condition, ranging from arthritis (inflammation of the joints) to Alzheimer’s disease (loss of brain function) because
people are living longer
In 1990, which act of Congress outlawed discrimination against people with disabilities in employment and public accommodations, including hotels, theaters, restaurants, and stores?
the Americans with Disabilities Act
The United States is facing a nursing shortage that is projected to increase. Which of the following is a major reason for the shortage?
Because women’s work choices are expanding, fewer women are drawn to this traditionally female occupation.
Which well known person played an important part in the rise of psychotherapy, such that practitioners have built on this person’s theories and treatment strategies ever since?
Sigmund Freud
Which of the following was the most important medical advance in terms of treating mental disorders?
the development of psychoactive drugs
Deinstitutionalization refers to
the release of people from mental hospitals into local communities.
The formal organization that directs the political life of a society is
government
Capitalism is an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are
privately owned
In a capitalist system
a market system is based on competition in which people by and sell goods and services according to economic forces of supply and demand
The French term laissez-faire, sometimes used to describe a free-market environment of capitalism, literally means
” leave it alone”
According to Scottish economist Adam Smith
the pursuit of self-interest has widespread benefits by producing the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Which type of economic system places natural resources and the means of producing goods and services under collective ownership
Socialism
Which type of system has extensive government social programs, paid for by high taxes, that provide child care, housing, and medical care for the entire population?
Welfare Capitalizism
You probably approve of the operation of Wal-Mart if you support
Pure capitalism
In the United States
the economic activity of coroporations is far greater than that of government
In the United States, the manufacture of breakfast cereal is dominated by Kellogg’s, General Mill and Genergal Foods which together control 90 percent of all sales. This is an illustration of
oligopoly
Pepsi Co makes Pepsi soft-drink products and also owns Taco Bell, KFC, Pizza Hut, Frito-Lay, and other snack and fast food companies. PepsiCo is
a conglomerate
The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and the National Rifle Associant (NRA) are both examples of
special interest groups
Critics say that our system of campaing financing
put the U.S. Political system up for sale.
In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution extended the vote to
women
Which concept refers to the efforts of special-interest groups and their representatives to influence to influence government officials
loggying
Conservatives claim that the failure to vote is a sign of
indifference of the part of many people who are fairly satisfied with the way things are
Which of the following categories of people face legal barriers to voting
convicted felons
Which concept refers to the close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries
military-industrial comples
Which political position calls for reforms based on the claim that our political and economic system benefits some more than others
liberal
Generally speaking, the farther left one moves on economic issues, the more one
favors government control of the economy
Two major, structural changes to the U.S. economy include
The Industrial Revolution and the Infomation Revolution.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when most people in this country lived in rural areas and small towns, most workers had jobs in which sector of the economy
primary sector
During the 1950s and 1960s the U.S. economy
boomed
In the tertiary sector of the economy, most people in the labor force do what type of work
service work
Around 1950, many former assembly-line workers and machine operators saw their plants closing down, forcing them to take clerical, delivery, maintenance, and fast-food jobs, generally at lower pay and with fewer benefits. The trend is referred to as
deindustrialization
When people speak of the largest corporations operating in many countries, with more and more products moving from country to country, they are talking about
globalization
In 1970, the federal government created OSHA to oversee and regulate
workplace health and safety
Which of the following has long been one of the most deadly types of work
mining
For Max Weber, alientation is the
depersonalization of the workplace and society, due to modern society’s rational focus on efficiency.
Which concept refers to defining work in terms of efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and automation
McDonaldization
Which concept, refers a barrier-often involving institutional discrimination-that prevents women and other minorities from moving up in the workpace?
glass ceiling
The Railway Labor Act, Norris-LaGuardia Act, and National Labor Relations Act all guaranteed
the right of workers to organize and form labor unions.
A centruy ago, workers needed to develop the industrial skills required for making things; today, workers in the postindustrial econmy must develop the
literary skills required to manipulate symbols
Which concept refers to linking employees located anywhere to an office using information technology, including telephones, computers, and the Internet
telecommuting
The structural functional approach highlights how technological change
elminates old jobs and creates new ones
If you claim that the recent housing crisis was caused by government intervention in the marketplace, you are speaking as a
conservative
If you claim that people, especially the disadvantaged, look to the government to meet their needs, you are speaking as a
liberal
Perhaps the most important reason that U.S. companies have moved industrial production abroad is
lower wages in other nations
Jobs in the primary labor market
are challenging and rearding
In 1976, in repsonse to ever-increasing use of chemicals in the workplace, Congress
passed the Toxic Substances Control Act
Which concept refers ot parents and children, plus grandparents, auts, uncles, and cousins, who often live close to one another and operate as a family unit
extended family
The sharing of a household by an unmarried couple is referred to as
cohabitation
The biggest problem facing one-parent families, especially when the parent is a woman is
poverty
In 1965, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan said the African American family was in crisis because of
a growing number of absent fathers who leave single mothers to raise children on their own
A majority of U.S. families, including those with young children
have both parents working for income
Latchkey kids is a term that refers to children who
fend for themselves after shcool until a parent gets home from work
Under “no-fault” divorce laws
couples declare that their marriage is over due to irreconcilable differences
Which nation has the highest divorce rate in the world
the United States
From which political point of view do people claim that divorce is harmful because it encourages a “me first” attitude that places individual needs and desires over obligations to others
conservative
What type of marriage laws, found in only a few states, allow couples when they marry to agree to certain conditions that make the marriage harder to dissolve
convenant marriage
In 1998, Congress passed what law making is a serious crime to refuse to provide support payments to a child residing in another state or to move to another state to avoid making payments
Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act
Scott andConnie are married and have a 6-month old son. Also in the home is Scott’s son from a previous marriage and Connie’s daughter from a previous marriage. This household can be correcly described as
a blended family
Prenuptial agreements are often suggested because
the odds are high that the marriage will eventually end in divorce
In 1996, congressional opponents of gay marriage passed which act, which states that marriage must involve one man and one woman, and that no state or other jurisdicton has to recognize a same sex marriage law enacted by any other state or jurisdiction
Defense of Marriage Act
Research shows that children raised by same-sex parents
receive the same supportive and effective parenting as those raised in other families
Which concept refers to an arrangement by which one woman carries and bears a child for another
surrogate motherhood
Sociologists use what concept to refer to cases of scientific discoveries that occur faster than our ideas develop about the acceptable ways to use them
cultural lag
Which political pointof view considers “family values” to mean getting and staying-married with parents, displaying strong commitment to children?
conservative
In the case of John and Luanne Buzznca, who engaged a woman to serve as a surrogate mother using, donated eggs and sperm, and who then divorced before the child was born, the court ruled that
both parental parties who engage a surrogate mother are responsible for the child
New reproductive technology, including in vitro fertilization
is a very expensive and thus out of reach for most people.
A major reason that shcooling is limited in poor societies of the world is that
parents need their children to work to provide food and income
The ability to read and write is referred to as
Literacy
During the early decades of our nation’s history
few people defined a lack of schooling for women
Every state had enacted a law requiring children to attend shool by
1918
On the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), for all categories of people a higher rate of poverty is linked to
lower performance on the test
Research shows that the quality of shools matters to student performance, but what matters even more
the home environment
Not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic well enough to carry out daily responsibilities is referred to as
functional illiteracy
Prior to the civil rights movement, shools in the North were segregated
because most African Americans were forced to live in all-black neighborhoods
During the 1960s, many white families moved from the central cities to the suburbs, therby escaping shcool busing programs. This movement was comonly called
white flight
If 1998, the state of Vermont enacted a law (Act 60) that
pools school taxes, across the state and redistributes funding on an equal, per-student basis
Which concept refers to lifetime experiences and opportunities that enhance a student’s ability to learn and succeed
cultural capital
Margaret is a chool counselor. On the basis of aptitude scores and previous academic grades, she assigns a student to a “vocational” prgram rather than to another program that is designed for college preparation. Margaret has just engaged in a policy called
tracking
In 1998, Californians passed Proposition 22 which
banned bilingual programs in favor of the English-immersion approach.
A school that integrates students with disabilities into regular shcool programs is following a policy of
mainstreaming
Which policy requires school officials to severly punish or expel any student who brings a weapon, alcohol, or some other drug to school
zero tolerance policy
Which of the following is a latent function of schooling
the provision of child care for working parents
The fact that our school system socialized all students to be docile, obedient workers and patriotic citizens is one example of schooling’s
hidden curriculum
The 2002 “No Child Left Behind” program
grades 3-8 in language arts, mathematics, and science.
Which program says, in effect, “You are entitled to use your tax money to school your children wherever you want
voucher programs
Critics of tracking argue that
tracking transforms the social advantage of well-off children into an educational advantage.
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After World War II, the search for new housing, economic prosperity, and the greater physical mobility brought on by cars combined to push more and more people outward from the cities into
suburbs
French geographer Jean Gottman used which concept to refer to a vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surroung suburbs
megalopolis
New homes, shcools, and shopping areas built at the edge of an expanding urban area represent
urban sprawl
According to William Julius, the inner-cities
can be rescued by creating jobs, starting with the government hiring people to do needed work.
In 1949, in response to the decline of many central-city neighborhoods, the federal government passed the Urban Housing Act, which created the policy of
urban renewal
When low-income families move in to Section 8 housing
they pay 30-40 percent of their adjusted gross income for rent, and the government pays the rest.
What patter involves entire districs of cities (commonly referred to as “ghettos”) that house only poor African Americans who are cut off from the larger society
hypersegregation
What is the term for settlements, common in poor nations, where people have constructed makeshift homes from whatever materials they can find, and where most people do not have even clean water and sewer
shantytowns
Within which of the following types of social organization did Tonnies claim that the typical person pays only passing attention to the welfare of the community, but mostly “looks out for number one
Gesellschaft
According to Durkhelm, the rise of industrial cities created new connections between people, which he termed
Organic solidarity
According to George Simmel, the sights, sounds, and smells of the city, along with the vast number of people, all combine to overwhelm the senses. The result, claimed Simmel, is that urbanities
develop a blase attitude
What policy created high-density apartment buildings that housed the poor
public housing
Critics claimed that urban renewal failed because it
pushed out low-income people who needed housing the most
Public housing is commonly known as
the projects
Which of the following policies refer to government efforts to attract new buisness with the promise of tax relief
enterprise zones
Population shifts in the last fifty years have
hurt cities in the Snowbelt but helped cities in the Sunbelt
A HUD study of poor and homeless people showed that the cost of supporting one person with afforable housing and social servies was ___ compared to supporting a prison inmate
considerably less expensive
The 1974 federal Section 8 Program directed subsidies to developers who
rehabilitated existing rental housing or built new apartments
David Harvey’s study of Baltimore show that the growth and decline of an urban area has much to do with the process of
capital investment
The political-economy approach to urban studies considers which of the following to be the major factor in defining cities and urban life
the capitalist drive to make profits
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A sharp increase inpoipulation began about the time of
Industirial Revolution
Demographers measure a society’s fertility using which concept to refer to the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population
crude birth rate
For any country, as the share of women using contraception goes up, a woman’s average number of children
goes down
High-income nations such as the United States grow
as much from immigration as from natural increase
The birth rate in Europe, as well as in the United States and Canada, is
below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman
There are many reasons that population increase has slowed in high-income nations. Which of the following is NOT one of them
increase mortality rates
Dr. Nafis Sadeik, who heads the United Nations efforts at population control, explains: Give a woman more choices about how to live and she will
have fewer children
Malthus predicted that the future of humanity would be
defined by famine and chaos, because population would soon outpace food resorces
Demographic transition theory links demographic changes to a society’s
level of technological development
During Stage 2 (the onset of industrialization) of the demographic transition, birth rates are ____and death rates are___
high falling
In the United States, a home that lack a telephone or television set is unusual. Not being able to afford a television set in a wealthy country illistrates
relative poverty
Which concept refers to a form of bondage in which desperately poor families send their children out to hustle on the streets to bring in needed income
child slavery
Which concept refers to a situation in which one person owns another, which is illegal around the world, though documented in many countries
chattel slavery
Which of the following theories is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences
modernization theory
Which concept refers to a new oform of economic expolitation that involves the operation of multinational corporations, rather than direct control by foreign governments
neocolonialism
The United States and Japan are within which category of the “capitalist worl economy?
core
According to Immanuel Wallerstein, the world economy not only exploits poor nations, it also places them in what position with respect to rich nations?
a position of dependency
In his study of the emergence of industrial capitalism, Peter Berger concludes: “Industrial capitalism has generated the greatest productive power in human history.” This statement provides a strong foundation for which political view of global inequality?
conservative
According to which theory did colonialism create inequality and, to this day, a world capitalist system continues to enrich some nations at the expense of others?
world system theory
In which stage of Rostow’s theory of modernization does industrial technology and a rapidly-growing economy steadily raise living standards?
the high mass consumption stage
Sociology’s most important lesson about enviornmental issues is that
the state of our planet reflects how societies operate.
Professor Jones studies how living organisms interact with the natural environment. She is
an ecologist
Which concept refers to Earth’s surface and atmosphere, including air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain living organisms
natural environment
Which of the following is composed of interactions of all living organisms and their natural environment?
the ecosystem
For years, which harmful chemical was widely used in aerosol spray cans, refrigerators, and air conditioners?
chloroflorocarbons
Which of the following had the largest impact on humanity’s ability to modify the natural environment?
the Industrial Revolution
The text points out that recognition of an environmental deficit is important for three reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
It reminds us of the importance of our financial resources.
The text notes that if people around the world lived at the level of material abundance that people in the United States take for granted, the natural environment would
soon collapse
The logic of growth approach
believes that human ingenuity will probably solve any problems of scarcity.
According to which of these are humans (especially those using industrial technology) quickly consuming Earth’s finite resources?
limits to growth
Half of this country’s solid waste is burned or recycled; the other half
never goes away
Environmentalists argue that we should address the problem of solid waste by turning a “waste” into a resource, which is the idea behind
recycling
The Ogallala aquifer, which runs below ground across seven states from South Dakota to Texas,
is being pumped so rapidly some experts fear it could run dry within several decades.
The land, rivers, and streams across the United States absorb about 500 million pounds of toxic chemicals each year from
fertilizer, lawn treatments, and intentional dumping
Precipitation, made toxic by air pollution, that destroys plant and animal life, is referred to as
acid rain
The carbon dioxide (CO2) released by factories and automobiles has soared, while the amount of plant life on earth has gone down, result in a rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, which in turn has led to
global warming
As carbon dioxide builds up in the atmosphere, it allows heat from the sun to pass in to the earth, while preventing much of it from radiating back into outer space. This process is referred to as 1
the greenhouse effect
If the planet’s average temperature elevates several more degrees during the twenty-first century,
a large portion of the polar icecaps will melt flooding much of the coastal United States.
Unlike pollution and other environmental problems, the extinction of species is
irreversable and final
Our cultural tendency to purchase and display things not because they really need them, but simply as a way of indicating our social position, is referred to as
conspicuous consumption
In 2009, the United States was engaged in two wars. They were in
Iraq and Afghanistan.
Chemical weapons are one example of
weapons of mass destruction
Which of the following was the United States’ bloodiest conflict (in terms of U.S. death toll)?
the Civil War
Which of these is among the seven factors sociologists identify as promoting the outbreak of war?
the quest for greater wealth and power
During the Balkan conflict, the Serbs deported, imprisoned, or killed hundreds of thousands Croats, Muslims, and ethnic Albanians in a process referred to as
ethnic cleansing
The text notes that United States leaders justified the Korean War and the war in Vietnam as efforts to keep the world safe from communism, illustrating which factor identified as promoting war?
moral objectives
The People’s Republic of China supporting military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet at least partly in order to
divert attention from domestic social problems
After World War II, the United States maintained tense relations with the Soviet Union in a
cold war.
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union each boosted military spending to try to prevent the other from gaining a military edge. This pattern is called
an arms race.
What concept refers to a political alliance involving the federal government, the military, and the defense industries that dominate our nation’s politics?
the military-industrial complex
What agreements, reached between 1864 and 1949, provide rules for conducting war?
Geneva Conventions
Following World War II, the Geneva Conventions recognized three categories of war crimes. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
economic offenses
Which concept refers to the murder, rape, torture, deportation, or other ill treatment of a population in any occupied territory
conventional war crimes
Soldiers have long talked about “battle fatigue” or “shell shock.” After the Vietnam War, what disorder was widely recognized as a war-related disability that results from trauma or stress in battle?
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Through which government agency is health care provided free of charge to ex-prisoners of war, those with service-related injuries or disabilities, and veterans with income below the poverty line?
the Department of Veterans Affairs
In 1945, the United States atomic bombs were dropped on two cities
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
In today’s all-volunteer military, the armed forces are made up mostly of
working-class people.
Some scientists claim that exploding even a few nuclear bombs at one time would draw enough debris and dust into the atmosphere to block the sun’s rays from reaching the planet’s surface for months or even years, triggering a
nuclear winter.
The strategy of deterrence is also known as
mutual assured destruction
Which concept refers to situations in which one government provides money, weapons, and training for terrorists who engage in violence in another nation?
state-sponsored terrorism